Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century

Overview

One of the most popular volumes in our European History Series, Bruce Pauley's inventive work continues to provide readers a unique interpretive comparison of the economics, propaganda, culture, and education and healthcare systems of all three forms of European totalitarianism, punctuated by vivid portraits of the dictators' youths, early careers, personal relationships, management styles, and cults of personality.

With so many totalitarian or near-totalitarian regimes ...

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Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini: Totalitarianism in the Twentieth Century

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Overview

One of the most popular volumes in our European History Series, Bruce Pauley's inventive work continues to provide readers a unique interpretive comparison of the economics, propaganda, culture, and education and healthcare systems of all three forms of European totalitarianism, punctuated by vivid portraits of the dictators' youths, early careers, personal relationships, management styles, and cults of personality.

With so many totalitarian or near-totalitarian regimes remaining in the world today or struggling to emerge from the shadows of totalitarianism, it is clear that one cannot dismiss the totalitarian dictatorships discussed in this book as mere intellectual curiosities with no relevance to the present. This newest edition of Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini includes entirely new maps and a number of new photographs, considers the very latest scholarship—much of which has been published since 2002—and provides fascinating new details including the use of terror, Stalin’s lack of preparedness for war in 1941, the attempted reforms of Nikita Krushchev and Mikhail Gorbachev, and the changes that have taken place in the former dictatorships since the turn of the twenty-first century.

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What People Are Saying

From the Publisher

"Crisply written and authoritative, Bruce Pauley’s updated edition of this classic text offers students an invaluable comparative account of the three great dictatorships of earlier twentieth century Europe. He takes his readers through the main historical debates while providing considered guidance to the wider literature."

-Professor Conan Fischer,
University of St Andrews, Scotland

"In this new edition of his classic text, Bruce Pauley puts the dominant figures of the horrific first half of twentieth-century Europe into a comparative perspective. Whoever wishes to understand totalitarianism and dictatorship must turn to Pauley’s book. One of the leading experts of European history, he provides his readers with magnificent portraits of the persons responsible for Europe’s darkest period."


-Anton Pelinka, Professor of
Nationalism Studies and Political Science, Central European University,
Budapest

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780882959931
  • Publisher: Harlan Davidson, Inc.
  • Publication date: 1/28/2003
  • Series: European History Ser.
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 313
  • Product dimensions: 5.40 (w) x 8.40 (h) x 0.70 (d)

Meet the Author

Bruce F. Pauley, Professor of History Emeritus at the University of Central Florida, is the author of six books on Nazism, anti-Semitism, totalitarianism, and the two world wars, as well as his autobiography, Pioneering History on Two Continents (2014).

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Table of Contents

List of Maps x

List of Plates xi

Preface xiii

1 The Ideological Foundations 1

Definitions of Totalitarianism 1

Marxism – Leninism – Stalinism 4

Fascism and Nazism 6

2 The Seizure of Power 12

Russia on the Eve of Revolution 13

The Establishment of the Soviet Dictatorship 16

The Failure of Liberal Italy 22

The Birth and Triumph of Fascism 26

Germany and the Impact of World War I 32

The Weimar Republic and the Rise of the Nazi Movement 38

The Great Depression and the Nazi Takeover 44

3 Personalities and Policies of the Dictators 51

Stalin’s Youth and Early Career 52

Stalin the Demigod 55

Mussolini: The Young Socialist 58

The Duce: Strengths and Weaknesses 63

The Young Hitler 65

Hitler: The Chaotic Dictator 69

Hitler’s Private Life and Relations with Women 73

4 Totalitarian Economies 77

The End of the New Economic Policy 78

Stalin’s War against the Peasants 80

The First Five-Year Plan and Industrialization 86

The Fascist Economy 89

The Economy of National Socialist Germany 94

5 Propaganda, Culture, and Education 102

The Limitations of Propaganda 103

Soviet Propaganda 105

Fascist Propaganda 107

Nazi Propaganda 109

Totalitarian Culture 114

Soviet Education 122

Education in the Fascist States 125

Youth Groups 128

6 Family Values and Health 134

The Conservative Trend in Values 135

Soviet Women: The Mixed Blessings of Emancipation 136

Fascist Italy: The Failure of Antifeminism 140

Women in Nazi Germany: Kinder, Kirche, und Küche? 144

Health and Eugenics in Nazi Germany 150

Religion: The Basic Incompatibility 153

7 Totalitarian Terror 162

The Great Purges in the Soviet Union 163

Terror and Persecution in the Fascist States 172

The Persecution of Jews 174

8 The Era of Traditional Diplomacy and War, 1933–1941 187

Hitler’s Foreign Policy Strategy 188

Hitler as “Peace Lover,” 1933–1935 193

From Ethiopia to Spain: Fascist Italy at War 195

Austria and Czechoslovakia: Hitler’s First Conquests 200

The Approach of War 206

The Blitzkrieg Campaigns 210

The Italian Intervention 216

9 Total War, 1941–1945 223

Hitler Turns East 226

Stalin’s Preparations for War 229

The Russian Campaign in 1941 235

Hitler and the Untermenschen 238

Hitler and Stalin as War Lords 242

The Fall of Fascism 249

The German Home Front 253

The War in the West 256

The End of the Third Reich 260

10 The Collapse of Soviet Totalitarianism 266

Stalin’s Last Years, 1945–1953 267

The Khrushchev Era 271

Reaction and Reform: From Brezhnev to Gorbachev 275

Problems of the Soviet Economy and Society 279

Soviet Women in the Last Years of the Regime 282

Soviet Society in the 1980s: The Balance Sheet 285

The Revolt of the Satellites and the Disintegration of the Soviet Union 286

The End of Soviet Totalitarianism 289

11 Lessons and Prospects 292

The Triumph of Dogmatism 294

The Structural Flaws of Totalitarianism 295

The Totalitarian Legacy 300

Bibliographical Essay 308

Index 338

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