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The practical reference guide on the integration of sustainable, high performance design covers major sustainability issues on an introductory level. Newly updated, this edition emphasizes the project process, cost implications, case studies, and lessons learned from HOK's wide range of project experiences. You'll find:
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What Is Sustainable Design?
Sustainability represents a balance that accommodates human needs without diminishing the health and productivity of natural systems. The American Institute of Architects defines sustainability as "the ability of society to continue functioning into the future without being forced into decline through exhaustion or overloading of the key resources on which that system depends."
In these times of rapidly rising world population, increased demand on scarce resources, and continued pollution, sustainability is quickly becoming the dominant issue of our time. It is an issue that each of us, individually and as institutional representatives, can and should address in our daily work.
Unfortunately, our current economic accounting system does not recognize the value of depleted resources or the cost of pollution and diminishing biodiversity. If it did, our current practices would no longer appear to be economically justifiable. However, the search for sustainability highlights waste and lost opportunities in our current practices that can serve as the engine for the development of improved solutions. Increasingly, people are realizing that environmental and economic sustainability go hand in hand.
While environmental and economic sustainability is the goal, sustainable design is the means we as designers have to contribute to that goal. Sustainable design moves away from extractive and disposable systems that are energy intensive, resource inefficient, and toxic toward cyclical, closed-loop systems that are restorative, dynamic, and flexible.
Environmental Impacts of Buildings and Construction
Buildings and construction contribute directly and indirectly to most of our environmental problems. Buildings are tremendous consumers of resources and generators of waste, and the industrial processes used to manufacture building materials and equipment contribute to waste and pollution as well. Buildings and the infrastructure that supports them consume open space and displace habitat. The quality of our indoor environments can inhibit productivity, and in some cases can even threaten our health.
According to the Worldwatch Institute, buildings in the United States use 17 percent of the total freshwater flows and 25 percent of harvested wood; they are responsible for 50 percent of CFC production, use 40 percent of the total energy flows, generate 33 percent of C[O.sub.2] emissions, and generate 40 percent of landfill material as a result of construction waste.
The environmental impacts of buildings are eroding our very quality of life. Our open space is being consumed by sprawl, and our communities are being overcome with traffic and congestion. According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), nearly one-third of all buildings suffer from "sick building" syndrome.
Opportunities for Improvement
The good news is that there are many ways to improve our work without increased costs or program sacrifices. By embracing sustainable land-use planning, habitat can be preserved and enhanced, and our communities made more livable. Sustainable design in buildings and construction requires a holistic view of land, infrastructure, and buildings in order to use material, energy, and water resources efficiently, improve the health of ecosystems, and address health issues relating to the indoor environment. For nearly every conventional building product and system used today there are environmentally preferable alternatives. In most cases, there are practical and affordable choices with significantly improved environmental performance.
Sustainable design can lead to a variety of economic benefits. These include the economic benefits of energy, water, and materials savings as well as reduced maintenance and other operational costs. There are also numerous studies that connect healthy buildings to increased productivity, with green buildings producing increases of from 2 percent to 15 percent. Environmentally friendly buildings provide additional benefits to building owners and occupants by limiting risks, such as liability due to poor indoor air quality. Finally, environmentally friendly buildings can contribute to positive public relations. Public concern about these issues will continue to grow, and with it will come increasing demand for solutions and support for those who are seeking those solutions.
Why We Wrote This Book
The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design was written to serve as a desktop reference for design professionals, including architects, MEP engineers, interior designers, site planners, landscape architects, civil engineers, and facility consultants. The guide was created by and for design professionals, to support our project work. As such, it is an ongoing work in progress that represents our evolving knowledge of these issues.
As we have been working to address sustainable design issues and opportunities in our work, we have come to understand that we need two things: a greater base of information to inform our decision making, and a revised and expanded design process. Both are needed; without a deeper understanding of the myriad impacts our buildings have on the global environment, our communities, and our homes and workplaces, we are unable to see where the opportunities are for improvement. Likewise, without a design process that is more inclusive and more rigorous in the pursuit of integrated design solutions that require multidisciplinary collaboration, sustainable design cannot be realized and developed fully.
