Homelands and Waterways: The American Journey of the Bond Family, 1846-1926 [NOOK Book]

Overview

This monumental history traces the rise of a resolute African American family (the author's own) from privation to the middle class. In doing so, it explodes the stereotypes that have shaped and distorted our thinking about African Americans--both in slavery and in freedom.

Beginning with John Robert Bond, who emigrated from England to fight in the Union Army during the ...
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Homelands and Waterways: The American Journey of the Bond Family, 1846-1926

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Overview

This monumental history traces the rise of a resolute African American family (the author's own) from privation to the middle class. In doing so, it explodes the stereotypes that have shaped and distorted our thinking about African Americans--both in slavery and in freedom.

Beginning with John Robert Bond, who emigrated from England to fight in the Union Army during the Civil War and married a recently freed slave, Alexander shows three generations of Bonds as they take chances and break new ground.

From Victorian England to antebellum Virginia, from Herman Melville's New England to the Jim Crow South, from urban race riots to the battlefields of World War I, this fascinating chronicle sheds new light on eighty crucial years in our nation's troubled history. The Bond family's rise from slavery, their interaction with prominent figures such as W. E. B. DuBois and Booker T. Washington, and their eventual, uneasy realization of the American dream shed a great deal of light on our nation's troubled heritage.


From the Trade Paperback edition.
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Editorial Reviews

John Head
In Homelands and WaterwaysAdele Logan Alexander has compiled and extraordinarily well-researched narrative of the American history that swirled around her ancestors. It offers the most intimate details of family life as Alexander captures the currents of cultural change that swept the nation. She shows that not all free-born American blacks lived in the North during the era of slavery, and that virulent racism among soldiers in the Civil War wasn't limited to the ranks of the Confederates. Her voluminous collection of facts conveys the tastes, textures and tenor of the times. General-interest readers drawn to fascinating family stories will be pleased.
— USA Today
Publishers Weekly - Publisher's Weekly
An emblematic account of the evolution of an African-American clan over three generations, this meticulously researched but stiffly written family history by a history professor at George Washington University reveals the role of black Americans in the evolution and definition of middle-class life in the U.S. Alexander's story begins with her maternal great-grandfather, John Robert Bond, an English-born seaman ("a black Anglo-Saxon Protestant") who, in a vivid contrast to the majority of blacks brought to the U.S. as slaves, arrived in Massachusetts in 1862 and joined the Union navy. Wounded in battle, Bond ended up in a hospital in Norfolk, Va., where he met Emma Thomas, a newly freed slave he married shortly after the Civil War. To set their story in context, Alexander explores the lives and mores of free blacks in 19th-century Virginia and New England (the couple returned to Massachusetts in 1870). In Boston, the Bonds' political beliefs developed amid suffrage and anti-lynching campaigns, the Spanish-American War and the surge of Southern blacks northward in the Great Migration. John Robert's first son, Percy, joined the staff of Booker T. Washington's Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, his success supported in part by his marriage to a woman fair-skinned enough to "pass" for white. Alexander's careful examination of the lives of the subsequent generation of literate black women, who were involved in politically active Colored Women's Clubs in Washington, D.C., and who read widely about the artistic innovations of the Harlem Renaissance, illuminates both the family's color-consciousness and its spiritual and cultural advancement. 16 pages of b&w photos. (July) Copyright 1999 Cahners Business Information.
Library Journal
This is African American family history with a twist. It begins in Liverpool, England, in the 1840s with free African progenitor James Bond and Irishwoman Eliza Kelly. Their son John Robert Bond migrates to the world's whaling capital of New Bedford, MA, and during the Civil War fights as an able seaman in the U.S. Navy. With rich, flowing detail, Alexander (history, George Washington Univ.) traces three generations of her family tree from its roots to the branches of her mother's cohort. Giving life to the diversity of background and experience commonly denied or sharply abridged in standard histories, Alexander narrates a saga of struggle and achievement against stereotype. Her work is an exemplary mix of history, genealogy, and biography, with links to the work of Willard B. Gatewood, the Delaney sisters, and others. Recommended for collections on genealogy, family, and American and African American history.--Thomas J. Davis, Arizona State Univ., Tempe Copyright 1999 Cahners Business Information.
Kirkus Reviews
A multigenerational saga of an African-American family. On display in this ambitious volume are Alexander's strengths as a researcher, her passion for her subject (her own family), and her weaknesses as a writer. A professor of history at George Washington University, Alexander has done a thorough, even remarkable, job of discovering as much information as possible about her ancestors, people whose lives are difficult to document for obvious reasons. At the heart of the book is Alexander's great-grandmother Emma, born a slave in Virginia, a woman of enormous strength and capability whose fierce and loving spirit inhabits in some shape all of her descendants. Alexander is at her best when she tells family stories that personalize the hideous history of racism. She reveals, for example, that some movie theaters in Washington, D.C., hired African-American "spotters" to help management identify and remove from the audience other African-Americans whose light skin had convinced the ticket sellers they were white. This poignant anecdote reveals more of racism's ugly face than Alexander is able to in many of her other ponderous pages. She cannot seem to decide if she is writing an academic social history or an informal family memoir. One hundred pages of endnotes follow the text, and Alexander often adopts a scholarly tone; elsewhere, however, the tone is informal—even colloquial (one house is "spitting distance" from another; "plus" is a conjunction). And in many places, the awkward writing stands out: dangling constructions, lengthy and barely relevant parenthetical insertions, and an excessive fondness for hyphenated compound adjectives ("water-focused," "haze-shrouded," and"cabin-dwelling" are among the uglier ones). An important record of one family's struggles with racism. (16 pages photos, not seen; 5 maps;)
From the Publisher
"Masterfully traces the lives of three generations of an African American family as it grows from meager means to the middle class. Alexander has informed her book with a deep sensitivity to human complexity."         --Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

