Hindu Places Of Pilgrimage In India

Hindu Places Of Pilgrimage In India

by Surinder M. Bhardwaj
     
 

ISBN-10: 0520049519

ISBN-13: 9780520049512

Pub. Date: 01/19/1973

Publisher: University of California Press


"Dr. Bhardwaj's in-depth study of the various aspects of the institution of pilgrimage shows that instead of being a simple practice it has been a gigantic phenomenon affecting all aspects of Indian life. . . integrating diverse forces, various cults, and numerous traditions over the ages."
--Asian Student
 
"This is the…  See more details below

Overview


"Dr. Bhardwaj's in-depth study of the various aspects of the institution of pilgrimage shows that instead of being a simple practice it has been a gigantic phenomenon affecting all aspects of Indian life. . . integrating diverse forces, various cults, and numerous traditions over the ages."
--Asian Student
 
"This is the best general survey of a major religion's total pilgrimage system and the best intensive investigation of one of its subsystems. . . . Dr. Bhardwaj's book is an important step towards the recognition of a social phenomenon which has for millennia played a crucial role in the integration of religions, nationalities, and international communities. And, not least importantly, it is highly readable."
--Journal of the American Academy of Religion
 
"Detailed, accurate, and generally informative; he has succeeded in tracing, for the first time, the relationship of the rank-order or 'level' of a sacred place. . . to its degree of sanctity, type of deity, and caste and motivation of the pilgrim. . . .The implications of Mr. Bhardwaj's study are profound and necessary to the understanding of Indian religion. . . it is fascinating."
--Times Literary Supplement
 
"Here is a fine example of what the geographic study of India needs: disciplined work that shows full awareness of Indian cultural meanings. . . .it sets a worth standard."
--Professional Geographer

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780520049512
Publisher:
University of California Press
Publication date:
01/19/1973
Series:
Center for South and Southeast Asia Studies, UC Berkeley Series
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
288
Product dimensions:
6.00(w) x 9.00(h) x 0.65(d)

Table of Contents

Introduction1
I.A General Survey of the Literature on Places of Pilgrimage in India14
Epic and Puranic Material15
Medieval Sources Based on Puranic Material17
Travel and Related Literature20
Twentieth-Century Studies21
Pilgrims' Travel Guides and Related Literature26
Gazetteers27
Pilgrim Registers and Records kept by Priests28
II.Distribution of Hindu Places of Pilgrimage According to the Mahabharata29
Analysis of the Distribution29
Relative Importance of Tirthas and Cults according to the Mahabharata40
III.A Grand Pilgrimage of India According to the Mahabharata43
Introduction43
The Route of the Pilgrimage45
Conclusions56
IV.Sacred Places According to the Puranas and Some Later Sources58
Introduction58
Places of Pilgrimage according to the Puranas61
Distribution of Hindu Places of Pilgrimage in the Early Part of the twelfth Century A.D.73
Distribution of Hindu Places of Pilgrimage Based on Some Non-Hindu Medieval Sources75
Conclusions79
V.Tirthas: Their Relative Importance, Site Characteristics, and Principal Deities80
Distribution of Sacred Places80
Classification of Present-Day Tirthas82
Stoddard's Attempt to Account for the Distribution of Holy Places94
Conclusions95
VI.Perception of the Ranks of Sacred Places97
Introduction97
Ranking of Sacred Places in Traditional Hinduism97
Perception of the Rank Order of Sacred Places100
Perception of "The Most Sacred Place" as Related to Caste105
Conclusions115
VII.Determination of Levels of Sacred Places116
Introduction116
Ranking of Sacred Places According to Average Distance Traveled116
Levels of Sacred Places Based on the Cultural Diversity of the Field of Pilgrimage124
Conclusions145
VIII.The Level of Sacred Place and the Purpose and Frequency of Pilgrimage148
Introduction148
Purposes of Pilgrimage in General148
Purposes of Pilgrims in Field Sample153
Relationship between the Level of Sacred Places and Purposes of Pilgrimage158
Deities and the Purposes of Pilgrimage160
Frequency of Visits to Sacred Places160
Conclusions162
IX.Level of Sacred Place and the Religious Travels of Pilgrims163
Introduction163
Aspects of Religious Travel Considered163
Two Basic Patterns of Pilgrim Circulation168
Implication of Religious Circulation at Different Levels173
X.Sacred Places and the Caste Composition of Pilgrims175
Introduction175
General Findings on Caste Composition176
Relationship of Castes of Pilgrims to the Level of Sacred Places184
Relationship between the Pilgrims' Castes and the Distance Traveled to the Sacred Place in the Sample188
XI.Sacred Places and the Diffusion of Religious Beliefs201
The Diffusion Mechanism in General201
Specific Examples of Incipient Stage of Diffusion204
Diffusion from High-level Sacred Places206
Conclusions215
XII.Pilgrim Interaction at Sacred Places: The Case of Hardwar216
Introduction216
Regional Seasonality of Pilgrimage217
Regional Biases in the Residential Pattern of Pilgrims222
Cate Biases in the Residential Pattern of Pilgrims223
Conclusions223
XIII.Summary of Conclusions225
AppendixPilgrim Samples and Caste Groupings229
Pilgrim Samples229
The Questionnaire229
Categories of Castes or Comparable Groups230
Bibliography233
Published Works233
Unpublished Sources247
Index249
List of Maps and Graphs
1-1Study Area10
2-1Tirthas according to the Mahabharata30
2-2Scheduled Tribes and Corridors of Southward Aryan Expansion38

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