Homeland Security: The Essentials

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Homeland Security: The Essentials sets a new standard for security textbooks, concisely outlining the risks facing the US today and the structures we have put in place to deal with them. The authors expertly delineate the bedrock principles of preparing for, mitigating, managing, and recovering from emergencies and disasters. From cyber warfare to devastating tornados to car bombs, all hazards currently fall within the purview of the Department of Homeland Security. Yet the federal role must be closely aligned with the work of partners in the private sector, and the authors examine the challenges involved in these collaborative efforts. Homeland Security: The Essentials lays a solid foundation for the study of present and future threats to our communities and to national security, and challenges readers to imagine more effective ways to manage these risks.

As with Bullock's other textbooks, the text contains ample full-color illustrations, but in a streamlined and affordable paperback format.

  • Highlights and expands on key content from the bestselling textbook Introduction to Homeland Security, 4th Edition.
  • Concisely delineates the bedrock principles of preparing for, mitigating, managing, and recovering from emergencies and disasters.
  • Instructor materials include Learning Library modules to support writing, critical thinking, and research skills.
  • Instructor websites offer valuable material for expanding the curriculum, including an Instructor's Guide, test banks, PPT Lecture Slides, and Interactive Video.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780124158030
  • Publisher: Elsevier Science
  • Publication date: 10/29/2012
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 384
  • Sales rank: 781,438
  • Product dimensions: 7.80 (w) x 9.40 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

Jane A. Bullock has worked in emergency management for over 20 years most recently as the Chief of Staff to James Lee Witt the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). In this position Ms. Bullock served as principal advisor to the Director on all Agency programmatic and administrative activities, provided advice and recommendations to the Director on policies required to carry out the mission of the agency; managed the day-to-day operations of the Agency; directed, monitored, and evaluated Agency strategic and communication processes; and oversaw administration of the Agency’s resources, including the disaster relief fund. Represented the Director and the Administration with Congress, State and municipal governments, foreign officials, constituent groups and the media. Served as a principal spokesperson for the Agency’s programs both before, during and after disasters. Chief architect of FEMA’s Project Impact: Building Disaster Resistant Communities, a nationwide effort by communities and businesses to implement prevention and risk reduction programs. Principal on a project to create National Disaster Response and Mitigation system for Argentina and in six Central American and Caribbean countries. Served as part of the Clinton Administration’s communications team for the Y2K issue.

George Haddow currently serves as an Adjunct Professor at the Homeland Security Studies program at Tulane University in New Orleans, LA. Prior to jpining academia, Mr. Haddow worked for eight years in the Office of the Director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) as the White House Liaison and the deputy Chief of Staff. He is a founding partner of Bullock and Haddow LLC, a disaster management consulting firm.

Damon P. Coppola is a Systems Engineer and a Senior Associate with Bullock and Haddow LLC, a disaster management consulting firm. He has extensive experience in disaster preparedness and planning through his work with the World Bank Group; The Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management; the US Army Corps of Engineers; and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, among others. Mr. Coppola is the author of Introduction to International Disaster Management (Butterworth-Heinemann), and co-author of Introduction to Homeland Security (Butterworth-Heinemann) and Hazards Risk Management (The Federal Emergency Management Agency). He has also been published in several industry journals, including Disaster Prevention and Management, The Beacon, The American Society of Professional Emergency Planners Journal, and The International Association of Emergency Managers Newsletter, among others. Mr. Coppola holds an M.E.M in Crisis, Emergency, and Risk Management from George Washington University.

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Read an Excerpt

Homeland Security

The Essentials
By Jane A. Bullock George D. Haddow Damon P. Coppola


Copyright © 2013 Elsevier, Inc.
All right reserved.

ISBN: 978-0-12-415868-9

Chapter One

Homeland Security: The Concept, the Organization

What You Will Learn

• What was the history behind the establishment of homeland security

• How events have altered the concept of homeland security

• What is the homeland security enterprise (HSE)

• How the concept of a homeland security enterprise has changed priorities

• How other agencies and entities besides DHS contribute to the homeland security enterprise


In the immediate aftermath of the September 11, 2001 attacks, as search-and-rescue teams were still sifting through the debris and wreckage for survivors in New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, the federal government was analyzing what had just happened and what it could quickly do to begin the process of ensuring such attacks could not be repeated. It was recognized that nothing too substantial could take place without longer-term study and congressional review, but the circumstances mandated that real changes begin without delay.