"An unforgettable, stunning portrait, not only of the Bond family, but of  the American social fabric." --Seattle Times

"[A] biography of a family, a text in African American studies, and a  work of U.S. history . . . spun into gold."         --The Women's Review of Books

"Captures the currents of cultural change that swept the nation. . . . [A]n impressive historical tapestry."         --USA Today

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780307426253
  • Publisher: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group
  • Publication date: 12/18/2007
  • Series: Vintage
  • Sold by: Random House
  • Format: eBook
  • Pages: 720
  • File size: 2 MB

Meet the Author

Adele Logan Alexander lives in Washington, D.C.


From the Trade Paperback edition.
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Read an Excerpt

From Chapter One

Sprawled near the Irish Sea, on England's windswept River Mersey, Liverpool--its population nearing 400,000 by the 1840s and distended by masses of immigrants--became the island nation's greatest port.1 In earlier years, the Mersey had been little more than a broad, shallow estuary where treacherous currents, silting, and extreme tidal fluctuations hampered passage from the sea through the narrow channel at the river's mouth. Predatory buccaneers once had imperiled whatever ships dared to venture through that neck, and for centuries Liverpool seemed destined to remain a drowsy fishing village surrounded by Lancashire's feudal agricultural hinterlands. But the Royal Navy's increasingly effective controls, ambivalent transformations generated by the Industrial Revolution, plus lucrative maritime commerce (including the transatlantic trade in slaves) converted the river delta "from an obscure, ill-cultivated swamp into a busy, lively region, multiplying its population tenfold in eighty years," observed a young German Communist named Friedrich Engels.

Liverpool stretched six miles along the Mersey's east banks. Its mercantilists envisioned, and soon dredged, channels deep and wide enough, then carved out and constructed mazes of quays, slips, and wharves that were vast and sturdy enough, to provide access and secure havens for the legions of battered or elegant passenger liners, cargo ships, and fishing boats that found their way to, dropped anchor, and thus enriched Liverpool's increasingly busy port.

Though pervasively rank and replete with commonplace as well as atypical urban woes, to some observers Liverpool seemed madly romantic. The "forest of masts belonging to the vessels in dock" inspired one visitor. She marveled at "the glorious river along which white-sailed ships were gliding with the ensigns of all nations . . . [the] clouds of smoke from countless steamers . . . telling of the distant lands, spicy or frozen, that sent to that mighty mart for their comforts or their luxuries."

With her cousin and husband Prince Albert at her side until his untimely death in 1861, Victoria, whose name and ethos characterized the entire age, was Defender of the Faith, queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the empire's monarch, mistress of all she surveyed--and much that extended far beyond her royal reach or vision. She heeded the counsel of shrewd advisors (including the commanding, Liverpool-born Liberal Party leader William Gladstone, heir to a family fortune amassed in the slave trade), and her epic longevity and fortitude would keep her on the throne into the next century. An awesome maritime network controlled Her Majesty's domain, which at its peak, embraced fully a quarter of the world's population and inhabited lands. Without doubt, Britannia ruled the waves.

