History of the World Christian Movement: Vol II Modern Christianity from 1454-1800

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Overview

The second volume in the most comprehensive history of global Christianity.

The first volume of this groundbreaking history traced the development of Christianity from its origins up to the mid-fifteenth century. It won immediate acclaims as a landmark in the unfolding understanding of World Christianity. In place of conventional Eurocentric treatments, this works assigned a rightful place to the peoples of Africa, Asia, and the Near East in the unfolding of Christianity, a religion constantly evolving in dialogue with new cultures, new questions, and new historical influences. Volume II continues the story up to the dawn of the nineteenth century.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781570759895
  • Publisher: Orbis Books
  • Publication date: 10/1/2012
  • Pages: 500
  • Sales rank: 307,924
  • Product dimensions: 5.90 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Table of Contents

Introduction xi

Part I 1454-1600: Two Major Transformations 1

1 Christian Beginnings in America 9

The preconquest era 9

The conquest begins 11

Subduing the Aztecs 15

Conquering the Incas 17

Colonization of Brazil 17

Requerimiento, encomienda, and conquistadors 20

Defending the rights of indigenous peoples 21

Characteristics of Christian life in sixteenth-century America 25

Women in Catholic America 28

Beginnings of the transformation of Christianity in America 31

2 African Christianity in the Sixteenth Century 34

Ancient roots of Christianity in Africa 34

West African culture and Portuguese incursions 35

Africa, Christianity, and the slave trade 40

Ethiopian Christianity 45

3 Christianity Re-encounters Asia 54

Western Christianity comes to Asia 54

St. Thomas Churches and Indian Christianity 56

Arrival of the Portuguese 58

Francis Xavier and the Jesuits 61

Christian beginnings in Japan 63

Christianity reaches the Phillippines 65

Europeans in the East Indies and Indochina 67

4 Europe in an Age of Reform 71

A changing Europe steps onto a global stage 71

The humanists and European cultural transformation 74

Francisco Ximénes de Cisneros and reforms in Spain 76

Erasmus of Rotterdam and the broad current of humanist learning 79

Martin Luther and the Protestant Reformation in Germany 81

Spread of the Lutheran reform beyond Saxony 88

Ulrich Zwingli and the city of Zurich 89

The first Anabaptists, the Swiss Brethren 91

Wide diffusion of the Anabaptists 93

John Calvin and the Geneva Reformation 99

Spread of the Reformed faith 104

Separation of the Church of England from Rome under Henry VIII 106

Reform in Scotland 109

Early Unitarians 111

Catholic reforms led by religious orders 112

Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits 115

The Council of Trent and Catholic institutional reform 118

The legacy of a turbulent century 123

5 Orthodoxy amid the Empires 125

Islamic empires 125

Christians under Ottoman rule 127

The Coptic Church in Egypt 130

Christians under Safavid Persian rule 132

The Russian Orthodox Church 134

The Ukrainian Church on the borderlands 142

6 World Christianity at the End of the Sixteenth Century 145

Protestant confessional formations in Europe 145

Roman Catholic reform and development 151

Orthodoxy and the Ottoman empire 152

Conflicts in world Christianity beyond Europe 154

Part II The Seventeenth Century: Global Religious and Secular Encounters 165

7 Eastern Asia in the Seventeenth Century 167

The doors of China swing open...and shut 167

Jesuits enter the Middle Kingdom 169

Controversy over adaptation of Christianity to Chinese culture 174

Korean beginnings 178

Christian twilight in Japan 179

Vietnam 182

Siam and Cambodia 187

Catholics and Reformed in the East Indies 189

Spain and Catholic religion in the Philippines 191

8 South Asia in the Seventeenth Century 195

Disputes over Roman Catholic and St. Thomas rites 195

Christian witness in the Mughul empire 199

Roberto de Nobili and Christian adaptation in Hindu Madurai 204

9 African Christian Kingdoms 209

African in the emerging global slave trade 209

Central Africa 210

Ethiopia 217

East and southeast Africa 221

10 The Caribbean and South America 226

The Caribbean 226

Slavery 229

Brazil 233

Spanish America 237

Religious practices in America 242

11 North America 247

Spanish and French Catholic beginnings in North America 247

The Franciscan century in New Mexico 251

The English in North America 253

Colonies of Virginia, New Amsterdam, Maryland, and Pennsylvania 258

Africans in North America 259

12 Europe in the Seventeenth Century 263

Rationalism and science 263

Wars of religion and European realignment 267

Roman Catholic reforms amid internal tensions 269

Three important movements within Protestantism 277

Developments in German Lutheranism 279

Developments in Reformed Churches in continental Europe 282

Anabaptists 286

Reformed ferment and civil war in England 286

The Quakers 289

Baptists and the emergence of the Free Church ideal 291

Religious toleration in England 293

13 Orthodox Churches and Christian Identity in the Seventeenth Century 296

Churches among empires 296

Orthodox communities in the Balkans 298

The Maronite Church in Lebanon 300

Theological conflicts in the ecumenical patriarchate 301

The Coptic Church and the Ottomans 302

Armenian Christians between Russia and the Ottomans 305

Kurds between Christians and Muslims 307

The East Syrian Church continues to decline 308

Orthodoxy in Russia and the Ukraine 309

Part III The Eighteenth Century: Independence, Liberation, Awakenings 317

14 Africa in the Eighteenth Century 319

An overview 319

Strengthening within Islam 320

West Africa 322

Abolitionism begins 327

Southern Africa 330

Ethiopia and East Africa 334

15 The Eighteenth Century in Europe 337

The European Enlightenment 338

Renewal of Catholic life and worship 348

The Jansenist controversy 351

Developments in Protestant intellectual and spiritual life 353

Pietism and the religion of the heart 355

Wesleyan movement and evangelical revivalism 359

Expansion of "Free" Churches 364

Development in church music 365

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on European religious life 367

The French Revolution creates a new world for Christianity 368

16 The Orthodox World in the Eighteenth Century 373

The Russian Orthodox Church and the tsars 374

Orthodoxy under the Ottomans in the Balkans and west Asia 380

Coptic Church in the eighteenth century 385

Armenian Christianity in the eighteenth century 388

Syrian Orthodoxy in Persia 391

Islam and Christianity 392

17 Christianity in East and Southeast Asia amid Colonial Conflicts 396

China and self-inflicted Christian wounds 396

Korea 399

Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand 402

The Philippines 405

The Dutch East Indies 408

South Asia 410

18 South America and the Caribbean in an Age of Revolution 417

The Caribbean 417

South America 422

Social upheavals 427

19 North America Undergoes Awakening and Revolution 432

Revivals and awakening in the North American context 435

Africans develop a distinct form of Christianity 441

Missions to Native Americans in the eastern colonies 444

Missions to Native Americans in the West 446

The War of Independence 450

Freedom of religion in the new nation 453

The varieties of religion in the early United States 455

Forming new churches 458

African American churches emerge 467

Developments in Canada 470

Russian Orthodox missions in the Northwest 473

Index 475

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