History of Malaysia / Edition 2

History of Malaysia / Edition 2

by Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard Y. Andaya

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ISBN-10: 0824824253

ISBN-13: 9780824824259

Pub. Date: 01/28/2001

Publisher: University of Hawaii Press, The

Malaysia's multicultural society supports one of the most dynamic economies in Asia. This completely revised new edition of the standard text, first published twenty years ago, traces the history of the country from early times to the present day.

The authors give particular attention to the evolution of Malay polities and their close links with indigenous groups


Malaysia's multicultural society supports one of the most dynamic economies in Asia. This completely revised new edition of the standard text, first published twenty years ago, traces the history of the country from early times to the present day.

The authors give particular attention to the evolution of Malay polities and their close links with indigenous groups who lived on the oceans and in the deep jungles of the region, from Sumatra to Borneo. This provides the background to the establishment of the Malay port of Melaka, which was conquered by the Portuguese in 1511, foreshadowing the establishment of a British colonial regime in the late nineteenth century.

Although the large numbers of Chinese and Indian migrants who arrived to work in the tin and rubber industries contributed to economic expansion, colonial policies did not encourage communal interaction. The authors trace the process by which post-independence leaders in Malaya attempted to counter the legacy of ethnic hostility while answering Malay demands for an affirmation of their rights and a stronger commitment to Islam. The incorporation of the Borneo states of Sarawak and Sabah into the Federation of Malaysia in 1963 rendered the goal of welding a nation from areas that were geographically separated and culturally disparate even more problematic.

The Intense emotions attached to issues of race were made tragically evident in the racial riots of May 1969, which this book sees as a watershed in modern Malaysian history. As Malaysia enters the twenty-first century, the government is determined to oversee the transition to an economy focused on manufacturing and advanced technology, and to eliminate poverty and the association between occupation and race.

While several recent studies deal with the impact of colonial rule and Malaysia's spectacular economic transition, this book is unique because it tracks developments from early times and identifies continuities as well as change. Combining the authors' specialist knowledge of pre-colonial sources with the most recent contemporary research, this new edition reinforces A History of Malaysia's position as a standard reference for all those interested in the historical processes which led to the emergence of this culturally varied and economically energetic country.

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University of Hawaii Press, The
Publication date:
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9.10(w) x 6.10(h) x 1.00(d)

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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Editionxiii
Note on Spelling and Currencyxv
Introduction: The Environment and Peoples of Malaysia1
1.The Heritage of the Past7
Reconstructing early Malaysian history: historiographical considerations7
Early trade and the products of the Malay archipelago11
Indian influence in 'the land of gold'15
Chinese trade and the rise of early Malay-Indonesian entrepots18
Srivijaya and its rivals21
The bases of Srivijaya's power24
The weakening of Srivijaya's authority28
From Srivijaya to Melaka: two differing accounts33
Melaka's heritage36
2.Melaka and its Heirs39
The sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: historiographical considerations39
In the tradition of Srivijaya41
Reasons for Melaka's success44
The nature of the Melaka state46
Melaka's territorial expansion52
Islam and the spread of Melaka culture53
The Portuguese conquest of Melaka58
Responses to the fall of 'Melayu' Melaka: Brunei, Perak and Aceh60
Thai influence in the northern Malay states65
The Dutch and Johor's ascendancy71
3.The Demise of the Malay Entrepot State, 1699-181979
The eighteenth century: historiographical considerations79
The consequences of regicide in Johor80
Bugis influence in the Malay states83
Developments in the Peninsula outside Riau--Johor88
Economic and political challenges in the eighteenth century92
The growing influence of non-Malay groups in the Peninsula96
Expansion of Bugis influence100
English--Dutch rivalry and the impact on Malay trade102
The curtailment of Bugis power and the decline of Riau105
The resurgence of the Thais and the establishment of Penang110
The demise of the Malay entrepot state112
4.'A New World is Created', 1819-74117
The nineteenth century: historiographical considerations118
Relations between Siam and the northern Malay states119
The treaty of 1824 and the division of the Malay world125
The creation of new political units in Borneo128
The campaign against piracy133
Changing patterns of trade in the Malay states136
Chinese domination of commercial agriculture and mining139
Chinese--Malay relations143
Malay conflicts and Straits Settlements involvement147
The debate on 'civilization'154
The Pangkor Treaty157
5.The Making of 'British' Malaya, 1874-1919160
Historiographical considerations160
The extension of British control161
Resumption of the 'forward movement'167
The Residential system174
The 'plural society'177
Differing rates of development in the Protected States184
The creation of the Federated Malay States185
The expansion of British interests in Borneo187
The incorporation of the northern Malay states into British Malaya194
The inclusion of Johor under British rule202
The new 'British' Malaya203
6.The Functioning of a Colonial Society, 1919-41210
Sources for the later colonial period210
Establishing the framework for an export economy211
The tin industry214
Early plantation crops215
The rubber industry217
The palm oil industry219
Padi (wet-rice) farming220
Economic developments in North Borneo and Sarawak222
Education under the colonial government226
Education in Sarawak and North Borneo241
Ethnicity and identity243
Colonial government and the Malay rulers247
Final years of Company and White Raja rule in Borneo252
7.Negotiating a New Nation, 1942-69256
Historiographical considerations256
The Japanese Occupation and the immediate postwar years257
The Malayan Union and the Federation of Malaya264
The MCP and the Emergency269
The Alliance277
The formation of Malaysia282
Maintaining the unity of the Federation287
Growing ethnic tensions290
Economic developments293
Ethnic disturbances of May 1969 and Emergency Government297
8.Restructuring Malaysia, 1969-2000301
Contemporary Malaysia: sources and historiographical problems301
Economic and social restructuring under the New Economic Policy302
Objective 1The eradication of poverty303
Objective 2Removing the association of ethnicity with economic function310
From agriculture to manufacturing316
National development Policy and 'Vision 2020'318
Environmental costs of development321
The shape of politics post-1969324
The Islamic factor331
'The Melayu Baru (New Malay)'333
Conclusion: Some Themes in Malaysian History337
Further Reading352

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