How Languages Are Learned / Edition 3

How Languages Are Learned / Edition 3

by Patsy Lightbown, Nina Spada
     
 


This thoroughly updated third edition presents the main theories of language acquisition, considering their bearing on language teaching. It discusses the effects of factors such as intelligence, personality, and age. It helps teachers assess the merits of different methods and textbooks.

This new edition includes more information on theories of first language

See more details below

Overview


This thoroughly updated third edition presents the main theories of language acquisition, considering their bearing on language teaching. It discusses the effects of factors such as intelligence, personality, and age. It helps teachers assess the merits of different methods and textbooks.

This new edition includes more information on theories of first language acquisition and early bilingualism, and the affects of motivation and style.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780194422246
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
04/13/2006
Series:
Oxford Handbooks for Language Teachers Series
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
252
Product dimensions:
9.70(w) x 6.60(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents


Acknowledgements

Introduction

1. Learning a first language

Milestones and patterns in development

Early childhood bilingualism

Developmental sequences

Summary

Theoretical approaches to explaining first language learning

Behaviourism: Say what I say

Activity: Analysing children's speech

Innatism: It's all in your mind

The interactionist position: A little help from my friends

Summary

2. Theoretical approaches to explaining second language learning

Activity: Learner problems

Behaviourism

Innatism

Universal Grammar

Krashen's 'monitor model'

Recent psychological theories

Information processing

Connectionism

The interactionist position

Summary

3. Factors affecting second language learning

Activity: Characteristics of the 'good language learner'

Research on learner characteristics

Intelligence

Aptitude

Personality

Motivation and attitudes

Learner preferences

Learner beliefs

Age of acquisition

Activity: Comparing child, adolescent, and adult language learners

Summary

4. Learner language

The concept of learner language

Activity: The Great Toy Robbery

Developmental sequences

Grammatical morphemes

Negation

Questions

Activity: Learners' questions

Activity: More about questions

Relative clauses

Reference to past

Movement through developmental sequences

New ways of looking at first languageinfluence

Summary

5. Observing second language teaching

Comparing instructional and natural settings for language learning

Activity: Natural and instructional settings

Activity: Classroom comparisons: teacher-student interactions

Classroom observation schemes

Activity: Observing the kinds of questions you ask your students

Feedback in the classroom

Activity: Analysing classroom interaction

Summary of transcripts

Activity: Observing how you respond to students' errors

Summary

6. Second language learning in the classroom: Five proposals for classroom teaching

1 Get it right from the beginning

2 Say what you mean and mean what you say

3 Just listen . . . and read

4 Teach what is teachable

5 Get it right in the end

The implications of classroom research for teaching

Summary

7. Popular ideas about language learning: Facts and opinions

1 Languages are learned mainly through imitation

2 Parents usually correct young children when they make grammatical errors

3 People with high IQs are good language learners

4 The most important factor in second language acquisition success is motivation

5 The earlier a second language is introduced in school programs, the greater the likelihood of success

6 Most of the mistakes which second language learners make are due to interference from their first language

7 Teachers should present grammatical rules one at a time

8 Teachers should teach simple structures before complex ones

9 Learners' errors should be corrected as soon as they are made in order to prevent bad habits

10 Teachers should use materials that expose students only to language structures they have already been taught

11 When learners are allowed to interact freely they learn each others' mistakes

12 Students learn what they are taught



Conclusion

Glossary

Bibliography

Index

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