High-Yield Cell and Molecular Biology / Edition 3

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Overview

High-Yield™ Cell and Molecular Biology, Third Edition provides the essential information needed for USMLE Step 1 review and course study. It covers current cell and molecular biology techniques and principles with a clinical focus—what a physician needs to know to understand, diagnose, and treat human disease. Molecular biology is often taught within various courses such as biochemistry, microbiology, and histology; thus, a consolidated review book in molecular biology is especially helpful in preparing for the USMLE Step 1.

This edition has been streamlined to remove content covered in other High-Yield™ books such as histopathology and microbiology. Images have been placed closer to the appropriate text. New figures include DNA melting curve and flow cytometry.

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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Reviewer: Bruce A. Fenderson, PhD(Thomas Jefferson University)
Description: Basic knowledge of cell and molecular biology is of increasing importance for sound medical practice. Future physicians need to understand the molecular language of life in order to interpret laboratory data and provide effective personalized medicine. This concise paperback reviews key concepts in this area and identifies high-yield facts that are useful for board review. Its 16 chapters cover traditional topics from the nuclear genome to the immune system and principles of gene therapy. The focus is on cellular and molecular biology.
Purpose: According to the author, the aim is to help readers understand molecular biology from a clinical perspective. With this purpose in mind, the author has consolidated high-yield information from various preclinical courses for the benefit of students preparing for national licensing examinations.
Audience: The book is intended primarily for students of medicine, dentistry, cytotechnology, nursing, and laboratory medicine. It is written by an expert scientist and medical educator, who assumes that readers will have taken, or are taking, advanced courses in biochemistry as well as cell and molecular biology.
Features: This compact, user-friendly review is filled with innumerable details on genes, mutations, and regulatory pathways. The illustrations and line drawings are informative and well done. Each chapter includes a clinical consideration section that provides medically-relevant examples. Photomicrographs illustrating pathologic findings help communicate clinical relevance. Chromosomal locations for known human genetic diseases are included in an appendix.
Assessment: This revised third edition provides a wonderful compendium of need-to-know facts for students of medicine. It is well organized, informative, and well written. My only concern is that the book contains too much information (technical jargon). Students will want to read critically — absorbing content that is appropriate for their medical education. This book succeeds in pulling together recent findings in cell and molecular biology to help students learn the foundations of clinical medicine and succeed on licensing examinations.
From The Critics
Reviewer: Hector Lopez, MD (Thomas Jefferson University)
Description: A thorough understanding of cell and molecular biology is essential for modern clinical practice. Medical students must appreciate the complexity of the human genome. They must understand mechanisms of gene expression, chromosomal abnormalities, polymorphisms that are risk factors for chronic disease, and gene mutations that cause developmental birth defects. In addition, our future physicians must understand the fundamentals of molecular diagnosis, forensic medicine, and stem cell therapy. This compact book provides a concise (high-yield) review of many interesting topics in cell and molecular biology. The 27 chapters cover topics ranging from oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes and molecular biology of the immune system to identification of human disease genes, clearly illustrating the clinical relevance of these diverse topics. The focus is on cell biology, biochemistry, immunology, developmental biology, and (most importantly) molecular biology.
Purpose: "According to the author, the goal of this second edition is to "address molecular biology from a clinical perspective that would be useful and necessary for our future physicians." The author consolidates "the important clinical issues related to molecular biology that are obvious 'grist-for-the-mill' for USMLE Step 1 preparation." The author hopes this book will provide high-yield information for success on this national licensing examination. "
Audience: This concise book is written primarily for first and second year medical students who wish to review material learned in basic science courses. Biomedical researchers interested in the clinical relevance of cellular and molecular biology will also appreciate this short review book.
Features: "An interesting mix of topics is presented, ranging from mechanisms of protein synthesis to techniques used to identify disease-related human genes. Each chapter provides a compendium (treasure trove) of high-yield facts and definitions. The information flows from major headers to bulleted lists. The chapters are filled with summary tables and thought-provoking illustrations. A helpful list of abbreviations, as well as excellent appendixes filled with supplemental information round out the book. For example, one appendix lists functions of important cell membrane proteins, while another illustrates chromosomal locations of human genetic diseases. Bold typography is used throughout to emphasize keywords and reinforce essential concepts. "
Assessment: The wide range of interesting topics and the attention to clinical relevance are the most notable aspects of this book. It assumes readers have a working knowledge of cell and molecular biology and does not attempt to introduce these complex subjects. Rather, it assumes that rapid-fire lists of technical information and "buzzwords" will facilitate short term memory of concepts learned previously in both undergraduate and medical school courses. This is not a primer for beginning students. A short introduction to each chapter that included an overview of the subject and clinical relevance would have been helpful. Many chapters present a level of detail (e.g., lists of genes and specific mutations) that would probably not be represented on the Step 1 examination. There appear to be mistakes in the placement of some figures and some figures are not referenced in the text (see chapter 7). Overall, however, this thoughtfully prepared book presents an excellent review of clinically relevant topics in cellular and molecular biology that is useful for USMLE Step 1 preparation.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781609135737
  • Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • Publication date: 1/3/2011
  • Series: High-Yield Series
  • Edition description: Third
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 151
  • Sales rank: 570,710
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Table of Contents


