The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath

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The Holocaust: Roots, History, and Aftermath takes a fresh, probing look at one of the greatest human tragedies in modern history. Author David M. Crowe begins with a detailed overview of the history of the Jews, their two-millennia-old struggle with a larger Christian world, and the historical anti-Semitism that created the environment that helped pave the way for the Holocaust.

But it would take more than traditional prejudices to bring Europe to the edge of the Shoah. It would take someone like Adolf Hitler, who blended his own hatred of the Jews with contemporary ideas about eugenics, Aryan racial superiority, and German nationalistic frustration with the post-1918 Weimar democratic experiment, to bring to life the Nazi racial policies that led to the Final Solution—the mass murder of all of the Jews in Europe. Crowe analyzes the complex origins and evolution of these policies not only toward the Jews, the Nazis’ principal victims, but also toward the Roma, the handicapped, and other groups deemed racial or biological threats to Hitler’s goal of creating an Aryan-pure Europe. He discusses the spread of these policies in Germany as well as throughout Europe and concludes with a detailed discussion of liberation, Displaced Persons and the founding of Israel, the major war crimes investigations and trials, and continuing international efforts to bring Nazi war criminals to justice.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

“A work of exceptional breadth, clarity and rich detail that will engage beginning students and will be an invaluable resource for advanced students seeking a synthesis of the complex history of the Holocaust. This outstanding text is shaped equally by brilliant pedagogical organization and meticulous scholarship.”
Marilyn J. Harran, Professor of Religious Studies and History; Director, Rodgers Center for Holocaust Education, Chapman University

“Professor Crowe has produced a compelling and up-to-date history of the Holocaust, one that is clearly written and comprehensive. He begins by examining the origins of the ‘longest hatred’ of the Jews, proceeds to carry the reader through the subsequent horrors of the persecution, and ends with the war crimes trials of the perpetrators. Students will be in his debt.”
Karl A. Schleunes, University of North Carolina at Greensboro; author of The Twisted Road to Auschwitz and Legislating the Holocaust

“David M. Crowe’s The Holocaust is a comprehensive and clear history of the much studied event. Subtitled Roots, History, and Aftermath, it delivers on that ambitious promise by exploring the antecedents and consequences of the Holocaust as well as the murder of the European Jews. The quality work of a mature scholar, Crowe’s insights are balanced and nuanced, informed by deep learning and well documented in primary and secondary sources. The book will serve both students and scholars well. Both will appreciate his mastery of complex material and his ability to concisely consider even the most controversial of debates. A detailed work that never gets lost in its detail, it offers precision yet never loses sight of the larger story that must be told and retold.”
Michael Berenbaum, Director, Sigi Ziering Institute; Professor of Jewish Studies, American Jewish University; Former Project Director and Director of the Research Institute, US Holocaust Memorial Museum

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780813343259
  • Publisher: Westview Press
  • Publication date: 1/22/2008
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 528
  • Sales rank: 150,948
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

David M. Crowe is President Emeritus of the Association for the Study of Nationalities at Columbia University and a member of the Education Committee of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C. He is currently a Fellow at the Center for Slavic, Eurasian, and East European Studies at the University of North at Carolina at Chapel Hill. His award-winning books include A History of the Gypsies of Eastern Europe and Russia and The Baltic States and the Great Powers: Foreign Relations, 1938-1940. He teaches at Elon University and its school of law.
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Table of Contents



1 Jewish History: Ancient Beginnings and the Evolution of Christian Anti-Judaic Prejudice Through the Reformation
Jewish Beginnings
The Jews, Hellenism, and the Maccabean (Hasmonean) Rebellion
Roots of Anti-Jewish Sentiment: The Jewish-Greek Conflict
Judaism, Jews, and the Coming of Christianity
The Jewish War and the Great Revolt (66–70 C.E.)
Judaism, Christianity, and the Bar Kochba Rebellion
Constantine, Christianity, and the Jews
Jews in the Last Century of the Western Roman Empire
Jews in Early Medieval Europe and the Byzantine Empire
The Crusades and the Jews of the Mediterranean World
Pope Innocent III and the Jews
Medieval Usury: Christians and Jews
The Myth of Ritual Murder
The Deadly Centuries: The Jews at the End of the Middle Ages
The Expulsion of the Jews from Western Europe
The Black Death
The Final Humiliation: Expulsion from Spain and Portugal
The Protestant Reformation
The Roman Catholic Church, the Jews, and the Counter
Sources for Further Study and Research

