History of United States Naval Operations in World War II: The Battle of the Atlantic, September 1939 - May 1943

Overview

This is the first volume chronologically, but the second in order of publication, of Captain Morison's "shooting history." The first to be published was Volume II, Operations in North African Waters, October 1942 - June 1943, of which Fletcher Pratt wrote in the New York Sun, "If the remaining volumes are up to the level of this one, it will stand not only as the most complete, but also the most readable work of its kind ever published."

The present book deals with the defense ...

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Overview

This is the first volume chronologically, but the second in order of publication, of Captain Morison's "shooting history." The first to be published was Volume II, Operations in North African Waters, October 1942 - June 1943, of which Fletcher Pratt wrote in the New York Sun, "If the remaining volumes are up to the level of this one, it will stand not only as the most complete, but also the most readable work of its kind ever published."

The present book deals with the defense of our own shores and ships. It describes the gradual emergence of the Navy from the neutrality patrol and Western Hemisphere defense, through the "short-of-war" phases to full-fledged war with Germany and Italy. Much of it is devoted to the history of transatlantic, coastal, Russian, Caribbean and Brazilian convoys, and to the war on the U-boats. There are chapters on the fearful ordeal of the North Russia run, on the experiences of lonely merchantmen with Naval Armed Guards, on operations off the coast of Brazil, and on auxiliary efforts such as the Coastal Picket Patrol by sailing yachts (the "Hooligans"), the Mystery Ships, and the Civil Air Patrol.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780252069635
  • Publisher: University of Illinois Press
  • Publication date: 3/28/2001
  • Series: History of the United States Naval Opera
  • Edition description: Reprint
  • Pages: 536
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword vii
Preface ix
Introduction: The United States Navy Between World Wars xxxiii
1. International Limitation of Naval Armaments xxxv
2. Pacifist Propaganda xli
3. The "Billy Mitchell" Crusade xlv
4. Development of Fleet Aviation xlix
5. Development of Amphibious Warfare liii
6. General Progress lvi
7. Comparison of Naval Strength lx
Abbreviations Used in Text 2
I The Naval Antagonists, 1939-1940 3
1. The Nazi Navy and Naval Policy 3
2. The Royal Navies 11
3. The Neutrality Patrol of the Atlantic Squadron 13
II Transatlantic Convoys under Anglo-Canadian Escort, September 1939-December 1940 17
1. Convoy Definitions 17
2. The Transatlantic Convoys 19
3. Effect of the Fall of France, June 1940 22
III "Short of War" Policy, June 1940-March 1941 27
1. The "Two-Ocean Navy" 27
2. Martinique and Neutrality Patrol 30
3. The Destroyer-Naval Base Deal with Britain 33
4. Lend-Lease 36
5. Staff Conversations and Basic Strategic Decisions, August 1940-March 1941 38
a. Admiral Stark and Exploratory Conversations
b. The Basic Strategic Concept of the War
6. Transatlantic Escort Plans and the Support Force 49
IV "Short of War" Operations, March-August 1941 56
1. British Transatlantic Convoys, March-May 1941 56
2. Greenland and Western Hemisphere Defense 58
3. The Crisis of Midsummer, 1941 64
a. Unlimited National Emergency
b. The Escort-building Program
c. Azores or Iceland?
d. Casco and Argentia
e. The Atlantic Conference
V The United States Navy Joins Battle, September-December 1941 74
1. From Patrol to Escort Duty 74
a. Occupation of Iceland; Operation Plans of July
b. Attack on U.S.S. Greer; de Facto War Begins
c. Atlantic Patrol
d. Navy Begins Escort Duty
2. First Blood for the Nazis 92
a. Attack on Convoy SC-48; U.S.S. Kearny
b. Sinking of U.S.S. Reuben James; Winter Escort Duty
3. Convoy Procedure and Early Lessons 99
a. Procedure
b. Communications
c. The Fueling Problem
4. The First American Convoy to the Orient, WS-12X 109
VI The German Submarine Offensive of 1942, January-July 1942 114
1. Transatlantic Convoys, December 1941-June 1942 114
2. The Assault on Coastal and Caribbean Shipping 125
a. From New England South
b. Gulf Sea Frontier
c. Caribbean
d. Off the Canal Entrance
3. First Kills of U-Boats 154
VII The North Russia Run, December 1941-July 1942 158
1. Conditions and Urgencies 158
2. The Tough Month of March 164
3. Task Force 39 167
4. Convoys PQ-16 and QP-13 171
5. The Ordeal of PQ-17 179
VIII Missions to Malta, April-May 1942 193
IX Trends and Conclusions, January-June 1942 198
X The Organization of Anti-Submarine Warfare, 1939-1942 202
1. The Complex Problem 202
2. Administration and Sea Frontiers 205
3. Weapons and Devices 209
a. Anti-Submarine Weapons
b. Sound Gear and Sound Schools
c. The Anti-Submarine Warfare Unit
d. Scientists at Operational Level
e. Radar in Anti-Submarine Applications
f. The High-Frequency Direction-Finder
4. The Anti-Submarine Fleet 229
a. Subchasers
b. The Subchaser School at Miami
c. Cutters, Gunboats and Destroyers
5. Air Power and the Submarine 237
a. The Army Anti-Submarine Air Command
b. The Naval Air Patrol
6. Coastal Convoys 252
a. Atlantic Coast Shipping Lanes
b. "Bucket Brigades."
c. Convoys Extended Coastwise
d. Caribbean Convoys
e. The Interlocking System
XI Amateurs and Auxiliaries 266
1. The Patrols 266
a. Inshore
b. Ship Lane
c. Coastal Picket
d. Civil Air
2. Mystery Ships 281
3. Fishermen and Air Observers 286
XII Merchant Ships and Their Armament 290
1. Ship Production 290
2. Naval Armed Guards 296
XIII Examples, Errors and Lessons, January-June 1942 303
XIV Ten Months' Incessant Battle, July 1942-April 1943 311
1. Trends 311
2. Transatlantic Convoys 317
a. Daylight Attacks
b. The Midwinter Blitz
c. Troop Convoys
d. Heineman's Harriers
3. Gulf and Caribbean 346
4. Central Transatlantic Convoys 352
5. North Russia Convoys 358
a. Tuscaloosa's Mission
b. Convoy PQ-18
c. "Trickle" and Renewed Convoys
d. American Seamen in North Russia Ports
XV "Deus E Brasileiro," September 1941-April 1943 376
XVI Unescorted Ships with Armed Guards 392
XVII Analysis and Conclusion, April 1943 400
1. The Situation from the German Point of View 400
2. The Situation from the Allied Point of View 403
Appendix I Losses of Merchant Shipping 410
Appendix II Monthly Sinkings of German and Italian Submarines 415
Appendix III Arming of Merchant Vessels 416
Appendix IV Mine Fields Laid by U-Boats in Western Atlantic, 1942 417
Appendix V The Support Force Atlantic Fleet, 18 March 1941 418
Appendix VI The Atlantic Fleet of the United States Navy, August 1942 419
Index 423
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