As a linchpin in Victoria's realm, Liverpool became home, or a habitual point of arrival, transit, and debarkation, for a crazy quilt of the world's peoples. A majority of its residents, of course, were white and English, Irish, Welsh, or Scottish born. Nonetheless, ample numbers of Caribbean mariners and stowaways; able Kroo seamen from West Africa's Pepper Coast; Chinese "coolies"; Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta's turbaned, work-hungry laborers; plus Lascar sailors (often regarded by the indigenous British as a "species of wild animal") from Malaya and Burma, all began arriving by 1800. "Coloureds" from many countries also ended up in London's East End, Bristol, Manchester, Cardiff, even Aberdeen and Edinburgh, but the early surges of heterogeneous, darker-complexioned foreigners made Liverpool's nineteenth-century racial amalgam more diverse than that of other localities in Britain.7 Elsewhere, the majority of black, brown, tan, and yellow refugees appeared more than a century later when immigrant job seekers and their families flooded to the metropole after colonial power withdrew from the scattered outposts of empire, often leaving behind a heritage of turmoil, poverty, and ignorance to fill the breach. "Here was England," wrote a discerning Negro American some decades later, "with her flag draped around the world, ruling more black folk than white and leading the colored peoples of the world to Christian baptism, civilization, and eventual self-rule."

Its poor were legion, but Liverpool and its entrepreneurs flourished during much of the nineteenth century. Rugged workers from throughout the empire swarmed about the wharves finding employment as porters, stevedores, rope- and sailmakers, caulkers, or shipwrights. A Negro carter named James Bond belonged to that multitude of anonymous laborers who toiled and lived near the waterfront in the 1840s. Judging from his Anglo-Saxon name (at some point in the past replacing an African one and possibly suggesting his forebears' status as bondsmen), rather than being a new arrival from Africa, Bond, and perhaps his antecedents, may have resided in England for quite some time. Alternatively, he could have come more recently from the British West Indies as an ex-slave who accompanied a homeward-bound master, but no records substantiate the circumstances of his arrival in Liverpool.

James Bond and others in that city's multiethnic and multiracial laboring classes crammed the holds of outward-bound vessels with diverse manufactured goods, coal mined in Wales or the Pennines, cured meat or fish destined for ports anyplace on the globe. They also unloaded, among a variety of foodstuffs and raw materials, cumbersome, burlap-sheathed bales of slave-cultivated cotton. That Gossypium hirsutum was the prized, staple crop which, so long and so well, had kept mainland North America's slave empire financially afloat, even flourishing.

Flat-bottomed, cotton-laden barges plied the Leeds & Liverpool Canal, the Bridgewater Canal that linked Liverpool and the River Mersey with Manchester, and the murky Grand Trunk, which headed southeast to grimy Birmingham. As early as 1810, those man-made waterways had become conduits for more than forty thousand tons per year of raw cotton that fed the droning mills of the country's sooty industrial hubs, and the tonnage increased through the next half century. Though intermittent oversatiation, secession, the Civil War's onset, and the ensuing Union naval blockade of southern ports periodically curtailed the transatlantic commerce in slave-grown cotton, perhaps more than with any other European city, human and mercantile interests tethered Liverpool to the eastern United States.

Despite their nation's indispensable maritime links with much of the world, many Englishmen thought that even the usually pale-complexioned (though still "foreign" and, almost unforgivably, Roman Catholic) local Irish "yahoos," as they were called, were "creature[s] manifestly between the gorilla and the negro." One of those "yahoos" who resided in Liverpool was a woman named Eliza Kelly.

Especially during the cataclysmic 1840s' famine--as the Emerald Isle's mysteriously plagued potato fields turned black and putrid with rot, forcing legions of its denizens to forage for roots and berries, even gnaw on tree bark--many of the Irish embarked for the Merseyside port. Almost two million emigrants (a quarter of the population) left Ireland between 1845 and 1855, while hunger-provoked deaths claimed well over another million. Unmarked grave sites littered the island's pastoral green slopes.