The idea of homeland security was primarily the result of the White House, the federal government, and the U.S. Congress's reactions to September 11 events. However, the movement to establish such broad-sweeping measures was initiated long before those attacks took place. Domestic and international terrorists have been striking Americans, American facilities, and American interests, both within and outside the nation's borders, for decades — though only fleeting interest was garnered in the aftermath of these events. Support for counterterrorism programs and legislation was, therefore, rather weak, and measures that did pass rarely warranted front-page status. Furthermore, the institutional cultures that characterized many of the agencies affected by this emerging threat served as a resilient barrier to the fulfillment of goals. Only the spectacular nature of the September 11 terrorist attacks was sufficient to boost the issue of terrorism to primary standing on all three social agendas: the public, the political, and the media.

Out of the tragic events of September 11, an enormous opportunity for improving the social and economic sustainability of our communities from all threats, but primarily terrorism, was envisioned and identified as homeland security. Public safety officials and emergency managers championed the concept of an all-hazards approach, and despite some unique characteristics, they felt terrorism could be incorporated into that approach as well (Figure 1–1).

However, in the immediate aftermath of 9/11, the single issue of preventing a future terrorist attack was foremost in the minds of federal officials and legislators. On September 20, 2001, just 9 days after the attacks, President George W. Bush announced that an Office of Homeland Security would be established within the White House by executive order. Directing this office would be Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge. Ridge was given no real staff to manage, and the funding he would have at his disposal was minimal. The actual order, cataloged as Executive Order 13228, was given on October 8, 2001. In addition to creating the Office of Homeland Security, this order created the Homeland Security Council, "to develop and coordinate the implementation of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States from terrorist threats or attacks."

Four days later, on September 24, 2001, President Bush announced that he would be seeking passage of an act entitled "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism," which would become better known as the PATRIOT Act of 2001. This act, which introduced a large number of controversial legislative changes in order to significantly increase the surveillance and investigative powers of law enforcement agencies in the United States (as it states) to "... deter and punish terrorist acts in the United States and around the world," was signed into law by the president on October 26 after very little deliberation in Congress.

On October 29, 2001, President Bush issued the first of many homeland security presidential directives (HSPDs), which were specifically designed to "record and communicate presidential decisions about the homeland security policies of the United States" (HSPD-1, 2001). Among the HSPD issued post September 11 include:

• HSPD-1: Organization and Operation of the Homeland Security Council. Ensures coordination of all homeland security-related activities among executive departments and agencies and promote the effective development and implementation of all homeland security policies.

• HSPD-2: Combating Terrorism Through Immigration Policies. Provides for the creation of a task force which will work aggressively to prevent aliens who engage in or support terrorist activity from entering the United States and to detain, prosecute, or deport any such aliens who are within the United States.

• HSPD-3: Homeland Security Advisory System. Establishes a comprehensive and effective means to disseminate information regarding the risk of terrorist acts to Federal, State, and local authorities and to the American people.

• HSPD-4: National Strategy to Combat Weapons of Mass Destruction. Applies new technologies, increases emphasis on intelligence collection and analysis, strengthens alliance relationships, and establishes new partnerships with former adversaries to counter this threat in all of its dimensions.

• HSPD-5: Management of Domestic Incidents. Enhances the ability of the United States to manage domestic incidents by establishing a single, comprehensive national incident management system.

• HSPD-6: Integration and Use of Screening Information. Provides for the establishment of the Terrorist Threat Integration Center.

• HSPD-7: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection. Establishes a national policy for federal departments and agencies to identify and prioritize United States critical infrastructure and key resources and to protect them from terrorist attacks.

• Presidential Policy Directive/PPD-8: National Preparedness. Aimed at strengthening the security and resilience of the United States through systematic preparation for the threats that pose the greatest risk to the security of the nation, including acts of terrorism, cyberattacks, pandemics, and catastrophic natural disasters.

• HSPD-18: Medical Countermeasures Against Weapons of Mass Destruction. Establishes policy guidelines to draw upon the considerable potential of the scientific community in the public and private sectors to address medical countermeasure requirements relating to CBRN threats.

• HSPD-19: Combating Terrorist Use of Explosives in the United States. Establishes a national policy, and calls for the development of a national strategy and implementation plan, on the prevention and detection of, protection against, and response to terrorist use of explosives in the United States.

• HSPD-20: National Continuity Policy. Establishes a comprehensive national policy on the continuity of federal government structures and operations and a single national continuity coordinator responsible for coordinating the development and implementation of federal continuity policies.

