A History of World Societies, Combined Volume / Edition 9 by John P. McKay, Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Patricia Buckley Ebrey | | 9780312666910 | Hardcover | Barnes & Noble
A History of World Societies, Combined Volume / Edition 9

A History of World Societies, Combined Volume / Edition 9

by John P. McKay, Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Patricia Buckley Ebrey

ISBN-10: 0312666918

ISBN-13: 9780312666910

Pub. Date: 10/05/2011

Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's

A History of World Societies introduces students to the global past through social history and the stories and voices of the people who lived it.  Now published by Bedford/St. Martin's, and informed by the latest scholarship, the book has been thoroughly revised with students in mind to meet the needs of the evolving course.  Proven to work in the


A History of World Societies introduces students to the global past through social history and the stories and voices of the people who lived it.  Now published by Bedford/St. Martin's, and informed by the latest scholarship, the book has been thoroughly revised with students in mind to meet the needs of the evolving course.  Proven to work in the classroom, the book’s regional and comparative approach helps students understand the connections of global history while providing a manageable organization.  With more global connections and comparisons, more documents, special features and activities that teach historical analysis, and an entirely new look, the ninth edition is the most teachable and accessible edition yet.


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Bedford/St. Martin's
Publication date:
Edition description:
Ninth Edition
Product dimensions:
8.80(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.60(d)

Table of Contents

Note: All chapters close with Connections and a Chapter Review section


1. The Earliest Human Societies, to 2500 b.c.e.

Evolution and Migration

     Understanding the Early Human Past

     Hominid Evolution

     Homo Sapiens, "Thinking Humans"

     Migration and Differentiation

Paleolithic Society, 250,000-9000 b.c.e.

     Foraging for Food

     Family and Kinship Relationships

     Cultural Creations and Spirituality

The Development of Agriculture in the Neolithic Era, ca. 9000 b.c.e.

     The Development of Horticulture

     Animal Domestication and the Rise of Pastoralism

     Plow Agriculture

Neolithic Society

     Social Hierarchies and Slavery

     Gender Hierarchies and Inheritance

     Trade and Cross-Cultural Connections

Viewpoints     Stone Age Houses in Chile and China

Listening to the Past      Paleolithic Venus Figures

Individuals in Society      The Iceman


2. The Rise of the State in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley, 3200-500 b.c.e.

Writing, Cities, and States

     Written Sources and the Human Past

     Cites and the Idea of Civilization

     The Rise of States, Laws, and Social Hierarchies

Mesopotamia from Sumeria to Babylon

     Environmental Challenges, Irrigation, and Religion

     Sumerian Politics and Society

     The Invention of Writing and Other Intellectual Advances

     The Triumph of Babylon and the Spread of Mesopotamian Civilization

     Hammurabi's Code and Its Social Consequences

The Egyptians and Their Pharaohs

     The Nile and the God-King

     Social Divisions and Work in Ancient Egypt

     Migrations and Political Revivals

     New Political and Economic Powers

The Hebrews

     The Hebrew State

     The Jewish Religion

     The Family and Jewish Life

The Assyrians and Persians

     Assyria, the Military Monarchy

     The Rise and Expansion of the Persian Empire

     The Religion of Zoroaster

Listening to the Past      Gilgamesh's Quest for Immortality

Individuals in Society      Hatshepsut and Nefertiti

Global Trade      Iron

Viewpoints     Rulers and Divine Favor: Cyrus the Great in the Cyrus Cylinder and Hebrew Scripture 


3. The Foundation of Indian Society, to 300 c.e.

The Land and Its First Settlers, ca. 3000-1500 b.c.e.

     The Aryans During the Vedic Age, ca. 1500Ð500 b.c.e.

     Aryan Dominance in North India

     Life in Early India


India's Great Religions


     Siddhartha Gautama and Buddhism


Western Contact and the Mauryan Unification of North India, ca. 513-185 b.c.e.

     Encounters with the West

     Chandragupta and the Founding of the Mauryan Empire

     The Reign of Ashoka, ca. 269-232 b.c.e.

Small States and Trading Networks, 185 b.c.e.-300 c.e.

Listening to the Past     Conversations Between Rama and Sita from the Ramayana

Individuals in Society     Gosala

Viewpoints     On Enemies from The Laws of Manu and The Arthashastra


4. China's Classical Age, to 221 b.c.e.

The Emergence of Civilization in China

     The Impact of Geography

     Early Agricultural Societies of the Neolithic Age

The Shang Dynasty, ca. 1500-1050 b.c.e.

