A History of Modern Psychology in Context / Edition 1

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Overview

A fresh look at the history of psychology placed in its social, political, and cultural contexts

A History of Modern Psychology in Context presents the history of modern psychology in the richness of its many contexts. The authors resist the traditional storylines of great achievements by eminent people, or schools of thought that rise and fall in the wake of scientific progress. Instead, psychology is portrayed as a network of scientific and professional practices embedded in specific temporal, social, political, and cultural contexts. The narrative is informed by three key concepts—indigenization, reflexivity, and social constructionism—and by the fascinating interplay between disciplinary Psychology and everyday psychology.

The authors complicate the notion of who is at the center and who is at the periphery of the history of psychology by bringing in actors and events that are often overlooked in traditional accounts. They also highlight how the reflexive nature of Psychology—a science produced both by and about humans—accords history a prominent place in understanding the discipline and the theories it generates.

Throughout the text, the authors show how Psychology and psychologists are embedded in cultures that indelibly shape how the discipline is defined and practiced, the kind of knowledge it creates, and how this knowledge is received. The text also moves beyond an exclusive focus on the development of North American and European psychologies to explore the development of psychologies in other indigenous contexts, especially from the mid-20th-century onward.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"Pickren and Rutherford want to provide a history of psychology that describes how culture, race, ethnicity, and gender have influenced psychology's development within social, political, and economic contexts. They intend to provide a postmodern, social constructionist treatment of psychology’s history that is accessible to undergraduate students. In a number of other ways Pickren and Rutherford do a good job of providing an original description of the field’s social and historical contexts. They do a credible job of providing an alternative version of our discipline's history that students and professors ready for a postmodern textbook will find novel and instructive." (PsycCRITIQUES, September 15, 2010)

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470276099
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/22/2010
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 408
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Wade E. Pickren, PhD, is the Historian of the American Psychological Association. For eight years, Wade was both APA Historian and Director of Archives. He is currently on the psychology faculty at Ryerson University in Toronto and continues to serve as APA Historian.

Alexandra Rutherford, PhD, is Associate Professor of psychology in the History and Theory of Psychology Graduate Program at York University. She is the official historian of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues and the Heritage Chair of the Society for the Psychology of Women.

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Table of Contents

Preface and Acknowledgments.

Introduction.

Why History? Why History of Psychology?

Reflexivity.

Social Constructionism.

Indigenization.

Other Aspects of Our Story.

Organizational Overview.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 1 ORIGINS OF A SCIENCE OF MIND.

Introduction.

Philosophy: Descartes and Locke as Exemplars.

René Descartes (1596–1650).

John Locke (1632–1704).

The Legacy of Descartes and Locke for Psychology.

Physiology and Medicine: The Search for Material Explanations of Human Nature.

Medicine and Naturalistic Explanation.

Research in the Physiology of the Nervous System.

The Mechanization of the Brain.

Sidebar 1.1 Focus on Christine Ladd-Franklin.

Darwin, Natural Selection, and the Laws of Nature.

Journey to the Galapagos.

Continuity: Humans and Natural Law.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 2 EVERYDAY LIFE AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PRACTICES.

Introduction.

New Technologies.

Technologies of Devotion and Piety.

Technologies of Self-Perception and Self-Expression.

Psychological Consequences of Commercial Society.

Changes in Family Life.

Reading the Signs of the Body in the Era of Industrial Capitalism.

The First Industrial Revolution.

Reading the Signs of the Body.

Physiognomy.

Phrenology.

Sidebar 2.1 Focus on the Fowler Brothers.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 3 SUBJECT MATTER, METHODS, AND THE MAKING OF A NEW SCIENCE.

Introduction.

Can Psychology Be a Science?

Kant’s Challenge.

Psychophysics and the Possibility of a New Science.

The German Intellectual Tradition.

Wilhelm Wundt and the New Psychology.

Psychology in Britain and France.

The New Psychology in America.

William James and a Science of Psychology.

The Principles of Psychology.

The Demise of Introspection in American Psychology.

Thorndike, the Animal Mind, and Animal Behavior.

Pavlov, Animal Learning, and the Environment.

Perry and Changing Beliefs About the Nature of Consciousness.

Watson and the Rise of Behaviorism.

Behaviorism: Influential but Contested.

Sidebar 3.1 Focus on Mary Whiton Calkins.

Behaviorism and American Life.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 4 FROM PERIPHERY TO CENTER: CREATING AN AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY.

Introduction.

American Mental and Moral Philosophy.

Forging a Psychological Sensibility: From Religion to Psychical Research.

Religion and Revival.

Mesmerism and Religion.

Spiritualism.

New Thought.

Psychical Phenomena.

Boundary Work and the New Psychology: Establishing the Center and Marking the Periphery.

American Psychologists: Organization and Application.

Organizing for Science.

Making Psychology Useful.

Engaging the Public.

Education: The Pay Vein That Supports the Mine.

Psychologists in Industry.

Sidebar 4.1 Focus on Lillian Moller Gilbreth.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 5 THE PRACTICE OF PSYCHOLOGY AT THE INTERFACE WITH MEDICINE.

Introduction.

Enlightenment and Madness.

From Mesmerism to Hypnosis.

Charcot: The Napoleon of the Neuroses.

Sigmund Freud (1856–1939).

Sidebar 5.1 Focus on Bertha Pappenheim.

Freud’s Impact on Psychology as a Mental Health Profession.

Therapeutic Nihilism.

Psychologists, Psychoanalysis, and Mental Health in America.

Boundaries Between Psychology and Medicine.

Mental Testing.

Psychologists and the Question of Boundaries with Psychoanalysis.

