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Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) and Controlled Auto Ignition (CAI) Engines for the Automotive Industry

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Overview

HCCI/CAI has emerged as one of the most promising engine technologies with the potential to combine fuel efficiency and improved emissions performance. Despite the considerable advantages, its operational range is rather limited and controlling the combustion (timing of ignition and rate of energy release) is still an area of on-going research. However, commercial applications are close to reality. This book reviews the key international research on optimising its use, including gasoline HCCI/CAI engines; diesel HCCI engines; HCCI/CAI engines with alternative fuels; and advanced modelling and experimental techniques.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781420044591
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 10/30/2007
  • Pages: 524
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents

PART 1 OVERVIEW

Motivation, definition, and history of HCCI/CAI engines

H Zhao, Brunel University, UK
• Introduction
• Current automotive engines and technologies
• Historical background of HCCI/CAI type combustion engines
• Principle of HCCI/CAI combustion engines
• Definition of HCCI and CAI combustion engines
• Summary
• References

PART 2 GASOLINE HCCI/CAI COMBUSTION ENGINES

Overview of CAI/HCCI gasoline engines

H Zhao, Brunel University, UK
• Introduction
• Fundamentals of CAI/HCCI gasoline engines
• Effects of use of exhaust gases as diluents
• Approaches to CAI/HCCI operation in gasoline engines
• Summary
• References

Two-stroke CAI engines

P Duret, IFP, France

- Introduction
• Principles of the two-stroke CAI combustion
• How to control the two-stroke CAI combustion
• The potential application of the two-stroke CAI combustion
• Future trends
• Sources of further information and advice
• References

Four-stroke gasoline HCCI engines with thermal management

J Yang, USA
• Introduction
• The optimized kinetic process (OKP) HCCI engine
• Strengths and weaknesses
• Future trends
• Sources of further information and advice
• References

Four-stroke CAI engines with residual gas trapping

H Zhao, Brunel University, UK
• Introduction
• Principle of CAI operation with residual gas trapping
• CAI operation in a four-stroke port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline engine
• Effect of direct injection on CAI combustion in the four-stroke gasoline engine
• Effect of spark ignition on CAI combustion in the four-stroke gasoline engine
• Summary
• References

Four-stroke CAI engines with internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)

A Fürhapter, AVL, Austria

- Introduction
• Principle of CAI with internal EGR
• Engine concepts and layout
• Thermodynamic results and analysis of CAI with internal EGR
• Transient operation with CAI and internal EGR
• Future trends
• Sources of further information and advice
• References

HCCI control

P Tunestål and B Johansson, Lund University, Sweden
• Introduction
• Control means
• Combustion timing sensors
• Methods
• Summary and future trends
• References

CAI control and CAI/SI switching

N Milovanovic and J Turner, Lotus Engineering, UK
• Introduction about requirements for the control of the CAI engine
• Problems in controlling the CAI engine
• Transition between operating modes (CAI–SI–CAI)
• The ‘mixed mode’ CAI–SI engine in operation: presentation and discussion of the experimental results obtained
• Summary
• References

Fuel effects in CAI gasoline engines

G T Kalghatgi, Shell Global Solutions, UK
• Introduction
• Practical transport fuels
• Auto-ignition quality of fuels
• The octane index and the K value
• The auto-ignition requirement of an HCCI engine and fuel effects in combustion phasing
• Combustion limits
• IMEP and indicated efficiency
• Other approaches to characterizing fuel performance in HCCI engines
• Fuel requirements of HCCI engines
• Summary
• References
• Appendix – HCCI predictor

PART 3 DIESEL HCCI COMBUSTION ENGINES

Overview of HCCI diesel engines

J V Pastor, J M Luján, S Molina and J M García, CMT-Motores Térmicos, Spain
• Introduction
• Conventional diesel combustion
• Fundamentals of HCCI combustion
• Overview of diesel HCCI engines
• Summary
• References