     Shang Society

     Bronze Metalworking

     The Development of Writing

The Early Zhou Dynasty, ca. 1050-400 b.c.e.

     Zhou Politics

     Life During the Zhou Dynasty

The Warring States Period, 400-221 b.c.e.

     New Technologies for War

     The Victorious States

Confucius and His Followers


     The Spread of Confucian Ideas

Daoism, Legalism, and Other Schools of Thought



     Yin and Yang

Individuals in Society     Lord Mengchang

Listening to the Past     The Book of Mencius

Viewpoints     Mozi and Xunzi on Divine Response


5. The Greek Experience, 3500-100 b.c.e.

Hellas: The Land and the Polis, ca. 3500-ca. 800 b.c.e.

     The Minoans and Mycenaeans

     The Development of the Polis

Population and Politics in the Archaic Age, ca. 800-500 b.c.e.

     Greece's Overseas Expansion

     The Growth of Sparta

     The Evolution of Athens

Thought and Culture in the Classical Period, 500-338 b.c.e.

     The Deadly Conflicts, 499-404 b.c.e.

     Athenian Arts in the Age of Pericles

     Daily Life and Social Conditions in Athens

     Greek Religion in the Classical Period

     The Flowering of Philosophy

Hellenistic Society, 336-100 b.c.e.

     From Polis to Monarchy, 404-200 b.c.e.

     Building a Shared Society

     The Growth of Trade and Commerce

Hellenistic Religion, Philosophy, and Science

     Religion in the Hellenistic World

     Philosophy and Its Guidance for Life

     Hellenistic Science and Medicine

Viewpoints     Two Opinions About Athenian Democracy

Listening to the Past     Aristotle, On the Family and On Slavery, from The Politics

Individuals in Society     Archimedes, Scientist and Inventor


6. The World of Rome, 750 b.c.e.-400 c.e.

The Romans in Italy

     The Etruscans and Rome

     The Roman Conquest of Italy

     The Distribution of Power in the Roman Republic

     Social Conflict in Rome

Roman Expansion and Its Repercussions

     Overseas Conquests and the Punic Wars, 264-133 b.c.e.

     New Influences and Old Values in Roman Culture

     The Late Republic and the Rise of Augustus, 133-27 b.c.e.

     The Successes of Augustus

The Pax Romana

     Political and Military Changes in the Empire

     Life in Rome

     Prosperity in the Roman Provinces

     Eastward Expansion and Contacts Between Rome and China

The Coming of Christianity

     Factors Behind the Rise of Christianity

     The Life and Teachings of Jesus

     The Spread of Christianity

     The Growing Acceptance and Evolution of Christianity

Turmoil and Reform

     DiocletianÕs Reforms

     Economic Hardship and Its Consequences

     Constantine, Christianity, and the Rise of Constantinople

Viewpoints     On Roman Wives from a Tombstone Inscription and JuvenalÕs Sixth Satire

Individuals in Society     Queen Cleopatra

Listening to the Past     Cicero and the Plot to Kill Caesar

Global Trade     Pottery


7. East Asia and the Spread of Buddhism, 221 b.c.e.-800 c.e.

The Age of Empire in China: The Qin and Han Dynasties

     The Qin Unification, 221-206 b.c.e.

     The Han Dynasty, 206 b.c.e.-220 c.e.

     Han Intellectual and Cultural Life

     Inner Asia and the Silk Road

     Life in Han China

     China and Rome

     The Fall of the Han and the Age of Division

The Spread of Buddhism Out of India

     Buddhism's Path Through Central Asia

     The Appeal and Impact of Buddhism in China

The Chinese Empire Re-created: Sui (581-618) and Tang (618-907)