2 Jews, the Enlightenment, Emancipation, and the Rise of Racial Anti-Semitism Through the Early Twentieth Century
The Jews in Post-Reformation Europe
The Enlightenment
The French Revolutions of 1789–1799, Napoleon I, and the Jews
The Jews in Post-Napoleonic Europe
The Intellectual and Nationalistic Origins of Anti-Semitism in the Nineteenth Century
Political Anti-Semitism in Germany, Austria, France, and Russia Prior to World War I
The Protocols of the Elders of Zion
Sources for Further Study and Research

3 The World of Adolf Hitler, 1889–1933: War, Politics, and Anti-Semitism
Adolf Hitler: Family Roots and Questions of Jewish Ancestry
Hitler’s Early Life
Hitler’s Vienna Years
Hitler, Munich, and German Anti-Semitism
Hitler and World War I
Hitler, Versailles, and the Early Weimar Republic
Hitler, the Early Nazi Party, and Anti-Semitism

Sources for Further Study and Research

4 The Nazis in Power, 1933–1939: Eugenics, Race, and Biology; Jews, the Handicapped, and the Roma
Germany’s Interwar Jewish Community
The Nazification of Germany and the “Jewish Question”: 1933–1935
The Nuremberg Laws
The Nazi Aryan Olympics (1936)
Aryanization and the Road to Kristallnacht
The Early Campaign of Forced Sterilization
Euthanasia: Theory and Nazi Practice
The Roma (Gypsies)
Homosexuals, or Gays
Sources for Further Study and Research

5 Nazi Germany at War, 1939–1941: “Euthanasia” and the Handicapped; Ghettos and Jews
Children’s “Euthanasia” Program
Adult “Euthanasia” Program
The Road to War and the German Invasion of Poland
Racial War in Poland: Polish Christians
The Creation of the General Government: Nazi Germany’s
“Racial Laboratory”
The Jews in Interwar Poland
The War Against the Jews in Poland
The Physical and Economic Exploitation of the Jews in the
General Government
The Nisko Plan, the Lublin Reservation, and Madagascar
The Madagascar Plan
The Creation of the Ghettos in German-Occupied Poland
Lodz (Litzmannstadt): Jews and Roma
Kraków (Cracow)
Rule, Life, and Work in the Kraków Ghetto
Forced Labor and Food
Sources for Further Study and Research

6 The Invasion of the Soviet Union and the Path to the “Final Solution”
Jews in Soviet-Conquered Territory
Zwartendijk and Sugihara: Righteous Gentiles in Vilnius
Operation Barbarossa and Plans for Mass Murder
The Einsatzgruppen
The Wehrmacht
The German Invasion of the Soviet Union
Early German Killing Operations in the Soviet Union
Collaboration in Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine
Hungarian and Romanian Collaboration
The Roma and the Handicapped
Sources for Further Study and Research

7 The “Final Solution,” 1941–1944: Death Camps and Experiments with Mass Murder
Planning for the Final Solution
The Transfers from the Greater Reich
Experiments with the Machinery of Death
The Wannsee Conference
The Final Solution
The Aktion Reinhard Death Camps: Belzec, Sobibór, and
The Factory of Death: Auschwitz II-Birkenau
The Gypsy Family Camp
Medical Experiments in Auschwitz I and II
Auschwitz III-Buna/Monowitz
Resistance in Auschwitz
Liquidation of the Major Ghettos
Sources for Further Study and Research

8 The Final Solution in Western Europe and the Nazi-Allied States
The Holocaust in Western Europe
Belgium and Luxembourg
The Netherlands
The Nazi-Allied States
Protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia and Slovakia
The Roma in the Protectorate
The Roma
The Roma
Yugoslavia (Croatia and Serbia)
The NDH (Croatia)

Sources for Further Study and Research

9 The Holocaust and the Role of Europe’s Neutrals: Then and Now
Europe’s Neutrals
The Vatican

Sources for Further Study and Research

10 Liberation, DPs, and the Search for Justice: War Crimes Investigations and Trials in Europe, the United States, and Israel
Liberation of the Camps
Displaced Persons: Jews and Roma
The Trials of the Major War Criminals
The Federal Republic of Germany
War Crimes Investigations and Trials in Western Europe
War Crimes Trials in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union
Sources for Further Study and Research

Appendix A—Estimates of Jewish Deaths During the Holocaust
Appendix B—Estimates of Roma Deaths During the Holocaust
Appendix C—Yad Vashem: Righteous Among the Nations
Appendix D—SS Ranks
Appendix E—German Army Ranks

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