HCCI combustion with early and multiple injection in the heavy-duty diesel engine

Y Aoyagi, NEW ACE, Japan
• Introduction
• Experimental apparatus
• Early injection HCCI (PREDIC) by low cetane fuel
• Multiple injections HCCI by low cetane fuel (two-stage combustion, MULDIC)
• HCCI for normal cetane fuel
• Summary
• Acknowledgements
• Nomenclature
• References

Narrow angle direct injection (NADITM) concept for HCCI diesel combustion

B Gatellier, IFP, France
• Introduction
• The NADITM concept overview
• First results and limitations
• Development of the concept
• Evaluation of the concept in a multi-cylinder engine
• Future trends
• References

Low-temperature and premixed combustion concept with late injection

S Kimura, Nissan Motor Company, Japan
• Introduction
• Basic concept of low-temperature and premixed combustion
• Characteristics of combustion and exhaust emissions with modulated kinetics (MK) combustion
• Second generation MK combustion
• Emission performance improvement of second generation MK combustion
• Future trends
• References

HCCI fuel requirements

T W Ryan III, SWR, USA
• Introduction
• Background
• Diesel fuel HCCI
• HCCI fuel ignition quality
• Gasoline HCCI
• HCCI fuel specification
• Fundamental fuel factors
• Future trends
• References

PART 4 HCCI/CAI COMBUSTION ENGINES WITH ALTERNATIVE FUELS

Natural gas HCCI engines

N Iida, KEIO University, Japan
• CNG HCCI engine experiment and calculation conditions
• CNG composition
• Influence of equivalence ratio
• Auto-ignition timing and combustion duration
• Auto-ignition temperature and auto-ignition pressure
• Exhaust emission, maximum cycle temperature and combustion efficiency
• Influence of n-butane on auto-ignition and combustion in methane/n-butane/air mixtures
• Summary of naturally aspirated natural gas HCCI engine
• Supercharged natural gas HCCI engine setup and experiments
• Performance and Exhaust gas characteristics at a compression ratio of 17
• Performance and emission characteristics at a compression ratio of 21
• Potential of natural gas turbocharged HCCI engines
• Summary
• References

HCCI engines with other fuels

N Iida, KEIO University, Japan
• Characterization of DME
• DME HCCI engine
• DME chemical reaction model
• Combustion completeness in the DME HCCI engine
• Combustion control system for a small DME HCCI engine
• Method of combining DME and other fuels
• Reducing pressure rise rate by introducing ‘unmixed-ness’ of DME/air mixture
• Summary
• References

PART 5 ADVANCES MODELING AND EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES

Auto-ignition and chemical kinetic mechanisms of HCCI combustion

C K Westbrook and W J Pitz, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA and H J Curran, National University of Ireland, Ireland

- Introduction
• Kinetics of auto-ignition
• Reaction types
• Temperature regimes of auto-ignition
• Illustrations of auto-ignition in the rapid compression machine
• Kinetic models for HCCI ignition
• Summary
• References

Overview of modeling techniques and their application to HCCI/CAI engines

S M Aceves, D L Flowers, R W Dibble and A Babajimopoulos, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, USA
• Introduction
• Fundamentals of HCCI ignition and combustion
• The chemistry of HCCI
• Prediction of ignition in HCCI engines
• Detailed calculation of HCCI combustion and emissions
• Prediction of operating range
• Summary and future trends
• References

Overview of advanced optical techniques and their applications to HCCI/CAI engines

M Richter, Lund University, Sweden
• Introduction
• Diagnostic approaches
• Spectroscopic environment
• Chemiluminescence imaging
• Laser induced fluorescence
• Thermographic phosphors
• Future trends
• References

PART 6 FUTURE DIRECTIONS FOR CAI/HCCI ENGINES

Outlook and future directions in HCCI/CAI engines

H Zhao, Brunel University, UK

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