     The Sui Dynasty, 581Ð618

     The Tang Dynasty, 618Ð907

     Tang Culture

The East Asian Cultural Sphere




     Global Trade Silk

Individuals in Society     The Ban Family

Listening to the Past     Sixth-Century Biographies of Buddhist Nuns

Viewpoints     Chinese and Japanese Principles of Good Government, ca. 650


8. Continuity and Change in Europe and Western Asia, 200-850

The Byzantine Empire

     Sources of Byzantine Strength

     The Sassanid Empire and Conflicts with Byzantium

     The Law Code of Justinian

     Byzantine Intellectual Life

     Life in Constantinople

The Growth of the Christian Church

     The Evolution of Church Leadership and Orthodoxy

     The Western Church and the Eastern Church

     The Iconoclastic Controversy

     Christian Monasticism

Christian Ideas and Practices

     Christian Beliefs and the Greco-Roman Tradition

     Saint Augustine

     Missionary Activity

     Conversion and Assimilation

Migrating Peoples

     Social and Economic Structures

     Chiefs, Warriors, and Laws

     Migrations and Political Change

     The Frankish Kingdom


Individuals in Society     Theodora of Constantinople

Viewpoints     Roman and Byzantine Views of Barbarians

Listening to the Past     Gregory of Tours, The Conversion of Clovis


9. The Islamic World, 600-1400

The Origins of Islam

     Arabian Social and Economic Structure

     Muhammad's Rise As a Religious Leader

     The Tenets of Islam

Islamic States and Their Expansion

     Islam's Spread Beyond Arabia

     Reasons for the Spread of Islam

     The Caliphate and the Split Between Shi'a and Sunni Alliances

     The Abbasid Caliphate

     Administration of the Islamic Territories

Fragmentation and Military Challenges, 900-1400

     Breakaway Territories and Shi'a Gains

     The Ascendancy of the Turks

     The Mongol Invasions

Muslim Society: The Life of the People

     The Social Hierarchy


     Women in Classical Islamic Society

Trade and Commerce

Cultural Developments

     The Cultural Centers of Baghdad and Cordoba

     Education and Intellectual Life

     The Mystical Tradition of Sufism

Muslim-Christian Encounters

Viewpoints      Jews in Muslim Lands

Listening to the Past    Abu Hamid Al-Ghazali, The Etiquette of Marriage

Individuals in Society     Ibn Battuta


10. African Societies and Kingdoms, 1000 b.c.e.-1500 c.e.

The Land and Peoples of Africa

     Africa's Geographical and Human Diversity

     Egypt, Race, and Being African

Early African Societies

     Settled Agriculture and Its Impact

     Bantu Migrations

     Life in the Kingdoms of the Western Sudan, ca. 1000 b.c.e.-800 c.e.

The Trans-Saharan Trade

     The Berbers of North Africa

     Effects of Trade on West African Society

     The Spread of Islam in Africa

African Kingdoms and Empires, ca. 800-1500

     The Kingdom of Ghana, ca. 900-1100

     The Kingdom of Mali, ca. 1200-1450

     Ethiopia: The Christian Kingdom of Aksum

     The East African City-States

     Southern Africa and Great Zimbabwe

Individuals in Society     Amda Siyon

Viewpoints     Early Descriptions of Africa

Listening to the Past     A Tenth-Century Muslim Traveler Describes Parts of the East African Coast 


11. The Americas, 2500 b.c.e.-1500 c.e.

The First Peoples of the Americas

     Describing the Americas and Their Peoples

     Settling the Americas

     The Development of Agriculture

Early Societies

     Mounds, Towns, and Trade in North and South America

     Olmec Agriculture, Technology, and Religion

Classical Era Mesoamerica and North America, 300-900 c.e.

     Maya Agriculture and Trade

     Maya Science and Religion

     Growth and Assimilation of the Teotihuac‡n and Toltec Cultures

     Hohokam, Hopewell, and Mississippian Societies

The Aztecs

     Religion and War in Aztec Society

     Social Distinctions Among the Aztecs

     The City of Tenochtitl‡n

The Incas

     Earlier Peruvian Cultures

     Inca Imperialism and Its Religious Basis

     The Clan-Based Structure of Inca Society

Viewpoints     Creation in the Popul Vuh and in Okanogan Tradition

Individuals in Society     TlacaŽlel

Listening to the Past     Felipe Guaman Poma de Ayala, The First New Chronicle and Good Government


12. Cultural Exchange in Central and Southern Asia, to 1400

Central Asian Nomads

     Nomadic Society

     The Turks

     The Mongols

     Mongol Daily Life

Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Empire

     The Chinggis Kahn

     Chinggis's Successors

     The Mongols as Rulers

East-West Communication During the Mongol Era

     The Movement of Peoples

     The Spread of Disease, Goods, and Ideas

India, Islam, and the Development of Regional Cultures, 300-1400

     The Gupta Empire, ca. 320Ð480

     India's Medieval Age and the First Encounter with Islam

     The Delhi Sultanate

     Life in Medieval India

Southeast Asia, the Pacific Islands, and the Growth of Maritime Trade

     State Formation and Indian Influences

     The Srivijaya Maritime Trade Empire

     The Spread of Indian Culture in Comparative Perspective

     The Settlement of the Pacific Islands

Listening to the Past     The Abduction of Women in The Secret History of the Mongols

