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Completely revised and updated to take full account of the most recent advances, the...
Completely revised and updated to take full account of the most recent advances, the new edition of this established text includes substantial material on scientific progress in the understanding of climate change and abrupt climatic events, of disturbance effects on the landscape, and of ice core records. Not only have improved dating methods, such as luminescence, been included but the timescale for the book has been moved to calendar (i.e. real) years. Coverage and supporting case study material have also been broadened and extended.
“This excellent book should be mandatory reading for any student taking a palaeobased environmental change module, and academics will also very much enjoy reading Neil Roberts’ fine prose.” (The Holocene, 1 October 2014)
Preface to the Second Edition.
Sources of Information on Past Environments.
Nature and Society.
The Significance of the Holocene.
2. Reconstructing Holocene Environments:.
Dating the Past.
Radiometric Dating Methods.
Dendrochronology and Radiocarbon Calibration.
Other Incremental Dating Methods.
Principles of Pollen Analysis.
Pollen, Climate and Human Impact.
Plant Macrofossils and Charcoal. Geological Techniques.
Stable Isotope Analysis.
Geomorphology and Climate.
Models of Environmental Reconstruction.
3. The Pleistocene Prelude (11,500 Cal. yr BP):.
The Glacial-Interglacial Cycle.
Understanding the Causes of Long-Term Climatic Change.
The Last Glacial Maximum and After.
The Terminal Pleistocene (16,000-11,5000 Cal. yr BP).
The Late-Glacial in the British Isles.
Terminal Pleistocene Climatic Oscillation: Global or Regional?.
Adjustment of Geomorphic Systems.
Human Ecology at the End of the Pleistocene.
4. Early Holocene Adaptations (11,500-5000 Cal. yr BP):.
Changes in the Physical Environment.
Ice Sheets and Sea Levels.
Human Adaptations to Coastal Environments.
Lake Ontogeny and Soil Development.
The Return of the Forests.
Europe. Eastern North America.
Dry Mediterranean Woodland.
Factors Affecting Forest Re-Advance.
The Ecology of Mesolithic Europe.
The Early Holocene in the Tropics.
Early Holocene Climates: Pattern and Process.
5. The First Farmers:.
Mesoamerica. China and Southeast Asia.
Independent Innovation or Diffusion?.
The Role of Environmental Change in Early Agriculture.
Case Study: Ain Mallaha Çatalhöyük.
Early Agricultural Impacts.
European Agricultural Dispersals.
Ecological Consequences of Early European Agriculture.
6. The Taming of Nature (5000-500 Cal. yr BP):.
Changes in the Natural Environment.
Climate and Vegetation.
The Origin and Development of Blanket Mires.
Coasts and Rivers.
Hydraulic Civilization in Mesopotamia.
Environmental Impact in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.
Pastoral Nomadism. Expansion at the Periphery.
Conquest of the Northlands.
The Making of the Landscape: the British Isles.
The Primaeval Forest.
Shaugh Moor: a Bronze Age Landscape.
The Environmental Impact of Permanent Agricultural Clearance.
7. The Impact of Modern Times (500-0 Cal. yr BP):.
Climatic Changes in Historical Times.
Land Use History and Soil Erosion.
Eutrophication: Natural or Cultural?.
Acidification and Atmospheric Pollution.
8. The Environmental Future: A Holocene Perspective:.
Holocene Environmental Crises.
Environmental Conservation and Holocene History.
Appendix: Calibration Table for Radiocarbon Ages.