Higher Education: The Lessons of Experienceby World Bank The Office Of The Publisher (Editor)
Higher education is of paramount importance for economic and social development, yet it is in crisis throughout the world. Industrial as well as developing countries are grappling with the challenge of how to improve higher education as they face shrinking budgets. The crisis is most acute in the developing world, where fiscal adjustments have been harshest and where relatively low enrollment ratios make containing pressures to expand enrollment more difficult. The result has been a dramatic compression of average expenditures on each student - for example, in sub-Saharan Africa, from an average of $6,300 in 1980 to $1,500 in 1988. This book shows how developing countries can reform higher education, despite wide variations within the sector from country to country. Using data from many reports and case studies, it suggests four main directions for reform: encouraging more kinds of public and private institutions, providing incentives for public institutions to diversify sources of funding, redefining the role of government, and introducing policies that emphasize quality and equity.
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