Psychoanalysis and Psychosomatic Medicine Psychoanalysis Outside Europe and North America.

Psychologists, Psychoanalysis, and Mental Health in India.

Psychoanalysis in Argentina.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 6 PSYCHOLOGISTS AS TESTERS: APPLYING PSYCHOLOGY, ORDERING SOCIETY.

Introduction.

The Roots of Mental Testing in America.

Mental Tests Go to the Fair.

Lightner Witmer and the Prehistory of Clinical Psychology.

Sorting the Sexes.

Sidebar 6.1 Focus on Leta Stetter Hollingworth.

The Demise of Mental Tests and the Rise of the IQ.

Lewis Terman and the Americanization of Intelligence Testing.

Army Intelligence: World War I Puts Psychology on the Map.

World War I and Its Impact on American Psychology Intelligence Testing Around the World: Center or Periphery?

The French Twist.

The British Context.

Dutch Society.

Germany and Psychotechnics.

What Did the Tests Test?

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 7 AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE AND PRACTICE BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS.

Introduction.

Who Owns Psychology?

Organization and Cooperation.

Organization.

Cooperative Research and Philanthropy.

The Kingdom of Behavior: Mainstream Psychology, 1920–1940.

Neobehaviorism.

Developing Developmental Psychology.

Sidebar 7.1 Focus on Mary Cover Jones.

Race, Ethnicity, Intelligence, and Resistance.

Psychologists and Scientific Racism.

Challenges to Psychometric Racism.

Sexuality Research.

Personality Psychology.

Assessing Personality.

Henry Murray, the Harvard Psychological Clinic, and the TAT.

Personality, Personnel, and the Management of the Worker.

The Disciplinary Emergence of Social Psychology in America.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 8 PSYCHOLOGY IN EUROPE BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS.

Introduction.

Psychology, Natural Science, and Philosophy in Germany and Austria.

Gestalt Psychology in Germany.

Kurt Lewin (1890–1947).

The Dorpat School of Religious Psychology.

German Psychology After 1933.

Psychology in Vienna.

Sidebar 8.1 Focus on Marie Jahoda.

Psychology, Natural Science, and Philosophy Across Continental Europe.

Developments in France.

Developments in the Netherlands.

Psychology in Russia and the Early Years of the Soviet Union.

Psychotechnics.

Psychology in Britain.

Psychology at Cambridge.

War and Psychology in Britain.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 9 THE GOLDEN AGE OF AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY.

Introduction.

Preparing for War.

The National Council of Women Psychologists.

War Service.

Psychiatric Casualties and the Consolidation of Clinical Psychology.

Golden Age of Psychology.

Postwar Initiatives for Training Mental Health Professionals.

Clinical Psychology and the VA.

National Institute of Mental Health.

Challenges to the New Clinical Psychology.

Psychology versus Psychiatry.

Antipsychiatry and the Treatment of Mental Disorders.

Diversifying Psychological Research in the Golden Age.

VA Clinical Research.

The NIMH and the Expansion of Research.

B. F. Skinner, Culture, and Controversy.

The Third Force: Humanistic Psychology Challenges the Status Quo.

Complicating Social Psychology.

Psychologists, Racial Identity, and Civil Rights.

Sidebar 9.1 Focus on Kenneth and Mamie Phipps Clark.

Interracial Housing.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 10 INTERNATIONALIZATION AND INDIGENIZATION OF PSYCHOLOGY AFTERWORLD WAR II.

Introduction.

Internationalization and Indigenization.

Back Story: Western Psychology in Non-Western Settings.

China.

Japan.

India.

Africa.

Indigenous Psychologies.

Indigenization in Context.

Liberation and Nonalignment in Postcolonial Nations.

Examples of Indigenous Psychologies.

Refashioning Psychology for a Cultural Match in India.

Sidebar 10.1 Focus on Jai B. P. Sinha.

Fashioning an Indigenous Psychology in the Philippines.

Toward a Liberation Psychology in Latin America.

Toward a Psychology of Liberation.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 11 FEMINISM AND AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY: THE SCIENCE AND POLITICS OF GENDER.

Introduction.

Bringing Feminism to Psychology.

Feminist Critiques of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, and Alternatives.

Sex Differences Revisited.

From Sex to Gender.

A Theory of Their Own: The Relational Approach.

Owning the Past: Origins of Women’s History in Psychology.

Sidebar 11.1 Focus on Ruth Howard.

Creating an Inclusive Feminist Psychology.

Feminist Psychologies in International Context.

Feminist and Postcolonial Critiques of Science and Psychology in the 1980s.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 12 INCLUSIVENESS, IDENTITY, AND CONFLICT IN LATE 20TH-CENTURY AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGY.

Introduction.

Toward an Inclusive Psychology.

Institutional Changes.

Training Psychologists to Serve Ethnic Minority Populations.

Sidebar 12.1 Focus on Joseph L. White.

Psychologists and the Community.

A Question of Professional Identity.

Psychologists, Government, and National Security.

Government and the Direction of Psychological Science.

Summary.

Bibliographic Essay.

CHAPTER 13 BRAIN, BEHAVIOR, AND COGNITION SINCE 1945.

Introduction.

The Return of the Mind.

Sidebar 13.1 Focus on Enriched Environments.

Neuropsychology of Cognition and Memory.

How Does Memory Work?

Minds and Machines.

Computations and Computers.

Babbage’s Engines.

Turing’s Game.

Toward the Machine-as-Brain Metaphor.

Information Theory and Cybernetics.

Language Returns.

Summary.

Concluding Thoughts.

Bibliographic Essay.

References.

Glossary.

Index.

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