We hope that this book will demystify the sustainable design process and make it more tangible to designers, facility managers, and owners alike. We have outlined a process for all members of the design team that provides specific guidance at each stage of the design process and highlights the collaboration required to create an integrated response.
How to Use This Book
The material in this book has been organized to allow for easy use as a reference document. This Introduction provides an overview of issues that includes "Ten Simple Things You Can Do," a list summarizing the broad range of issues designers should consider as part of a sustainable design approach. The following chapters describe sustainable design goal setting, the economics of green design, and the sustainable design process.
The second part of the book contains design guidance information, which is organized as a series of checklists and project actions. The checklists identify what needs to be done, phase by phase, to meet the project's sustainable design goals. The checklists enable all team members to keep track of issues; project managers can use the checklists to organize the design effort.
The project actions, on the other hand, provide detailed information on how each of the issues on the checklist should be implemented. A graphic key indicates which team members would typically be responsible for implementing the action. Actions that identify more than one responsible team member indicate that collaboration is called for to address the issue properly.
The third part of the book contains case studies of HOK projects in a uniform format that mirrors the format of the design guide. The projects that were selected represent both new construction and renovation projects for a broad range of project types, including office buildings, interiors, research laboratories, courthouses, museums, a stadium, a resort, and urban planning. While most of the projects are built, some of them are still in design or under construction at the time of this printing.
The last part of the book contains a detailed glossary and references for further research. The reference list of books, periodicals, and Internet sources is intentionally concise, to provide readers with our recommendation of the best and most accessible resources currently available.
10 TEN SIMPLE THINGS YOU CAN DO
1 Select and Develop Sites to Promote Livable Communities
Consider regional land-use patterns and impacts to the watershed and wildlife habitat when selecting sites. Seek out opportunities to redevelop existing sites, structures, and infrastructure. Develop links to public transit and strategies to develop pedestrian-friendly, mixed-use communities. Provide areas of dedicated open space, and green-ways and flyways for wildlife.
2 Develop Flexible Designs to Enhance Building Longevity
Consider future needs and design in the flexibility to accommodate them through the use of modular planning and flexible building infrastructures for HVAC, power, and communications. Design for ease of expansion.
3 Use Natural Strategies to Protect and Restore Water Resources
Design the site to limit disruption to existing vegetated areas, and use natural storm-water treatment systems such as bioretention, bioswales, pervious paving, and vegetated rooftops to purify runoff and promote groundwater recharge.
4 Improve Energy Efficiency While Ensuring Thermal Comfort
Improve the building envelope and develop passive solar strategies to improve comfort and reduce energy demand first; then optimize energy efficiency of HVAC systems. Use energy analysis to refine the design, and utilize full systems building commissioning to ensure that systems perform as designed. Coordinate daylighting with high-efficiency electric lighting and smart controls.
5 Reduce Environmental Impacts Related to Energy Use
Explore opportunities to reduce reliance on fossil fuels and to use cleaner sources of power. Consider cogeneration, fuel cells, photovoltaics, solar hot water, and other renewable energy sources, and explore opportunities to use green power. When evaluating building systems options, consider overall source energy usage.
6 Promote Occupant Health and Well-being in the Indoor Environment
Enhance the indoor environment by providing a connection to nature and daylight, improved lighting and acoustics, and improved indoor air quality. Develop systems and detailing to ensure thermal comfort and avoid future microbial contamination. Use natural ventilation and/or HVAC systems that promote effective ventilation, and consider systems that promote occupant control.
7 Conserve Water and Consider Water Reuse Systems
Conserve water with the use of low-flow plumbing fixtures and water-efficient appliances and HVAC equipment. Consider collection of rainwater, reuse of gray water for nonpotable uses, and constructed wetlands for natural wastewater treatment.
