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The History and Geography of Human Genes

The History and Geography of Human Genes

by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza

ISBN-10: 0691087504

ISBN-13: 9780691087504

Pub. Date: 07/05/1994

Publisher: Princeton University Press

L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza and his collaborators Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza have devoted fourteen years to one of the most compelling scientific projects of our time: the reconstruction of where human populations originated and the paths by which they spread throughout the world. In this volume, the culmination of their research, the authors explain their


L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza and his collaborators Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza have devoted fourteen years to one of the most compelling scientific projects of our time: the reconstruction of where human populations originated and the paths by which they spread throughout the world. In this volume, the culmination of their research, the authors explain their pathbreaking use of genetic data, which they integrate with insights from geography, ecology, archaeology, physical anthropology, and linguistics to create the first full-scale account of human evolution as it occurred across all continents. This interdisciplinary approach enables them to address a wide range of issues that continue to incite debate: the timing of the first appearance of our species, the problem of African origins and the significance of work recently done on mitochondrial DNA and the popular notion of an "African Eve," the controversy pertaining to the peopling of the Americas, and the reason for the presence of non-Indo-European languages—Basque, Finnish, and Hungarian—in Europe.

The authors reconstruct the history of our evolution by focusing on genetic divergence among human groups. Using genetic information accumulated over the last fifty years, they examined over 110 different inherited traits, such as blood types, HLA factors, proteins, and DNA markers, in over eighteen hundred, primarily aboriginal, populations. By mapping the worldwide geographic distribution of the genes, the scientists are now able to chart migrations and, in exploring genetic distance, devise a clock by which to date evolutionary history: the longer two populations are separated, the greater their genetic difference should be. This volume highlights the authors' contributions to genetic geography, particularly their technique for making geographic maps of gene frequencies and their synthetic method of detecting ancient migrations, as for example the migration of Neolithic farmers from the Middle East toward Europe, West Asia, and North Africa.

Beginning with an explanation of their major sources of data and concepts, the authors give an interdisciplinary account of human evolution at the world level. Chapters are then devoted to evolution on single continents and include analyses of genetic data and how these data relate to geographic, ecological, archaeological, anthropological, and linguistic information. Comprising a wide range of viewpoints, a vast store of new and recent information on genetics, and a generous supply of visual elements, including 522 geographic maps, this book is a unique source of facts and a catalyst for further debate and research.

Product Details

Princeton University Press
Publication date:
Product dimensions:
8.90(w) x 11.32(h) x 2.66(d)

