Joseph Ennemoser (1787–1854) was an Tyrolean doctor and scientist, noted for his use of magnetism and hypnosis. He was a forerunner of Freud in his belief in the connection between the mind and physical health, and his interest in psychology led to investigations into the paranormal. He became well known for his presentations about magic, delusions and apparently supernatural occurrences. He suggested that most of these phenomena appeared miraculous only because of a lack of understanding of the laws of nature. The History of Magic was published in Leipzig in 1844, and translated into English in 1854 by William Howitt, a leading Spiritualist writer. Volume 2 examines Germanic and medieval magic. Ennemoser attempts to show how animal magnetism has been partially understood throughout history, and relates it to scientific knowledge. The editor, Mary Howitt, has added a collection of accounts of supernatural events which illustrate the topics discussed.