History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense, V. 5, The McNamara Ascendancy, 1961-1965by Lawrence S. Kaplan, Edward J. Drea, Ronald D. Landa
Pub. Date: 09/25/2006
Publisher: United States Dept. of Defense
TheMcNamaraAscendancy1961-1965 The McNamara Ascendancy, the first of two volumes in the History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense dealing with the tenure of Robert S. McNamara, examines the dynamic, sometimes turbulent early years of his secretaryship under Presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. Few secretaries of defense before or since entered the Pentagon with such a commanding start or left behind a more controversial legacy. Authors Lawrence Kaplan, Ronald Landa, and Edward Drea chronicle both McNamara’s remarkable achievements during the pathbreaking years of the New Frontier and the disappointments and miscalculations that by 1965 had already begun to hinder his performance and diminish his reputation. McNamara brought to the Pentagon an energy and intelligence that made him certainly the most successful manager of the department up to that time. His aggressive pursuit of economy and efficiency introduced new approaches to organizing OSD, managing the services, and linking the budget to programs—employing techniques that would have lasting impact even as his reforms incurred growing resistance from leading members of the military and Congress. In the policy realm, too, he embraced innovative ideas for strategic deterrence, collective security, military assistance, and, of paramount importance, the use and control of nuclear weapons. The search for solutions that would insure U.S. preparedness while containing the strategic arms competition was a difficult balancing act, complicated by powerful economic and political as well as strategic considerations. Here, also, he provoked controversy and resentment from key allies abroad and traditional interests and reluctant partisans within his own department. The McNamara Ascendancy traces the determined efforts of McNamara and his band of “Whiz Kids” to cut costs and centralize the Pentagon’s functions and operations against the backdrop of successive international crises and in the broad context of national security decisionmaking involving the White House, State Department, NSC, the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and the intelligence agencies. Even as the secretary and the administration were able to put Berlin and Cuba behind them, the problem of how to defend South Vietnam from communist aggression threatened to overshadow McNamara’s accomplishments and unravel his unfinished institutional agenda. The deepening commitment in Vietnam dominates the last year of the book, but not before, as the authors convincingly demonstrate, McNamara’s seminal first four years had fundamentally transformed roles and methods and redefined relationships in the ongoing evolution of the Cold War national security establishment. Lawrence S. Kaplan is University Professor Emeritus of History and Director Emeritus of the Lyman L. Lemnitzer Center for NATO and European Union Studies at Kent State University. He is currently Adjunct Professor of History at Georgetown University. A leading scholar of NATO and the author of numerous books and articles on diplomatic history, he has been a Fulbright Lecturer at the Universities of Bonn, Louvain, and Nice, as well as a visiting lecturer at University College, London. Ronald D. Landa holds advanced degrees in history from Northwestern University and Georgetown University, from which he received the Ph.D. in 1971. From 1973 to 1987 he was a historian in the Office of the Historian, U.S. Department of State, where he edited volumes in the documentary series Foreign Relations of the United States. From 1987 until his retirement in 2000, he worked in the Historical Office, Office of the Secretary of Defense, where he has since served as a consultant and contract historian. Edward J. Drea obtained his Ph.D. from the University of Kansas following military service in Japan and Vietnam. He spent many years as a senior historian with the U.S. Army and is the author of MacArthur’s ULTRA: Codebreaking and the War Against Japan and other books and articles on military history.
- United States Dept. of Defense
- Publication date:
- History of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Series
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- 7.00(w) x 10.00(h) x 1.50(d)
Table of Contents