Viewpoints     Chinese Accounts About the Mongol Army

Individuals in Society     Bhaskara the Teacher

Global Trade     Spices 


13. States and Cultures in East Asia, 800-1400

The Medieval Chinese Economic Revolution, 800-1100

China During the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 960-1368

     The Song Dynasty

     The Scholar-Officials and Neo-Confucianism

     Women's Lives in Song Times

     China Under Mongol Rule

Korea Under the Koryo Dynasty, 935-1392

Japan's Heian Period, 794-1185

     Fujiwara Rule

     Aristocratic Culture

The Samurai and the Kamakura Shogunate, 1185-1333

     Military Rule

     Cultural Trends

     Global Trade Tea

Individuals in Society     Shen Gua

Viewpoints     Zhu Xi and Yuan Cai on Family Management

Listening to the Past     The Pillow Book of Sei Shonagon 


14. Europe in the Middle Ages, 800-1450

Political Developments

     Invasions and Migrations

     Feudalism and Manorialism

     The Restoration of Order

     Law and Justice

The Christian Church

     Papal Reforms

     Monastic Life

     Popular Religion

     The Expansion of Christianity

The Crusades

     Background and Motives

     The Course of the Crusades

     Consequences of the Crusades

The Life of the People

     The Life and Work of Peasants

     The Life and Work of Nobles

     Towns, Cities, and the Growth of Commercial Interests

     The Expansion of Trade and the Commercial Revolution

Learning and Culture

     Universities and Scholasticism

     Cathedrals and a New Architectural Style

     Troubadour Poetry

Crises of the Later Middle Ages

     The Great Famine and the Black Death

     The Hundred Years' War

     Challenges to the Church

     Peasant and Urban Revolts

Individuals in Society     Hildegard of Bingen

Listening to the Past     An Arab View of the Crusades

Viewpoints     Italian and English Views of the Plague 


15. Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1600

Renaissance Culture

     Wealth and Power in Renaissance Italy

     The Rise of Humanism

     Christian Humanism

     Printing and Its Social Impact

     Art and the Artist

Social Hierarchies

     Race and Slavery

     Wealth and the Nobility

     Gender Roles

Politics and the State in the Renaissance, ca. 1450-1521




     The Habsburgs

The Protestant Reformation

     Criticism of the Church

     Martin Luther

     Protestant Thought and Its Appeal

     The Radical Reformation and the German Peasants' War

     Marriage and Women's Roles

     The Reformation and German Politics

     England's Shift Toward Protestantism

     Calvinism and Its Moral Standards

The Catholic Reformation

     Papal Reforms and the Council of Trent

     New Religious Orders

Religious Violence

     French Religious Wars

     Civil Wars in the Netherlands

     The Great European Witch-Hunt

Viewpoints     Lauro Quirini and Cassandra Fedele: Women and Humanist Learning

Individuals in Society     Leonardo da Vinci

Listening to the Past     Martin Luther, On Christian Liberty

16. The Acceleration of Global Contact, 1450-1600

The Afroeurasian Trade World Before Columbus

     The Trade World of the Indian Ocean

     Peoples and Cultures of the Indian Ocean

     Trade with Africa and the Middle East

     Genoese and Venetian Middlemen

The European Voyages of Discovery

     Causes of European Expansion

     Technology and the Rise of Exploration

     The Expanding Portuguese Empire

     Christopher Columbus's Voyages to the Americas

     Later Explorers

     Spanish Conquest in the New World

The Impact of Conquest

     Colonial Administration

     The Impact of European Settlement on the Lives of Indigenous Peoples

     The Columbian Exchange

     Sugar and Early Transatlantic Slavery

     The Birth of the Global Economy