Destitute, dispossessed from their lands, laden with any transportable belongings, and weakened by debilitating bacteria, refugees like Eliza Kelly arrived on packed ships from Drogheda, Cobh, and Dublin, crossing the Irish Sea in a few hours and receiving far less care or concern than other, more valued cargo, such as swine. Nature's cruel vagaries fused with harsh economic and political misfortunes to wrench the rural poor from Erin's countryside and thrust them into daunting confrontation with the beastliness of urban industrialism. Throughout Lancashire, a caustic visitor commented, "abides [the Irishman] in his squalor and unreason, in his falsity and drunken violence, as the readymade nucleus of degradation and disorder." But at least in England those scorned exiles believed they would eat, though critics sighted whole families "sleeping upon the cold hearth-stone for weeks in succession, without adequate means of providing themselves with food or fuel . . . starving in a crowded garret or damp cellar, gradually sinking under the pressure of want and despair into a premature grave."

During the famine years, the Negro abolitionist Frederick Douglass visited Ireland, where he compared the "wailing notes" of indigenous ballads there to American slavery's sorrow songs with their roots in distant Africa. And a traveling French aristocrat found among the Irish human misery even worse, he claimed, than that of the New World's enslaved Negroes. Some of Liverpool's newcomers may even have been the fabled "black Irish," often thought to be descendants of local women who had borne daughters and sons of the African survivors of misdirected, wrecked slave ships.

England's myriad Hibernian aliens--Eliza and other Kellys, plus Healys, Murphys, Higginses, Callahans, and Fitzgeralds among them--were considered the Merseyside city's detritus, whom predatory Liverpudlians both loathed and habitually snookered. Despite widespread elitist presumptions and chauvinistic antagonisms, however, not only the Irish, but a steady stream of the empire's other racially and religiously disparate subjects, as well as a great variety of raw materials and manufactured produce, coursed through that teeming port.

But people of African ancestry arrived and stayed in Eliza Kelly's and James Bond's Liverpool under different circumstances. With motivations both pragmatic and idealistic, the courts had acted to end slavery in England during the 1700s' final decades, characterizing it as an "odious" institution, yet in truth, many Negroes remained long thereafter in an agonizing, intermediary state. Their circumstances usually fell somewhere between the Western Hemisphere's black chattel slavery and white English domestic servitude. As late as the 1820s, a few Africans still were being sold on the Mersey docks, though any such acts flew squarely in the face of established law. Nonetheless, those unfortunates brought with them intricate cosmologies, food preferences, music, and other manifestations of their African cultures.


From the Trade Paperback edition.
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Table of Contents

Heritage: Groundwork and Waterscapes 3
I John: Odyssey of an Able-Bodied Seaman, 1846-1864
1 Mongrel Liverpool, Empire, and the "Nigger Jack" 15
2 New Bedford, the Cambridge, and "Seeing the Elephant" 38
3 An Able-Bodied Seaman No More 71
II Emma: Old Bonds, New Bonds, 1846-1870
4 "Turkey Buzzard Lay Me": A Childhood in Tidewater Country 91
5 Wartime Norfolk, Liberty, and a Legitimized Marriage 122
6 Fire, Ashes, and the Hobbled Phoenix 156
III Northern Exposures, 1870-1905
7 No Room at the Inn 183
8 Citizenship, Fraternity, and a Dutiful Son 211
9 Wake of the Lancaster: Little Brown Brother and the Navy Blues 241
10 Walking in Emma's Footsteps: Time and Tides along Mother Brook 274
IV Percy's Tribe, 1902-1926
11 Wizardry, and Jim Crow's Alabama Trilogy 303
12 Carrie: Theories of Evolution and the Company of Women 342
13 Captains' Tales, Before and Beyond the Great Wars 379
14 Capital Times: "A Paradise of Paradoxes" 428
15 All the World's a Stage 473
V The Widow's Might: Further Hyde Park Chronicles, 1905-1926
16 Purgatory: The Poisoned Tree 503
17 Nights When the Music Stopped 529
Notes 553
Acknowledgments, and Coming to Conclusions 655
Index 663
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First Chapter

From Chapter One

Sprawled near the Irish Sea, on England's windswept River Mersey, Liverpool--its population nearing 400,000 by the 1840s and distended by masses of immigrants--became the island nation's greatest port.1 In earlier years, the Mersey had been little more than a broad, shallow estuary where treacherous currents, silting, and extreme tidal fluctuations hampered passage from the sea through the narrow channel at the river's mouth. Predatory buccaneers once had imperiled whatever ships dared to venture through that neck, and for centuries Liverpool seemed destined to remain a drowsy fishing village surrounded by Lancashire's feudal agricultural hinterlands. But the Royal Navy's increasingly effective controls, ambivalent transformations generated by the Industrial Revolution, plus lucrative maritime commerce (including the transatlantic trade in slaves) converted the river delta "from an obscure, ill-cultivated swamp into a busy, lively region, multiplying its population tenfold in eighty years," observed a young German Communist named Friedrich Engels.

