History of Industrial Gases / Edition 1

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Starting at the dawn of science, History of Industrial Gases traces the development of gas theory from its Aristotelian roots to its modern achievements as a global industry. Dr. Almqvist explores how environmental protection, geographical areas, and the drive for higher purity and efficiency affected development in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and how they will influence the future of this rapidly expanding industry. The roles of major contributing companies are also discussed to provide an informative and thought-provoking treatise valuable to anyone who studies or works in this fascinating field.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"This 450-page pastiche of well-researched and well-documented vignettes, anecdotes, thumbnail sketches, and priceless illustrations and drawings is, as advertised, a marvelous excursion into the history of industrial gases. Embedded between the end papers of what might at first seem only to interest a precious few specialists are the essence of stories on hydrogen, including lighter-than-air craft and ballooning; dry ice and refrigeration; acetylene and illumination; gaslight and limelight; noble gases and the quest for absolute zero; industrial helium, superconductivity, and superfluidity; cutting and welding; rocket fuels, buzz bombs, and space travel; cryogenics, cyngas, and LPG. On and on. An impressive scientific and engineering retrospective... References are properly annotated, accurately displayed, and well represented; illustrations are appropriate and often original; the engineering drawings are more than window dressing. Empedocles and Paracelsus would be pleased... Put this in your library. It's a gas! Summing up: Essential."
(L.W. Fine, Columbia University in Choice, December 2003)
"Almqvist's book is a tour de force, which gives insight, not only into the historical development of the gas production industries, but also in new technologies, such as gas welding and cutting, rocket propulsion, biological and medical applications. In addition the author lets us meet the scientists and entrepreneurs whose worl lies behind all this. A well researched book in the best tradition of the Newcomen Society."
(Jan Hault)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780306472770
  • Publisher: Springer US
  • Publication date: 1/28/2003
  • Edition description: 2003
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 472
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 10.14 (h) x 1.44 (d)

Table of Contents

1 History of Gases: Introduction 1
2 From Aristotle to the Birth of Modern Chemistry 7
2.1 From Aristotle to the Birth of Pneumatic Chemistry 7
2.2 The Discovery of Gases and the True Nature of Combustion 19
2.3 Biographies of the Early Pioneers in the Study of Gases 30
3 Industrial Gases: Background 47
3.1 Hydrogen: The Gas That Had a Flying Start 47
3.2 Oxygen: "Fire Air" 64
3.3 Nitrogen: Rotten Air" and Its Challenges 82
3.4 Carbon Dioxide: Spiritus Sylvestre 93
3.5 Acetylene: The Gas That Triggered the Industrial Gas Business 108
3.6 The Noble Gases: An Inactive Family of Great Importance 123
4 The Development of Industrial Gas Technology 137
4.1 Liquefaction of Gases 137
4.2 The Path to Absolute Zero. Superconductivity 153
4.3 Development of the Production of Air Gas (1910-Ca. 1975) 160
4.4 Equipment for Distribution and Storage of Gas 170
4.5 Production: Alternative Gas Separation Methods 179
5 Development of the Industrial Gas Business 187
5.1 Liquid Carbonic 187
5.2 Linde AG 198
5.3 Messer Griesheim 216
5.4 Air Liquide 230
5.5 AGA 247
5.6 British Oxygen 260
5.7 Praxair 270
5.8 Nippon Sanso 283
5.9 Air Products 290
6 Expansion of the Industrial Gas Business 303
6.1 Introduction: Origin of the Industrial Gas Business in Western Europe 303
6.2 Eastern and Central Europe 305
6.3 North America 312
6.4 South and Central America 318
6.5 Asia 320
6.6 Australia 331
6.7 Africa 336
6.8 The Development of the Modern Industrial Gas Business 338
7 How New Applications were Developed 343
7.1 Biology and Medicine 343
7.2 Welding and Cutting 357
7.3 Metallurgy and Combustion 382
7.4 Chemistry and the Environment 395
7.5 Energy and Fuel 402
7.6 Inerting and Cooling 417
7.7 Specialty Gases. High-Purity Gases 430
Institutional Index 447
Name Index 455
Subject Index 463
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