Table of Contents



CHAPTER 1: Introduction to Concepts, Data, and Methods 3

1.1. Introduction 3

1.2. Genetic definitions 5

1.3. Techniques for detection of polymorphic markers 7

1.4. The evolution of gene frequencies 11

1.5. Classical attempts to distinguish human "races" 16

1.6. Scientific failure of the concept of human races 19

1.7. Identifying population units 20

1.8. Linguistic classification 22

1.9. Nature and sources of the data 24

1.10. Methods of analysis 25

1.11. Genetic distances 29

1.12. Phylogenetic tree analysis 30

1.13. Analysis of principal components (PCs) and derived methods 39

1.14. Geographic maps of gene frequencies 42

1.15. Synthetic maps 50

1.16. Isolation by distance 52

1.17. Admixtures, their estimation, and their effect on tree structure 54

CHAPTER 2: Genetic History of World Populations 60

2.1. Paleoanthropological background 60

2.2. Early quantitative phylogenetic studies 68

2.3. Analysis of classical markers in forty-two selected populations 73

2.4. Analysis of DNA data 83

2.5. Comparison with archaeological data 93

2.6. Comparison with linguistic classifications 96

2.7. Importance of expansions in human evolution 105

2.8. Extent of genetic variation by FST analysis 111

2.9. Genetic variation and geographic distance 121

2.10. Maps of single genes 125

2.11. Synthetic maps of the world 133

2.12. Homozygosity 138

2.13. Correlations with climate 142

2.14. Area and time of origin of major mutants, with special attention to hemoglobins 145

2.15. A brief summary of human evolution 154

CHAPTER 3: Africa 158

3.1. Geography and environment 158

3.2. Prehistory and history 159

3.3. Linguistics 164

3.4. Physical anthropology of modern Africans 167

3.5. Genetic analysis of the continent 169

3.6. Ethiopians, some of their neighbors, and North Africans 171

3.7. Khoisanids 174

3.8. Pygmies 177

3.9. Black sub-Saharan Africans. 180

3.10. Studies of single genes 185

3.11. Synthetic maps of Africa 189

3.12. Summary of the genetic history of Africa 192

CHAPTER 4: Asia 195

4.1. General introduction. geography, and environment 195

4.2. Prehistory and history in North Asia 197

4.3. Prehistory and history in Middle and Central Asia 198

4.4. Prehistory and history in East Asia 202

4.5. Prehistory and history in Southeast Asia 206

4.6. Prehistory and history in South Asia 208

4.7. Prehistory and history in West Asia 213

4.8. Linguistics 220

4.9. Physical anthropology 222

4.10. General genetic picture of Asia 225

4.11. Genetics of the Arctic 226

4.12. Genetics of East and Central Asia 229

4.13. Genetics of Southeast Asia 234

4.14. Genetics of South Asia (the Indian subcontinent) 238

4.15. Genetics of West Asia 242

4.16. Geographic maps of single genes 245

4.17. Synthetic maps of Asia 248

4.18. Summary of the genetic history of Asia 252

CHAPTER 5: Europe 255

5.1. Geography and ecology 255

5.2. Prehistory and history 256

5.3. Linguistics 263

5.4. Physical anthropology 266

5.5. The genetic picture 268

5.6. Major outliers: Lapps, Sardinians, Basques, and Icelanders 272

5.7. Italy 277

5.8. France 280

5.9. Iberian peninsula 285

5.10. Single-gene maps 287

5.11. Synthetic maps of Europe 290

5.12. Interactions of genetic, archaeological, and linguistic information 296

5.13. Summary of the genetic history of Europe 299

CHAPTER 6:. America 302

6.1. Geography and environment 302

6.2. Prehistory: occupation of America 303

6.3. Beginnings of agriculture 308

6.4. Development in North America 310

6.5. Development in Central America 312

6.6. Development in South America 313

6.7. Physical anthropology 316

6.8. Linguistics 317

6.9. Phylogenetic analysis of America 320

6.10. Phylogenetic analysis of individual tribes 326

6.11. Comparison of genetics with linguistics and geography 331

6.12. Geographic maps of single genes 333

6.13. Synthetic maps of America 337

6.14. Summary of the genetic history of America 340

CHAPTER 7: Australia, New Guinea, and the Pacific Islands 343

7.1. Geography and environment 343

7.2. Prehistory and history 344

7.3. Physical anthropology 349

7.4. Linguistics 349

7.5. Genetic population structure in Oceania 351

7.6. Population genetics and synthetic maps of Australia 353

7.7. Population genetics and synthetic maps of New Guinea 356

7.8. Population genetics of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia 362

7.9. Single-gene maps of Australia and New Guinea 367

7.10. Single-gene maps of the Pacific Islands 369

7.11. Summary of the genetic history of the Pacific 370

CHAPTER 8:. Epilogue 372

8.1. The multidisciplinary approach 372

8.2. The uses of genetics in human evolutionary history 373

8.3. Comparison of different methods of genetic analysis 374

8.4. The future of this research 377

8.5. Genetic and linguistic evolution 380

APPENDIX 1: Table of Allele Frequencies for Forty-two Populations Analyzed in Chapter 2 383

APPENDIX 2: Table of Allele Frequencies 393

APPENDIX 3: Reference List for Allele Frequencies 469




MAPS 537

Table of Genetic Maps 539

Color Section and Genetic Maps follow Table of Genetic Maps

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