High-Yield Cell and Molecular Biology / Edition 1

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Overview

High-Yield™ Cell and Molecular Biology gives you more of what you need to prepare you for the USMLE Step 1! The information found in this text provides a strong understanding of introductory undergraduate cell and molecular biology which serves as a valuable review resource for the board exam. As part of the High-Yield™ Series, material is presented in a concise, uncluttered fashion. The sections cover information typically found in a second year molecular biology course such as chromosomal DNA, chromosome replication and DNA synthesis, molecular genetics, gene amplification, inherited diseases and molecular immunology. Well illustrated, this text provides students with a strong foundation to prepare them for more advanced work in cell and molecular biology. It also serves as a great source for course review.
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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Reviewer: Alvin Telser, PhD(Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine)
Description: This is a highly condensed review of cell and molecular biology
Purpose: It is intended to be an extremely condensed review of molecular biology with a very strong emphasis on molecular biological aspects of disease. The author states that this book should be useful for students preparing for medical board exams. These are worthwhile objectives but are only partially achieved.
Audience: According to the author, this book is written for medical students preparing for board exams. I concur — this is the appropriate target audience. The author has an appropriate level of knowledge in the field.
Features: Many aspects of molecular biology are covered, from the essentials of nucleic acid manipulation to molecular aspects of tumor cell biology, molecular immunology, and a few other topics. There is a very heavy reliance on many well-done schematic diagrams of molecular biology and the techniques used to study it. Unfortunately, there is very little cell biology in this book, despite the title. There is no coverage of the cytoskeleton, the cellular machinery for the synthesis, secretion, or degradation of proteins, glycoproteins, etc. There are quite a few typographical errors in the text.
Assessment: The content is so brief that a reader would have to have good prior knowledge of most of it before actually using the book. In a sense, this book is like a set of molecular biology flashcards in a binding. Some students may find it useful, but only if they already have a good knowledge of the material.
Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Bruce A. Fenderson, PhD (Thomas Jefferson University)
Description: Basic knowledge of cell and molecular biology is of increasing importance for sound medical practice. Future physicians need to understand the molecular language of life in order to interpret laboratory data and provide effective personalized medicine. This concise paperback reviews key concepts in this area and identifies high-yield facts that are useful for board review. Its 16 chapters cover traditional topics from the nuclear genome to the immune system and principles of gene therapy. The focus is on cellular and molecular biology.
Purpose: According to the author, the aim is to help readers understand molecular biology from a clinical perspective. With this purpose in mind, the author has consolidated high-yield information from various preclinical courses for the benefit of students preparing for national licensing examinations.
Audience: The book is intended primarily for students of medicine, dentistry, cytotechnology, nursing, and laboratory medicine. It is written by an expert scientist and medical educator, who assumes that readers will have taken, or are taking, advanced courses in biochemistry as well as cell and molecular biology.
Features: This compact, user-friendly review is filled with innumerable details on genes, mutations, and regulatory pathways. The illustrations and line drawings are informative and well done. Each chapter includes a clinical consideration section that provides medically-relevant examples. Photomicrographs illustrating pathologic findings help communicate clinical relevance. Chromosomal locations for known human genetic diseases are included in an appendix.
Assessment: This revised third edition provides a wonderful compendium of need-to-know facts for students of medicine. It is well organized, informative, and well written. My only concern is that the book contains too much information (technical jargon). Students will want to read critically — absorbing content that is appropriate for their medical education. This book succeeds in pulling together recent findings in cell and molecular biology to help students learn the foundations of clinical medicine and succeed on licensing examinations.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780683303599
  • Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
  • Publication date: 8/1/1999
  • Series: High-Yield Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 128
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.27 (d)

Table of Contents


Contents

ix

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vii

Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii

Chromosomal DNA

I. The Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

II. Levels of DNA Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

III. Centromere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

IV. Heterochromatin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

V. Euchromatin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

VI. Studying Human Chromosomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

VII. Staining of Chromosomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5

VIII. Chromosome Morphology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

IX. DNA Melting Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Chromosome Replication

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

II. The Chromosome Replication Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

III. DNA Topoisomerases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

IV. The Telomere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

V. DNA Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12

VI. DNA Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

VII. Clinical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14

VIII. Summary of Chromosome Replication Machinery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Meiosis and Genetic Recombination

I. Meiosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

II. Genetic Recombination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17The Human Nuclear Genome

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

II. Protein-Coding Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

III. RNA-Coding Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24

IV. Epigenetic Control. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

V. Noncoding DNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22The Human Mitochondrial Genome

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

II. The 13 Protein-Coding Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

III. The 24 RNA-Coding Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

IV. Other Mitochondrial Proteins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

V. Mitochondrial Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29Protein Synthesis

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

II. Transcription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33

III. Processing the RNA Transcript into mRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

IV. Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

V. Clinical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Control of Gene Expression

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

II. Mechanism of Gene Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

III. The Structure of DNA-Binding Proteins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

IV. Other Mechanisms of Gene Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44

V. The

VI. The

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39Lac Operon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46trp Operon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47Mutations of the DNA Sequence

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

II. Silent (Synonymous) Mutations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

III. Non-Silent (Nonsynonymous) Mutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

IV. Loss of Function and Gain of Function Mutations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55

V. Other Types of Polymorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49Proto-Oncogenes, Oncogenes, and Tumor-Suppressor Genes

I. Proto-Oncogenes and Oncogenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58

II. Tumor-Suppressor Genes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60

III. Hereditary Cancer Syndromes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58The Cell Cycle

I. Mitosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66

II. Control of the Cell Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66Molecular Biology of Cancer

I. The Development of Cancer (Oncogenesis) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

II. The Progression of Cancer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

III. Signal Transduction Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71Cell Biology of the Immune System

I. Neutrophils (Polys, Segs, or PMNs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77

II. Eosinophils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

III. Basophils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

IV. Mast Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

V. Monocytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

VI. Macrophages (Histiocytes; Antigen-Presenting Cells) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

VII. Natural Killer CD16

VIII. B Lymphocyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

IX. T Lymphocyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

X. Immune Response to Exogenous Protein Antigens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85

XI. Immune Response to Endogenous Antigens (Intracellular Virus or Bacteria) . . . . . .86

XII. Cytokines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Cell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81Molecular Biology of the Immune System

I. Clonal Selection Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

II. The B Lymphocyte (B Cell) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89

III. The T Lymphocyte (T Cell) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93

IV. Clinical Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95

V. Disorders of Phagocytic Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .96

VI. Systemic Autoimmune Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

VII. Organ-Specific Autoimmune Disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89Molecular Biology Techniques

I. Action of Restriction Enzymes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101

II. Electrophoresis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

III. The Enzymatic Method of DNA Sequencing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105

IV. Southern Blotting and Prenatal Testing for Sickle Cell Anemia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107

V. Isolating a Human Gene by DNA Cloning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109

VI. Construction of cDNA Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111

VII. Polymerase Chain Reaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113

VIII. Producing a Protein from a Cloned Gene . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115

IX. Site-Directed Mutagenesis and Knockout Animals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117

X. Northern Blot (mRNA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119

XI. Western Blot (Protein) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121

XII. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123

XIII. Ligase Chain Reaction (LCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125

XIV. Flow Cytometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100Identification of Human Disease Genes

I. General Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129

II. Identification of a Human Disease Gene Through a Chromosome Abnormality . . . . .129

III. Identification of a Human Disease Gene Through Pure Transcript Mapping . . . . . .130

IV. Identification of a Human Disease Gene Through Large Scale DNA Sequencing . . . . .131

V. Identification of a Human Disease Gene Through Comparison of Human

and Mouse Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129Gene Therapy

I. Gene Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

II. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Gene Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

III. Integration into Host Cell Chromosomes or as Episomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

IV. Viral Vectors Used in Gene Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134

V. Nonviral Vectors Used in Gene Therapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135

Appendix 1: The Genetic Code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137

Appendix 2: Amino Acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138

Appendix 3: Chromosomal Locations of Human Genetic Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139

Figure Credits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133

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