Changing Values and Beliefs

     New Ideas About Race

     Michel de Montaigne and Cultural Curiosity

     William Shakespeare and His Influence

     Religious Conversion in the New World

Individuals in Society     Zheng He

Listening to the Past     Columbus Describes His First Voyage

Global Trade     Silver

Viewpoints     Christian Conversion in New Spain 


17. European Power and Expansion, 1500-1750

Seventeenth-Century Crisis and Rebuilding

     Crises Among Peasants and the Urban Poor

     The Return of Serfdom in Eastern Europe

     The Thirty Years' War

     Achievements in State Building

Absolutism in France and Spain

     The Foundations of Absolutism

     Louis XIV and Absolutism

     Life at Versailles French Finances

     Louis XIV's Wars

     The Decline of Absolutist Spain

Absolutism in Austria, Prussia, and Russia

     The Austrian Habsburgs

     Prussia in the Seventeenth Century

     The Consolidation of Prussian Absolutism

     Mongol Rule in Russia and the Rise of Moscow

     The Tsar and His People

     The Reforms of Peter the Great

Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic

     Absolutist Claims in England

     Religious Divides and Civil War

     The Puritan Protectorate

     Restoration of the English Monarchy

     Constitutional Monarchy

     The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century

Colonialism in the Americas

     Colonial Expansion of Northern European Powers

     Mercantilism and Colonial Wars

     Life in the Colonies

Listening to the Past     A German Account of Russian Life

Viewpoints     The Debate over the Extent of Royal Power in England

Individuals in Society     GlŸckel of Hameln 


18. New Worldviews and Ways of Life, 1540-1790

The Scientific Revolution

     Scientific Thought Through the Early 1500s

     Origins of the Scientific Revolution

     Copernican Hypothesis

     Proving Copernicus Right

     Newton's Synthesis

     Bacon, Descartes, and the Scientific Method

     Medicine, the Body, and Chemistry

     Science and Society

The Enlightenment

     The Emergence of the Enlightenment

     The Influence of the Philosophes

     Enlightenment Across Europe

     Urban Culture and Life in the Public Sphere

     Late Enlightenment

Enlightened Absolutism

     Reforms in Prussia, Russia, and Austria

     Jewish Life and the Limits of Enlightened Absolutism

The Growth of Consumerism and the Atlantic World

     A Revolution in Consumption and Daily Life

     The Atlantic Economy

     Identities and Communities of the Atlantic World

     Race and the Enlightenment

Individuals in Society     Moses Mendelssohn and the Jewish Enlightenment

Viewpoints     Malachy Postlethwayt and Olaudah Equiano on the Abolition of Slavery

Listening to the Past     Denis Diderot's "Supplement to Bougainville's Voyage"


19. Africa and the World, 1400-1800

West Africa in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries

     The West Coast: Senegambia and Benin

     The Sudan: Songhai, Kanem-Bornu, and Hausaland

     The Lives of the People of West Africa

     Trade and Industry

Cross-Cultural Encounters Along the East African Coast

     Muslim and European Incursions in Ethiopia, ca. 1500-1630

     The Swahili City-States and the Arrival of the Portuguese, ca. 1500-1600

The African Slave Trade

     The Institution of Slavery in Africa

     The Transatlantic Slave Trade

     Impact on African Societies

Viewpoints     European Descriptions of Timbuktu and Jenne

Listening to the Past     Duarte Barbosa on the Swahili City-States

Global Trade     Slaves

Individuals in Society     Olaudah Equiano 


20. The Islamic World Powers, 1300-1800

The Turkish Ruling Houses: The Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals

     The Ottoman Turkish Empire's Expansion

     The Ottoman Empire's Use of Slaves

     The Safavid Empire in Persia

     The Mughal Empire in India

Cultural Flowering

     The Arts

     City and Palace Building


     Intellectual Advances and Religious Trends

     Coffeehouses and Their Social Impact

Non-Muslims Under Muslim Rule

Shifting Trade Routes and European Penetration

     European Rivalry for Trade in the Indian Ocean

     Merchant Networks in the Islamic Empires

     From the British East India Company to the British Empire in India

Political Decline

Individuals in Society     HŸrrem

Viewpoints     Ottoman Travelers in Mughal and Safavid Lands

Listening to the Past     Katib Chelebi on Tobacco 


21. Continuity and Change in East Asia, 1400-1800

Ming China, 1368-1644

     The Rise of Zhu Yuanzhang and the Founding of the Ming Dynasty

     Problems with the Imperial Institution

     The Mongols and the Great Wall

     The Examination Life

     Everyday Life in Ming China

     Ming Decline

The Manchus and Qing China, to 1800

     The Rise of the Manchus

     Competent and Long-Lived Emperors

     Imperial Expansion

Japan's Middle Ages, ca. 1400-1600

     Muromachi Culture

     Civil War

     The Victors: Nobunaga and Hideyoshi

The Tokugawa Shogunate, to 1800

     Tokugawa Government

     Commercialization and the Growth of Towns

     The Life of the People in the Edo Period

Maritime Trade, Piracy, and the Entry of Europe into the Asian Maritime Sphere

     Zheng He's Voyages

     Piracy and Japan's Overseas Adventures Europeans Enter the Scene

     Christian Missionaries

     Learning from the West

     The Shifting International Environment in the Eighteenth Century

Individuals in Society     Tan Yunxian, Woman Doctor

Viewpoints     Chinese and Japanese Financial Advice

Listening to the Past     KeinenÕs Poetic Diary of the Korea Campaign 


22. Revolutions in the Atlantic World, 1775-1815

Background to Revolution

     Social Change

     Growing Demands for Liberty and Equality

     The Seven Years' War

The American Revolutionary Era, 1775-1789

     The Origins of the Revolution

     Independence from Britain

     Framing the Constitution

Revolution in France, 1789-1791

     Breakdown of the Old Order

     The Formation of the National Assembly

     Popular Uprising and the Rights of Man

     A Constitutional Monarchy and Its Challenges

World War and Republican France, 1791-1799

     The International Response

     The Second Revolution and the New Republic

     Total War and the Terror

     The Thermidorian Reaction and the Directory

Napoleon's Europe, 1799-1815

     Napoleon's Rule of France

     Napoleon's Expansion in Europe

     The Grand Empire and Its End

The Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804

     Revolutionary Aspirations in Saint-Domingue

     The Outbreak of Revolt

     The War of Haitian Independence

Listening to the Past     Abbe de Sieyes, "What Is the Third Estate?"

Viewpoints     The Question of Jewish Citizenship in France

Individuals in Society     Toussaint L'Ouverture 


23. The Revolution in Energy and Industry, 1760-1850

The Industrial Revolution in Britain

     Origins of the British Industrial Revolution

     The First Factories

     The Steam Engine Breakthrough

     The Coming of the Railroads

     Industry and Population

Industrialization Beyond Britain

     National and International Variations

     The Challenge of Industrialization in Continental Europe

     Agents of Industrialization

     Government Support and Corporate Banking

     The Situation Outside of Europe

Relations Between Capital and Labor

     The New Class of Factory Owners

     The New Factory Workers

     Work in Early Factories

     Working Families and Children

     The Sexual Division of Labor

     The Early Labor Movement in Britain

     The Impact of Slavery

Individuals in Society     Josiah Wedgwood

Viewpoints     Women's Role in Industrialized Europe

Listening to the Past     The Testimony of Young Mine Workers


24. Ideologies of Change in Europe, 1815-1914

A Conservative Peace Gives Way to Radical Ideas

     The European Balance of Power

     Coerced Conservatism after 1815

     Liberalism and the Middle Class

     The Growing Appeal of Nationalism

     The Birth of Socialism

Reforms and Revolutions, 1815-1850

     Liberal Reform in Great Britain

     Revolutions in France

     The Revolutions of 1848 in Central Europe

Nation Building in Italy, Germany, and Russia

     Cavour, Garibaldi, and the Unification of Italy

     Bismarck and German Unification

     The Modernization of Russia

Life in the Emerging Urban Society

     Taming the City

     New Social Hierarchies and the Middle Classes

     The People and Occupations of the Working Classes

     The Changing Family

     Science for the Masses

     Cultural Shifts

Nationalism and Socialism, 1871-1914

     Trends in Suffrage

     The German Empire

     Republican France

     Great Britain and the Austro-Hungarian Empire

     Jewish Emancipation and Modern Anti-Semitism

     The Socialist Movement

Individuals in Society     Giuseppe Garibaldi

Listening to the Past     Mrs. Beeton's Guide for Running a Victorian Household

Viewpoints     Socialist and Anti-Socialist Perspectives 


25. Africa, Southwest Asia, and the New Imperialism, 1800-1914

Africa: From the Slave Trade to European Colonial Rule

     Trade and Social Change

     Islamic Revival and Expansion in Africa

     The Scramble for Africa, 1880-1914

     Southern Africa in the Nineteenth Century

     Colonialism's Impact After 1900

The New Imperialism, 1880-1914

     Causes of the New Imperialism

     A "Civilizing Mission"

     Critics of Imperialism

     African and Asian Resistance

The Islamic Heartland Under Pressure

     Decline and Reform in the Ottoman Empire

     Egypt: From Reform to British Occupation

The Expanding World Economy

     The Rise of Global Inequality

The World Market

The Great Global Migration

Viewpoints     The Congo Free State

Listening to the Past     A French Leader Defends Imperialism

Individuals in Society     Muhammad Ali

Global Trade     Indigo 


26. Asia in the Era of Imperialism, 1800-1914

India and the British Empire in Asia

     The Evolution of British Rule

     The Socioeconomic Effects of British Rule

     The British and the Indian Educated Elite

Competition for Southeast Asia

     The Dutch East Indies

     Mainland Southeast Asia

     The Philippines

China Under Pressure

     The Opium War

     Internal Problems

     The Self-Strengthening Movement

     Republican Revolution

Japan's Rapid Transformation

     The "Opening" of Japan

     The Meiji Restoration


     Japan as an Imperial Power

The Movement of Peoples

     Westerners to Asia

     Asian Emigration

The Countries of Asia in Comparative Perspective

Viewpoints     Rammohun Roy and Thomas Babington Macauley on Education for Indians