Contents

ix

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii

Chromosomal DNA

I. The Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

II. Levels of DNA Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

III. Centromere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

IV. Heterochromatin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

V. Euchromatin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

VI. Studying Human Chromosomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

VII. Staining of Chromosomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

VIII. Chromosome Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

IX. DNA Melting Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Chromosome Replication

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

II. The Chromosome Replication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

III. DNA Topoisomerases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

IV. The Telomere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

V. DNA Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

VI. DNA Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

VII. Clinical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

VIII. Summary of Chromosome Replication Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Meiosis and Genetic Recombination

I. Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

II. Genetic Recombination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17The Human Nuclear Genome

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

II. Protein-Coding Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

III. RNA-Coding Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

IV. Epigenetic Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

V. Noncoding DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22The Human Mitochondrial Genome

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

II. The 13 Protein-Coding Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

III. The 24 RNA-Coding Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

IV. Other Mitochondrial Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

V. Mitochondrial Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Protein Synthesis

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

II. Transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

III. Processing the RNA Transcript into mRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

IV. Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

V. Clinical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Control of Gene Expression

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

II. Mechanism of Gene Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

III. The Structure of DNA-Binding Proteins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

IV. Other Mechanisms of Gene Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

V. The

VI. The

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39Lac Operon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46trp Operon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47Mutations of the DNA Sequence

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

II. Silent (Synonymous) Mutations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

III. Non-Silent (Nonsynonymous) Mutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

IV. Loss of Function and Gain of Function Mutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

V. Other Types of Polymorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49Proto-Oncogenes, Oncogenes, and Tumor-Suppressor Genes

I. Proto-Oncogenes and Oncogenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

II. Tumor-Suppressor Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

III. Hereditary Cancer Syndromes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58The Cell Cycle

I. Mitosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66

II. Control of the Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66Molecular Biology of Cancer

I. The Development of Cancer (Oncogenesis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

II. The Progression of Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

III. Signal Transduction Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71Cell Biology of the Immune System

I. Neutrophils (Polys, Segs, or PMNs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77

II. Eosinophils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

III. Basophils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

IV. Mast Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

V. Monocytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

VI. Macrophages (Histiocytes; Antigen-Presenting Cells) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

VII. Natural Killer CD16

VIII. B Lymphocyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

IX. T Lymphocyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

X. Immune Response to Exogenous Protein Antigens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

XI. Immune Response to Endogenous Antigens (Intracellular Virus or Bacteria) . . . . . .86

XII. Cytokines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81Molecular Biology of the Immune System

I. Clonal Selection Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

II. The B Lymphocyte (B Cell) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

III. The T Lymphocyte (T Cell) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93

IV. Clinical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

V. Disorders of Phagocytic Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96

VI. Systemic Autoimmune Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

VII. Organ-Specific Autoimmune Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89Molecular Biology Techniques

I. Action of Restriction Enzymes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101

II. Electrophoresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

III. The Enzymatic Method of DNA Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105

IV. Southern Blotting and Prenatal Testing for Sickle Cell Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107

V. Isolating a Human Gene by DNA Cloning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109

VI. Construction of cDNA Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111

VII. Polymerase Chain Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

VIII. Producing a Protein from a Cloned Gene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

IX. Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Knockout Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117

X. Northern Blot (mRNA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119

XI. Western Blot (Protein) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121

XII. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123

XIII. Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

XIV. Flow Cytometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100Identification of Human Disease Genes

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129

II. Identification of a Human Disease Gene Through a Chromosome Abnormality . . . . .129

III. Identification of a Human Disease Gene Through Pure Transcript Mapping . . . . . .130

IV. Identification of a Human Disease Gene Through Large Scale DNA Sequencing . . . . .131

V. Identification of a Human Disease Gene Through Comparison of Human

and Mouse Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129Gene Therapy

I. Gene Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

II. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Gene Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

III. Integration into Host Cell Chromosomes or as Episomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

IV. Viral Vectors Used in Gene Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

V. Nonviral Vectors Used in Gene Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135

Appendix 1: The Genetic Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137

Appendix 2: Amino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138

Appendix 3: Chromosomal Locations of Human Genetic Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139

Figure Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

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