8 Use Environmentally Preferable Building Materials
Evaluate the environmental impacts, resource efficiency, and performance of proposed building materials over their full life cycle. Seek out nontoxic materials from local, renewable, sustainably acquired resources that minimize waste and pollution from manufacturing, installation, and maintenance. Use wood products from independently certified sustainably managed sources.
9 Use Appropriate Plant Material
Use plant material native to the region's climate, soils, and water availability to ensure survival while reducing maintenance and irrigation requirements. Use native species to the greatest extent possible. Explore opportunities to provide habitat for wildlife and to restore degraded site areas.
10 Plan for Recycling During Construction, Demolition, and Occupancy
Provide collection bins for recyclable materials at the point of use on each floor, and a staging area for materials collection at the loading dock. Where appropriate, consider vertical chutes to make collection easier. Require contractors to develop a construction waste management plan prior to construction that identifies licensed companies to recycle materials.
Excerpted from The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design by Sandra F. Mendler William Odell Excerpted by permission.
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.
Foreword by Paul Hawken.
Foreword to the First Edition by Ray C. Anderson.
Chapter 1: Introduction.
The New Design Process: Ten Key Steps.
Chapter 2: Process Guidance.
Cross-Reference LEED-NC Version 2.2 to Related Project Actions.
Step 1. Project Definition.
Step 2. Team Building.
Step 3. Education and Goal Setting.
Step 4. Site Evaluation.
Step 5. Baseline Analysis.
Step 6. Design Concept.
Step 7. Design Optimization.
Step 8. Documents and Specifications.
Step 9. Bidding and Construction.
Step 10. Postoccupancy.
Chapter 3: Considerations by Building Type.
Detention and Correctional Facilities.
Health Care Facilities.
Chapter 4: Case Studies.
40 Grosvenor Place, London, England, United Kingdom.
55 Ninth Street—State Fund Headquarters Expansion, San Francisco, California.
Edificio Malecon, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Government of Canada Building, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.
JohnsonDiversey Global Headquarters, Racine, Wisconsin.
National Wildlife Federation New Headquarters Office Building, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental Research Center, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.
Winrock International Global Headquarters, Little Rock, Arkansas.
World Resources Institute, Headquarters Office Interiors, Washington, D.C.
Emory University Whitehead Biomedical Research Building, Atlanta, Georgia.
San Mateo County Sheriff’s Forensic Laboratory and Coroner’s Office, San Mateo, California.
University ofWisconsin, Green Bay, Mary Ann Cofrin Hall, Green Bay,Wisconsin.
Missouri Historical Society, Emerson Electric Center, St. Louis, Missouri.
Alfred A. Arraj United States Courthouse, Denver, Colorado.
Santa Clarita Transit Maintenance Facility, Santa Clarita, California.
Telstra Stadium (formerly Stadium Australia), Homebush Bay, Sydney, Australia.
Lavasa Master Plan, Mose Valley (Pune), Maharashtra, India.
Villa Erques Eco-Resort, Tenerife, Canary Islands.
Top Sustainable Design Internet Resources.
Sustainable Design Resources in Print.
Posted March 26, 2008
As a senior vice president and firmwide sustainable design director at HOK, Mary Ann Lazarus combined her expertise with the professional experience of the other two design principals and leaders of sustainable design at HOK, Sandra F. Mendler and William Odell, in 'The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design.' 'The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design' is one of the most comprehensive books on LEED and sustainable design. It is not a LEED AP exam prep book. It is a book to assist you in doing actual sustainable design. It covers checklists of actions and how-to information arranged by the LEED® categories (SS: sustainable sites, WE: water efficiency, EA: energy & atmosphere, MR: materials & resources, and EQ: indoor environmental quality), 'Ten Key Steps' for the design process, specific guidance for sustainable design per building type, and 18 useful case studies from HOK's real projects. 'The HOK Guidebook to Sustainable Design' has 480 pages and many color interior photos. It is a must-have for design professionals and one of the best books on LEED and green building design.Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.