Individuals in Society      Jose Rizal

Listening to the Past     Fukuzawa Yukichi, Escape from Asia


27. Nation Building in the Americas and Australia, 1770-1914

Latin America, 1800-1914

     The Origins of the Revolutions Against Colonial Powers

     Resistance, Rebellion, and Independence

     The Aftermath of Independence

     Neocolonialism and Its Socioeconomic Effects

     The Impact of Immigrants from Europe, Asia, and the Middle East

The United States, 1789-1914

     Manifest Destiny and Its Consequences for Native American

     Women's Roles in White Settlements

     Black Slavery in the South

     The Civil War and Its Impact

     Industrialization and the Formation of Large Corporations

     Immigrants and Their Reception

Canada, from French Colony to Nation

Australia, from Penal Colony to Nation

     A Distant Land Turned Penal Colony

     An Economy Built on Wool, Gold, and Immigrant Labor

     The Shaping of a Government and a National Identity

The New Countries from a Comparative Perspective

Viewpoints     Mexican and American Perspectives on the U.S.-Mexican War

Listening to the Past     Mary Seacole on Her Early Life

Individuals in Society     Henry Meiggs, Promoter and Speculator 


28. World War and Revolution, 1914-1929

The First World War, 1914-1918

     The Bismarckian System of Alliances

     The Outbreak of War

     Stalemate and Slaughter

     The War Becomes Global

The Home Front

     Mobilizing for Total War

     The Social Impact

     Growing Political Tensions

The Russian Revolution

     The Fall of Imperial Russia

     The Provisional Government

     Lenin and the Bolshevik Revolution

     Dictatorship and Civil War

The WarÕs Consequences

     The End of the War

     The Treaty of Versailles

     American Rejection of the Versailles Treaty

The Search for Peace and Political Stability, 1919-1929

     Germany and the Western Powers

     Hope in Foreign Affairs

     Hope in Democratic Government

The Age of Anxiety

     Uncertainty in Philosophy and Religion

     The New Physics

     Freudian Psychology

     Twentieth-Century Literature

     Modern Architecture, Art, and Music

     Movies and Radio

Viewpoints     Poetry of the Great War

Listening to the Past     The Experience of War

Individuals in Society     Vera Brittain 


29. Nationalism in Asia, 1914-1939

The First World War's Impact on Nationalist Trends

     Asian Reaction to the War in Europe

     The Mandates System

     Nationalism's Appeal

Nationalist Movements in the Middle East

     The Arab Revolt

     The Turkish Revolution

     Modernization Efforts in Persia and Afghanistan

     Gradual Independence in the Arab States

     Arab-Jewish Tensions in Palestine

Toward Self-Rule in India

     British Promises and Repression

     The Roots of Militant Nonviolence

     Gandhi's Resistance Campaign in India

Nationalist Struggles in East and Southeast Asia

     The Rise of Nationalist China

     China's Intellectual Revolution

     From Liberalism to Ultranationalism in Japan

     Japan Against China

     Striving for Independence in Southeast Asia

Listening to the Past     Resolution of the General Syrian Congress at Damascus

Viewpoints     Gandhi and Mao on Revolutionary Means

Individuals in Society     Ning Lao, a Chinese Working Woman


30. The Great Depression and World War II, 1929-1945

The Great Depression, 1929-1939

     The Economic Crisis

     Mass Unemployment

     The New Deal in the United States

     The European Response to the Depression

     Worldwide Effects

Authoritarian States

     Conservative Authoritarianism

     Radical Totalitarian Dictatorships

Stalin's Soviet Union

     From Lenin to Stalin

     The Five-Year Plans

     Life and Culture in Soviet Society

     Stalinist Terror and the Great Purges

Mussolini and Fascism in Italy

     The Seizure of Power

     The Regime in Action

Hitler and Nazism in Germany

     The Roots of Nazism

     Hitler's Road to Power

     The Nazi State and Society

     Hitler's Popularity

     Aggression and Appeasement, 1933-1939

The Second World War, 1939-1945

     Hitler's Empire in Europe, 1939-1942

     The Holocaust

     Japan's Asian Empire

     The Grand Alliance

     The War in Europe, 1942-1945

     The War in the Pacific, 1942-1945

Viewpoints     Hitler, Mussolini, and the Great War

Individuals in Society     Primo Levi