Liverpool stretched six miles along the Mersey's east banks. Its mercantilists envisioned, and soon dredged, channels deep and wide enough, then carved out and constructed mazes of quays, slips, and wharves that were vast and sturdy enough, to provide access and secure havens for the legions of battered or elegant passenger liners, cargo ships, and fishing boats that found their way to, dropped anchor, and thus enriched Liverpool's increasingly busy port.

Though pervasively rank and replete with commonplace as well as atypical urban woes, to some observers Liverpool seemed madly romantic. The "forest of masts belonging to the vessels in dock" inspired one visitor. She marveled at "the glorious river along which white-sailed ships were gliding with the ensigns of all nations . . . [the] clouds of smoke from countless steamers . . . telling of the distant lands, spicy or frozen, that sent to that mighty mart for their comforts or their luxuries."

With her cousin and husband Prince Albert at her side until his untimely death in 1861, Victoria, whose name and ethos characterized the entire age, was Defender of the Faith, queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the empire's monarch, mistress of all she surveyed--and much that extended far beyond her royal reach or vision. She heeded the counsel of shrewd advisors (including the commanding, Liverpool-born Liberal Party leader William Gladstone, heir to a family fortune amassed in the slave trade), and her epic longevity and fortitude would keep her on the throne into the next century. An awesome maritime network controlled Her Majesty's domain, which at its peak, embraced fully a quarter of the world's population and inhabited lands. Without doubt, Britannia ruled the waves.

As a linchpin in Victoria's realm, Liverpool became home, or a habitual point of arrival, transit, and debarkation, for a crazy quilt of the world's peoples. A majority of its residents, of course, were white and English, Irish, Welsh, or Scottish born. Nonetheless, ample numbers of Caribbean mariners and stowaways; able Kroo seamen from West Africa's Pepper Coast; Chinese "coolies"; Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta's turbaned, work-hungry laborers; plus Lascar sailors (often regarded by the indigenous British as a "species of wild animal") from Malaya and Burma, all began arriving by 1800. "Coloureds" from many countries also ended up in London's East End, Bristol, Manchester, Cardiff, even Aberdeen and Edinburgh, but the early surges of heterogeneous, darker-complexioned foreigners made Liverpool's nineteenth-century racial amalgam more diverse than that of other localities in Britain.7 Elsewhere, the majority of black, brown, tan, and yellow refugees appeared more than a century later when immigrant job seekers and their families flooded to the metropole after colonial power withdrew from the scattered outposts of empire, often leaving behind a heritage of turmoil, poverty, and ignorance to fill the breach. "Here was England," wrote a discerning Negro American some decades later, "with her flag draped around the world, ruling more black folk than white and leading the colored peoples of the world to Christian baptism, civilization, and eventual self-rule."

Its poor were legion, but Liverpool and its entrepreneurs flourished during much of the nineteenth century. Rugged workers from throughout the empire swarmed about the wharves finding employment as porters, stevedores, rope- and sailmakers, caulkers, or shipwrights. A Negro carter named James Bond belonged to that multitude of anonymous laborers who toiled and lived near the waterfront in the 1840s. Judging from his Anglo-Saxon name (at some point in the past replacing an African one and possibly suggesting his forebears' status as bondsmen), rather than being a new arrival from Africa, Bond, and perhaps his antecedents, may have resided in England for quite some time. Alternatively, he could have come more recently from the British West Indies as an ex-slave who accompanied a homeward-bound master, but no records substantiate the circumstances of his arrival in Liverpool.

James Bond and others in that city's multiethnic and multiracial laboring classes crammed the holds of outward-bound vessels with diverse manufactured goods, coal mined in Wales or the Pennines, cured meat or fish destined for ports anyplace on the globe. They also unloaded, among a variety of foodstuffs and raw materials, cumbersome, burlap-sheathed bales of slave-cultivated cotton. That Gossypium hirsutum was the prized, staple crop which, so long and so well, had kept mainland North America's slave empire financially afloat, even flourishing.

