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The definitive guide to the homeland security enterprise—updated with critical changes in missions, tactics, and strategies
“[T]he best. . . .The book is extremely well organized for an undergraduate class in homeland security.” —Homeland Security Affairs
“Homeland Security is much more than a textbook. It is an indispensable reference resource for those seeking to understand how terrorists operate and the structures and mechanisms that have been developed to respond to the magnitude of the terrorist threats confronting us.”
—The Washington Times
Homeland Security: A Complete Guide is the authoritative guide to the history, mission, and evolution of the national homeland security enterprise, including federal, state, local, and private sector efforts. Whether you’re a first responder, corporate executive, government official, or concerned citizen, this book provides a comprehensive understanding of U.S. homeland security and your own role in preparing for and responding to terrorism and disasters.
Since publication of the previous edition in 2005, the Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and the broader homeland security enterprise have grown to cover “all hazards” and respond to emerging threats and policies.
Documenting and analyzing these trends, this new edition of Homeland Security: A
Complete Guide has been expanded and updated to include:
New insights from the authors’ close contacts with high-level government and business officials
Late-breaking academic research, government reports, and examples from the field
Lessons learned from foiled terror plots, natural disasters, and the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq
The use of emerging technologies by terrorists and responders alike
Controversies surrounding civil liberties, airport security, immigration, and government funding
An ideal resource for academic and training classrooms, Homeland Security: A Complete
Guide includes an overview, learning objectives, source documents, discussion topic, summary, and quiz for each chapter.
Mark A. Sauter is a senior managing director of Spectrum Capital Advisors and graduate of Harvard University (MCL), the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism, and DHS CERT training. He also served as a U.S. Army infantry and Special Forces officer. A witness to disasters from hurricanes to forest fires, he experienced terrorism firsthand on 9/11 while living in downtown Manhattan.
James Jay Carafano is the deputy director of The Kathryn and Shelby Cullom Davis Institute for International Studies and director of the Douglas and Sarah Allison Center for Foreign Policy Studies at The Heritage Foundation. His research focuses on developing the national security required to secure the long-term interests of the United States.
Many Americans assume the 9/11 attacks represented an entirely new and unprecedented danger, that in decades past the isolation provided by two oceans had kept the homeland secure. This assumption is largely wrong. Tens of thousands of miles of border and coastline, wealth and resources, vast territory, a diverse population, and open civil society have long made the civilian population of the United States a tempting target.
The words of the U.S. Constitution, which established the new republic, that a foundation of governance was to "provide for the common defense," have never lost their relevance. To some degree, every generation of Americans has experienced the anxiety that they might be attacked in their own homes. Each has held a public debate over the sufficient means necessary to protect the nation—the right balance of security; economic growth; cooperation among federal, state, and local governments; the role of volunteers and the private sector; and the protection of civil liberties. As the nation matured, American national security policy increasingly focused on offensive capabilities, confronting America's enemies overseas, while the balance between domestic security and civil liberties tilted toward the latter. Meanwhile, the national capacity to prepare for and respond to all kinds of disaster grew in fits and starts as the nation expanded. Its full force was rarely ever brought together. These traditional practices proved unable to protect the United States from the attackers of 9/11 and the contemporary terrorist threat.
This chapter illuminates both the changes and the continuities in the American conception of security. That the notion of what protecting the homeland means has changed over time should not be surprising. "Security" is a social construction. In other words, people give the word its meaning. Thus, the word can have different meanings to different people in different places at different times. History, tradition, politics, threats, and culture all have a part in what security means to Americans.
CHAPTER LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
1. Identify the continuities and changes in the American conception of protecting the homeland.
2. Explain the traditional level of cooperation among federal, state, and local agencies for domestic security, national preparedness, and disaster response.
3. Gauge the general level of economic resources the United States has dedicated to homeland security during its history and what factors have affected expenditures.
4. Describe the role that the protection of civil liberties has played in determining the federal response to homeland security.
5. Explain the role that border security and immigration enforcement has played in protecting the homeland.
A COLONIAL LEGACY: SECURING COMMUNITIES AND COASTLINES
During America's first century, protecting the homeland remained mostly a matter of defending towns and protecting ports and the coastline from external attackers. In particular, conflicts between colonists and Native Americans played a principal role in the formulation of an American conception of national security. Communities were largely responsible for protecting their citizens, usually through local militias.
Once established, the federal government focused its efforts on defending the nation from enemies abroad. In the early years of the republic, invasion by Great Britain—which razed Washington, DC, during the War of 1812—and the security of the border with Canada were national preoccupations. These fears declined by 1823, but a series of midcentury border crises led to the renovation of existing forts and harbor defenses. Still, investments in defense were modest, accounting for only a small percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP).
The notion of large peacetime security budgets was anathema to most Americans. This tradition was abandoned only in wartime or other moments of national crisis. By 1870 trepidation over threats to the northern border and eastern coastline had mostly disappeared, with the exception of a short-lived flap during the Spanish-American War that stirred unfounded fears of a Spanish armada threatening the coast.
THE YOUNG REPUBLIC: DANGERS FROM WITHIN
Throughout most of the nation's history, threats from within the borders of the United States were less central to American concepts of homeland security. Internal threats have been transient and often regional in focus. The federal government's role in providing defense against domestic threats has always been suspect. During the nineteenth century, drawing on long-standing antiarmy ideology and the colonial experience, Americans generally opposed using federal forces for internal security.