Listening to the Past     Ultranationalist Pamphlet for Japanese Students


31. Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers, 1945 to the Present

The Division of Europe

     The Origins of the Cold War

     West Versus East

Renaissance and Crisis in Western Europe

     The Postwar Challenge

     Building Europe and Decolonization

     The Changing Class Structure and Social Reform

     Economic and Social Dislocation, 1970-1990

Recovery and Reform in Soviet Eastern Europe, 1945-1991

     Stalin's Last Years

     Limited De-Stalinization and Stagnation

     The Impact of Reform on Everyday Life

     The Gorbachev Era

     The Revolutions of 1989

     The End of the Cold War and Soviet Disintegration

The United States: Confrontation and Transformation

    America's Economic Boom and Civil Rights Revolution

     Youth and the Counterculture

     The Vietnam War

     Detente and a Return to Cold War Tensions

Japan's Resurgence as a World Power

     Japan's American Revolution

     "Japan, Inc."

     Japan in the Post-Cold War World

The Post-Cold War Era in Europe

     Common Patterns and Problems

     Recasting Russia Without Communism

     Postcommunist Reconstruction in Eastern Europe

     Unity and Identity in Western Europe

Viewpoints     The Cold War Begins

Global Trade     Oil

Listening to the Past     A Solidarity Leader Speaks from Prison

Individuals in Society     Vaclav Havel 


32. Independence, Progress, and Conflict in Asia and the Middle East, 1945 to the Present

The Resurgence of East Asia

     The Communist Victory in China

     Mao's China

     The Limits of Reform

     The Asian "Economic Tigers"

     Political and Economic Progress in Southeast Asia

     The Reunification of Vietnam

New Nations and Old Rivalries in South Asia

     The End of British India

     Pakistan and the Creation of Bangladesh

     India Since Independence

Secularism and Religion at War in the Middle East

     The Arab-Israeli Conflict

     The Palestinian Quest for Independence

     Egypt: Arab World Leader

     A Fractured Lebanon

     Challenges to Turkey's Secularism

     Revolution and War in Iran and Iraq

Individuals in Society     Liu Xiaobo

Listening to the Past     Aung San Suu Kyi, "Freedom from Fear"

Viewpoints     Ho Chi Minh, Lyndon Johnson, and the Vietnam War 


33. The Global South: Latin America and Africa, 1945 to the Present

Latin America: Moving Toward Democracy

    Economic Nationalism in Mexico and Brazil

    Communist Revolution in Cuba

    From Authoritarianism to Democracy in Latin America

    Pan-Latin American Unity

Nationalism in Sub-Saharan Africa

     The Growth of African Nationalism

     Achieving Independence with New Leaders

     Ghana Shows the Way

     French-Speaking Regions

Sub-Saharan Africa Since 1960

     Striving for National Unity

     Nigeria, Africa's Giant

     The Struggle in Southern Africa

     Political Reform in Africa Since 1990

Interpreting the Experiences of the Emerging World

Individuals in Society      Evita Peron

Viewpoints    Ghanaian and South African Leaders on Black Nationalism

Listening to the Past     Nelson Mandela, The Struggle for Freedom in South Africa 


34. A New Era in World History

Global Unity or Continued Division?

     The United Nations

     Preemptive War in Iraq

     Complexity and Violence in a Multipolar World

     The Terrorist Threat

     Weapons of Mass Destruction

Global Interdependence

     Multinational Corporations

     Industrialization and Modernization

     Agriculture and the Green Revolution

     The Economics and Politics of Globalization

The Growth of Cities

     Rapid Urbanization

     Overcrowding and Shantytowns

     Rich and Poor

     Urban Migration and the Family

     Urbanization and Agriculture

Science and Technology: Changes and Challenges

     The Medical Revolution

     Population Change: Balancing the Numbers

     Global Epidemics


     Mass Communication

Social Reform and Progress

     Women: The Right to Equality

     Children: The Right to Childhood

Listening to the Past     The United Nations Millennium Project Report

Viewpoints     George W. Bush, Osama bin Laden, and the 9/11 Attacks

Global Trade     Arms

Individuals in Society     The Dalai Lama




Timeline A History of World Societies: An Overview

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