Contents I. McNamara and the New Frontier...... 1 The McNamara Appointment.. 3 McNamara’s Team 6 On a Fast Track... 10 II. Shakeup in the Pentagon... 16 The Symington Report 17 The Vance Task Force 19 Defense Intelligence Agency 22 Defense Supply Agency 24 Civil Defense 29 Counterinsurgency 35 The Space Mission 43 LeMay’s Reappointment, Anderson’s Departure..... 47 A Balance Sheet 49 III. Expanding the FY 1962 Budget 52 Eisenhower’s FY 1962 Budget. 53 Congress Defers Action 55 A Quick Look by DoD and BoB 57 28 March Amendment... 62 26 May Amendment... 64 The Berlin Crisis and the 26 July Amendment .. 67 IV. The FY 1963 Budget: Introducing the PPBS..... 72 Antecedents... 72 Organizational Framework: Getting Started 75 BoB’s New Approach to the Spring Preview 78 The Requirements/Planning Phase 79 The Programming Phase 80 The First Draft Presidential Memorandums (DPMs) 83....... ..... The Budgeting Phase 85 White House Decisions 87 A Lasting Impact 91 V. Congress and the FY 1963 Budget 96 McNamara at Center Stage. 97 Rebellion over the RS-70.... 100 Vinson’s Walk in the Rose Garden 104 Furor over Army National Guard and Reserve Reorganization 107 The Senate Weighs In 110 Finessing the Controversies 112 VI. The FY 1964 Budget 118 White House Expectations 119 Shrinking the Service Estimates.... 122 Final Decisions.... 125 The Ups and Downs of the Authorization Bill 131 Calls for Substantial Cuts 135 The House Shaves the Appropriation Bill 136 Averting Deeper Cuts in the Senate 137 VII. Berlin: The Wall.. 143 Berlin in the Eisenhower Administration 143 Indecision, Spring 1961 144 The Acheson Initiatives... 147 The Vienna Summit 150 Toward the Berlin Wall 151 The Wall 156 “Poodle Blanket”..... 162 Confrontation at Checkpoint Charlie 165 Aftermath: Clay vs. Washington 166 Toward a Soviet-GDR Treaty 169 VIII. The Bay of Pigs Fiasco 172 The Eisenhower Legacy 172 Road to “Trinidad”. 174 The JCS Role..... 175 The Civilian Leadership Role 180 .......... Invasion 183..... ..... The Taylor Report 186 Recriminations 188 Repercussions 192 IX. The Cuban Missile Crisis 195 Supporting Cuban Exiles 196 Operation Mongoose... 198 Contingency Plans 199 Prologue: September-16 October 203..... Act I: 16-21 October 206 Act II: 22-28 October 209 Epilogue: 29 October-20 November... 214 Impact on Berlin.... 218 Withdrawal of Jupiter Missiles from Turkey 220 Cuba after the Missile Crisis 223 X. Laos 228 Responding to the Eisenhower Warning 231 Divisions within DoD 239 Geneva: May-June 1961... 243 The Phoumi Burden, 1961-1962.. 247 Geneva Again: June-July 1962.... 254 XI. Vietnam: Reluctant Engagement, 1961-1963.. 260 Kennedy and Counterinsurgency, January-April 1961.. 262 The Gilpatric and Staley Reports 266 The Taylor-Rostow Mission 270 McNamara’s Initiatives, December 1961-July 1962.... 274 The Strategic Hamlet Program .... 277 Comprehensive Plan for South Vietnam, July 1962-May 1963 281 The Buddhist Rebellion and the Fall of Diem 283 XII. Flexible Response.... 293 Basic National Security Policy (BNSP) 296..... ..... The “Missile Gap” 298 The Acheson Report 303 The Athens and Ann Arbor Addresses 305 Counterforce and Flexible Response..... 309 SIOP and Command and Control. 316 Assured Destruction. 319 XIII. The Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 323 Initiatives under Eisenhower. 324 Establishment of ACDA 325..... Proposing a Test Ban Treaty.. 327 End to the Moratorium 331 Search for Compromise, March-November 1962 335 Seizing a Window of Opportunity. 340 Harriman’s Mission to Moscow 345 Debate over the Treaty 351 XIV. NATO Relations: Transatlantic Differences 357 NATO Strategy in 1961 358 NATO Force Requirements for the 1960s 362 France and the Force de Frappe 370..... Germany: Nuclear Aspirations? 373 Skybolt 375 XV. MLF: A Notion Too Far 385 Birth of a Concept... 386 JFK and the Ottawa Signals 388 Defense Reservations, 1961-1962.. 390 .......... Athens and After 396 Impact of Nassau ... 402 The Merchant Team 405 Slowing the Pace 410 Johnson and the MLF 412 Demise 415 XVI. The Embattled Military Assistance Program.... 421 Adjusting the FY 1962 Budget 421 Latin America 426 The Kitchen Steering Group 427..... The FY 1963 Program 429 .......... Troubles at AID 431 The Clay Committee 432 The Shift to Military Sales 433 The FY 1964 Program 435 The FY 1965 Program 439 .......... Preparing the FY 1966 Request 443 XVII. The Search for Savings 447 Balance of Payments.... 447 The Cost Reduction Program 453 Base Closures 462 The TFX and Cost Effectiveness 466 XVIII. Tightening the Budget: FYs 1965 and 1966 475 The Kennedy Administration and the FY 1965 Budget 476 Kennedy’s Assassination: Johnson Takes the Reins..... 479 The FY 1965 Authorization Bill 484 The FY 1965 Appropriation Bill 487 Preparation of the FY 1966 Budget 489 XIX. Vietnam: Into the Vortex498 McNamara in Saigon–December 1963 499 The Khanh Coup 502 Toward Escalation: Spring 1964 504 The Other Players: Laos and Cambodia... 515 The Tonkin Gulf Resolution... 517 Crisis in Saigon.... 524 Back to the Drawing Board 527 “McNamara’s War” 531 XX. Conclusion535 List of Abbreviations 550 Notes 555 Note on Sources and Selected Bibliography 630 Index 650 Charts 1. Department of Defense, 9 March 1961.. 21 2. Department of Defense, 1 August 1964. 50 Tables 1. Eisenhower Proposed FY 1962 Budget (NOA) 54 2. Eisenhower FY 1962 Budget.. 55 3. FY 1962 Appropriations (NOA) Enacted 69 4. Military Services’ Program Estimates for FY 1963 and Secretary of Defense 22 September 1961 Guidance...... 83 5. January 1962 Budget Estimates for FY 1963 Program 92 6. TOA and NOA by Program, FY 1962-FY 1964 130 7. Selected Country Programs (MAP), FY 1964 438 8. Military Assistance Program Comparison of NOA Request with Actual Funding, FY 1961-FY 1965 446 9. Financial Summary by Program, FY 1961-FY 1966 495 10. Comparison of Active Forces, 1961 and 1965 496 Photographs follow pages 183 and 367.
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