Flat-bottomed, cotton-laden barges plied the Leeds & Liverpool Canal, the Bridgewater Canal that linked Liverpool and the River Mersey with Manchester, and the murky Grand Trunk, which headed southeast to grimy Birmingham. As early as 1810, those man-made waterways had become conduits for more than forty thousand tons per year of raw cotton that fed the droning mills of the country's sooty industrial hubs, and the tonnage increased through the next half century. Though intermittent oversatiation, secession, the Civil War's onset, and the ensuing Union naval blockade of southern ports periodically curtailed the transatlantic commerce in slave-grown cotton, perhaps more than with any other European city, human and mercantile interests tethered Liverpool to the eastern United States.

Despite their nation's indispensable maritime links with much of the world, many Englishmen thought that even the usually pale-complexioned (though still "foreign" and, almost unforgivably, Roman Catholic) local Irish "yahoos," as they were called, were "creature[s] manifestly between the gorilla and the negro." One of those "yahoos" who resided in Liverpool was a woman named Eliza Kelly.

Especially during the cataclysmic 1840s' famine--as the Emerald Isle's mysteriously plagued potato fields turned black and putrid with rot, forcing legions of its denizens to forage for roots and berries, even gnaw on tree bark--many of the Irish embarked for the Merseyside port. Almost two million emigrants (a quarter of the population) left Ireland between 1845 and 1855, while hunger-provoked deaths claimed well over another million. Unmarked grave sites littered the island's pastoral green slopes.

Destitute, dispossessed from their lands, laden with any transportable belongings, and weakened by debilitating bacteria, refugees like Eliza Kelly arrived on packed ships from Drogheda, Cobh, and Dublin, crossing the Irish Sea in a few hours and receiving far less care or concern than other, more valued cargo, such as swine. Nature's cruel vagaries fused with harsh economic and political misfortunes to wrench the rural poor from Erin's countryside and thrust them into daunting confrontation with the beastliness of urban industrialism. Throughout Lancashire, a caustic visitor commented, "abides [the Irishman] in his squalor and unreason, in his falsity and drunken violence, as the readymade nucleus of degradation and disorder." But at least in England those scorned exiles believed they would eat, though critics sighted whole families "sleeping upon the cold hearth-stone for weeks in succession, without adequate means of providing themselves with food or fuel . . . starving in a crowded garret or damp cellar, gradually sinking under the pressure of want and despair into a premature grave."

During the famine years, the Negro abolitionist Frederick Douglass visited Ireland, where he compared the "wailing notes" of indigenous ballads there to American slavery's sorrow songs with their roots in distant Africa. And a traveling French aristocrat found among the Irish human misery even worse, he claimed, than that of the New World's enslaved Negroes. Some of Liverpool's newcomers may even have been the fabled "black Irish," often thought to be descendants of local women who had borne daughters and sons of the African survivors of misdirected, wrecked slave ships.

England's myriad Hibernian aliens--Eliza and other Kellys, plus Healys, Murphys, Higginses, Callahans, and Fitzgeralds among them--were considered the Merseyside city's detritus, whom predatory Liverpudlians both loathed and habitually snookered. Despite widespread elitist presumptions and chauvinistic antagonisms, however, not only the Irish, but a steady stream of the empire's other racially and religiously disparate subjects, as well as a great variety of raw materials and manufactured produce, coursed through that teeming port.

But people of African ancestry arrived and stayed in Eliza Kelly's and James Bond's Liverpool under different circumstances. With motivations both pragmatic and idealistic, the courts had acted to end slavery in England during the 1700s' final decades, characterizing it as an "odious" institution, yet in truth, many Negroes remained long thereafter in an agonizing, intermediary state. Their circumstances usually fell somewhere between the Western Hemisphere's black chattel slavery and white English domestic servitude. As late as the 1820s, a few Africans still were being sold on the Mersey docks, though any such acts flew squarely in the face of established law. Nonetheless, those unfortunates brought with them intricate cosmologies, food preferences, music, and other manifestations of their African cultures.
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    Posted August 11, 2013

    Nursery

    The nursery is another hollowed out stone. It is very large, but bedding needs to be changed often. The kits usually play in here.

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