The authors of the U.S. Constitution held that, other than providing for "the common defense" against external enemies, the only appropriate use of force by federal authorities was the restoration of order in the event of riot or rebellion. This principle was tested in 1794 when President George Washington mobilized the militia in response to threats against excise tax collectors in western Pennsylvania. The success in suppressing the "Whiskey Rebellion" there had as much to do with the president's correctly gauging public opinion, undertaking skillful negotiations, and avoiding bloodshed as it did with putting the militia under arms. Thus, two precedents were set. First, the federal government had both the right and the responsibility to act in order to restore order. Second, the federal government's authority should be exercised with restraint and prudence. There was no expectation that the federal government would intervene on domestic security issues on a routine basis. Intervention was considered acceptable only in cases of insurrection, widespread public disorder, or extreme domestic violence. Before the Civil War, state consent or requests for assistance by state authorities always accompanied the domestic use of federal force.
Furthermore, the federal government did not play a large role in civil preparedness or responding to disasters. The earliest case of congressionally approved domestic assistance followed a devastating fire in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in 1803. To ease the burden, Congress granted an extra year to pay off bonds owed at the local customhouse. Such measures were an exception rather than the rule.
Federal Power versus Civil Liberties
The Civil War placed enormous strains on the proposition that the federal government could ensure domestic security without abrogating the constitutional rights of its citizens. The Union home front faced not only major military attack, but raids, draft riots, espionage, and sabotage—in one case Confederate spies tried to burn down New York City. Federal authorities responded with an unprecedented test of the limits of their power; they suspended the right of habeas corpus, which requires the government to provide justification before a judge in order to hold a prisoner, and prosecuted U.S. civilians (including conspirators in Abraham Lincoln's assassination) in military tribunals.
An even more significant departure from the traditions of U.S. security, however, was the use of soldiers as federal marshals during Reconstruction. During the presidential election of 1876, the President Grant dispatched troops to polling stations in South Carolina, Louisiana, and Florida, where electoral votes remained in dispute. (Continues...)
Part 1: HOW WE GOT HERE FROM THERE: THE EMERGENCE OFCONTEMPORARY HOMELAND SECURITY
Chapter 1: Homeland Security: The American Tradition
Chapter 2: The Road to 9/11: Contemporary Terrorism and the Meaning of the September 11 Attacks
Chapter 3: The Birth of Contemporary Homeland Security:The National Response to 9/11 and Its Aftermath
Part 2: HOMELAND SECURITY: PRINCIPLES, PARTICIPANTS,STRATEGIES, AND TOOLS
Chapter 4: Homeland Security Roles, Responsibilities, and Jurisdictions: International, Federal, State, and Local Government and Private Sector Responsibilities
Chapter 5: Thinking Homeland Security: Theory, Strategy,Decision-Making, Planning, and Analysis Tools
Chapter 6: Intelligence for Homeland Security: Process, Methods,Structure, and Resources
Chapter 7: Domestic Counterterrorism: Investigating, Preventing, and Responding to Terrorist Plots
Chapter 8: Homeland Defense and Support to Civil Authorities: Military Support for Homeland Security
Chapter 9: Incident Management and Emergency Management:Responding to Human-made and Natural Disasters
Part 3: UNDERSTANDING THREATS: FROM TERRORISM TO NATURAL DISASTERS
Chapter 10: The Mind of the Terrorist: Why They Hate
Chapter 11: The Transnational Dimensions of Terrorism:From State Sponsors to Islamist Extremists
Chapter 12: Domestic Terrorist Groups and Radicalization:The Threat Next Door
Chapter 13: Terrorist Operations and Tactics: How Attacks Are Planned and Executed
Chapter 14: Weapons of Mass Destruction: UnderstandingReal Threats and Getting Beyond Hype
Chapter 15: Understanding Disasters and Mass Emergencies:From Earthquakes to Pandemics and Beyond
Part 4: HOMELAND SECURITY IN ACTION: PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES
Chapter 16: Critical Infrastructure Protection and Key Assets: Protecting America’s Most Important Targets
Chapter 17: Business Preparedness, Continuity, and Recovery: Private Sector Response
Chapter 18: Public Awareness and Personal, Family, and Community Preparedness: Challenges and Solutions
Chapter 19: The Nation Responds: Volunteer, Faith-based, Business,and Nongovernmental Assets
Chapter 20: Domain Security: Border, Maritime, and Aviation Security
Chapter 21: Cybersecurity: Protecting Cyberspace and Digital Technology
Appendix A: SIGNIFICANT FOILED U.S. TERROR PLOTS FROM 9/11 TO 2011 Appendix B: PROFILES OF SIGNIFICANT ISLAMIST EXTREMISTS AND INTERNATIONAL TERRORIST GROUPS AND STATE SPONSORS
The Book gives a good overview of Homeland Security but it is di
The Book gives a good overview of Homeland Security but it is difficult to read at times. The authors fill it with so many acronyms that you almost want to keep a running alphabetized list of them all to have a better understanding of what they are talking about. They use a lot of jargon and do not offer much in the way of layman definitions. The book is terribly edited with many grammatical and typographical errors. The authors do not take a neutral approach to the subjects but are influenced by their own political views.
I needed this book for a college course, otherwise I would not have purchased it.
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