These actions were followed closely by organizational changes. The legislation to establish a Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was first introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives by Texas Representative Richard K. Armey on June 24, 2002. Similar legislation was introduced into the Senate soon after. After differences between the two bills were quickly ironed out, the Homeland Security Act of 2002 (P.L. 107–296) was passed by both houses and signed into law by President Bush on November 25, 2002.

Creating DHS would provide the United States with a huge law enforcement capability that would deter, prepare, and prevent any future September 11 type events. Agencies such as Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) became part of DHS because it was responsible for the consequences to our communities of natural and technological disasters, and had played a major role in providing federal assistance to recover from the previous terrorist events on U.S. soil: the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and the Murrah Federal Building bombing.

Prior to 9/11, the majority of FEMA's efforts and funding were focused on the mitigation of, preparedness for, response to, and recovery from natural disasters. Much of this changed with the establishment of DHS. Many, if not all, of the grant programs established within the new DHS focused on terrorism. The all-hazards concept was not embraced in the early years of DHS. State and local governments, who were more concerned about their flooding or hurricane threat, had to focus on terrorism.

The decision of the 1980s to focus on nuclear attack planning led to the botched response to Hurricane Andrew, under the first Bush administration. The decision by the leadership of DHS to focus on terrorism, at the expense of other threats, and to diminish the role of FEMA, led directly to the horrible events and aftermath of Hurricane Katrina (Figure 1–2).

Hurricane Katrina, which struck on August 29, 2005, and resulted in the death of over 1,800 people (and the destruction of billions of dollars in housing stock and other infrastructure), exposed significant problems with the United States' emergency management framework. Clearly, the terrorism focus had been maintained at the expense of preparedness and response capacity for other hazards, namely the natural disasters that have proven to be much more likely to occur. FEMA, and likewise DHS, were highly criticized by the public and by Congress in the months following the 2005 hurricane season. In response, Congress passed the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act (H.R. 5441, Public Law 109–295), signed into law by the president on October 4, 2006.

This law established several new leadership positions within the Department of Homeland Security, moved additional functions into (several were simply returned) FEMA, created and reallocated functions to other components within DHS, and amended the Homeland Security Act in ways that directly and indirectly affected the organization and functions of various entities within DHS.

In passing this Act, Congress reminded DHS that the natural disaster threats to the United States were every bit as real as the terrorist threats and required changes to the organization and operations of DHS to provide a more balanced approach to the concepts of homeland security in addressing the threats impacting the United States.

The Obama Administration is building on the past efforts of the Bush Administration to understand and implement a more balanced, universal approach to homeland security. This balanced approach is reflected in the first ever Quadrennial Homeland Security Review (QHSR) published by the Obama Administration and DHS in February 2010. In the years since the events of September 11 and the establishment of DHS, knowledge and recognition of the real scope of threats and hazards to the United States has greatly increased.

When we look at how fast ideas, goods, and people move around the world and through the Internet, we recognize that this flow of materials is critical to the economic stability and the advancement of the U.S. interests. However, this globalization of information and commerce creates new security challenges that are borderless and unconventional. As evidenced by the U.S. and Europe an economic recession and the Arab Spring, both of 2011, entire economies and groups organized through social media and the criminal networks and terrorist organizations now have the ability to impact the world with farreaching effects, including those that are potentially disruptive and destructive to our way of life.

Homeland security is certainly becoming tied to the impacts of globalization. The table below reflects the thinking represented in the QHSR.

Critical Thinking

Can you identify the reasons why FEMA should not have been incorporated into the new DHS?

A New Concept of Homeland Security

Reflecting the increasingly complex issues surrounding homeland security, the recently completed QHSR has revised the definition of homeland security to incorporate a more global and comprehensive approach. They have now chosen to use a more comprehensive term to categorize homeland security activities and this term is the "homeland security enterprise (HSE).


Excerpted from Homeland Security by Jane A. Bullock George D. Haddow Damon P. Coppola Copyright © 2013 by Elsevier, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of ELSEVIER. All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Homeland Security: The Concept, the Organization Chapter 2: Historic Overview of the Terrorist Threat Chapter 3: Hazards Chapter 4: Governmental Homeland Security Structures Chapter 5: Intelligence and Counterterrorism Chapter 6: Border Security, Immigration, and Customs Enforcement Chapter 7: Transportation Safety and Security Chapter 8: Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure Protection Chapter 9: All-Hazards Emergency Response and Recovery Chapter 10: Mitigation, Prevention, and Preparedness Chapter 11: Communications Chapter 12: Science and Technology Chapter 13: The Future of Homeland Security

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