How Long? How Long?: African-American Women in the Struggle for Civil Rights / Edition 1

How Long? How Long?: African-American Women in the Struggle for Civil Rights / Edition 1

by Belinda Robnett
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0195114914

ISBN-13: 9780195114911

Pub. Date: 01/28/2000

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

A compelling and readable narrative history, How Long? How Long? presents both a rethinking of social movement theory and a controversial thesis: that chroniclers have egregiously neglected the most important leaders of the Civil Rights movement, African-American women, in favor of higher-profile African-American men and white women. Author Belinda Robnett

Overview

A compelling and readable narrative history, How Long? How Long? presents both a rethinking of social movement theory and a controversial thesis: that chroniclers have egregiously neglected the most important leaders of the Civil Rights movement, African-American women, in favor of higher-profile African-American men and white women. Author Belinda Robnett argues that the diversity of experiences of the African-American women organizers has been underemphasized in favor of monolithic treatments of their femaleness and blackness.

Drawing heavily on interviews with actual participants in the American Civil Rights movement, this work retells the movement as seen through the eyes and spoken through the voices of African-American women participants. It is the first book to provide an analysis of race, class, gender, and culture as substructures that shaped the organization and outcome of the movement. Robnett examines the differences among women participants in the movement and offers the first cohesive analysis of the gendered relations and interactions among its black activists, thus demonstrating that femaleness and blackness cannot be viewed as sufficient signifiers for movement experience and individual identity. Finally, this book makes a significant contribution to social movement theory by providing a crucial understanding of the continuity and complexity of social movements, clarifying the need for different layers of leadership that come to satisfy different movement needs.

An engaging narrative history as well as a major contribution to social movement and feminist theory, How Long? How Long? will appeal to students and scholars of social activism, women's studies, American history, and African-American studies, and to general readers interested in the perennially fascinating story of the American Civil Rights movement.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780195114911
Publisher:
Oxford University Press, USA
Publication date:
01/28/2000
Edition description:
New Edition
Pages:
272
Product dimensions:
9.20(w) x 6.00(h) x 0.70(d)
Lexile:
1370L (what's this?)

Table of Contents

Introduction 3(9)
Rethinking Social Movement Theory: Race, Class, Gender, and Culture
12(41)
Social Location and Identity
15(2)
Reconceptualizing Leadership
17(2)
Defining Bridge Leadership
19(4)
The Movement Sector: Centralized Power, Primary and Secondary Formal Organizations, and Bridge Organizations
23(3)
Social Movement Theories
26(6)
Bridge Leaders, Formal Leaders, and the State
26(2)
Charismatic Leadership and Emotion
28(4)
Social Movement Literature: Emotion and Spontaneity
32(2)
Conclusion
34(2)
Exclusion, Empowerment, and Partnership: Race Gender Relations
36(1)
Black Women Activists Speak Out: Empowered, Not Oppressed
36(5)
Black Women in Support of Male Leadership
41(3)
A Glimpse into Black Women's Historic Activism
44(7)
Mary McLeod Bethune and the National Association of Colored Women
45(1)
Mary McLeod Bethune, the Roosevelt Administration, and A. Philip Randolph
46(3)
The Rise of Nonviolent Resistance
49(2)
Conclusion
51(2)
Women and the Escalation of the Civil Rights Movement
53(18)
Early Resistance to Segregated Transportation
53(2)
The Women's Political Council of Montgomery
55(7)
The Formation of the Montgomery Improvement Association
62(6)
Conclusion
68(3)
Sustaining the Momentum of the Movement
71(15)
Miss Ella Baker and the Origins of the SCLC
71(5)
The Movement Gains Momentum
76(7)
Conclusion
83(3)
Sowing the Seeds of Mass Mobilization
86(12)
The Roots of Micromobilization
86(4)
Connecting Prefigurative Politics to Strategic Politics
90(3)
Bridge Leaders, Gender, and the SCLC
93(3)
Conclusion
96(2)
Bridging Students to the Movement
98(17)
Community Bridge Leaders as Temporary Formal Leaders
103(4)
Community Bridge Leaders as Secondary Formal Leaders
107(2)
Women, Power, and Titled Positions
109(2)
Women Bridge Leaders and Their Heroines
111(2)
Conclusion
113(2)
Race, Class, and Culture Matter
115(25)
Interpersonal Relationships in SNCC
118(4)
Race, Class, Gender, and Culture in SNCC
122(11)
Dispelling Sexual Myths
133(4)
Conclusion
137(3)
Bringing the Movement Home to Small Cities and Rural Communities
140(17)
Local Women's Activism Despite Minister Opposition
140(3)
Indigenous Bridge Leaders: Links Between Community and Organization
143(7)
Women and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
150(3)
Economic and Physical Reprisals
153(3)
Conclusion
156(1)
Cooperation and Conflict in the Civil Rights Movement
157(16)
Women as Primary Formal Leaders
157(9)
Fannie Lou Hamer and the MFDP
157(4)
Gloria Richardson and the Cambridge Nonviolent Action Committee
161(5)
Women Bridge Leaders and Formal Male Leaders in Conflict
166(4)
Women, Collective Styles, and the SCLC
166(1)
Women Bridge Leaders and CORE
167(3)
Conclusion
170(3)
The Movement Unravels from the Bottom
173(17)
Primary Formal Leaders, Compromise, and Disillusionment
173(5)
The Rise of the Black Power Movement
178(2)
Women and the Loss of Free Spaces
180(4)
The Collapse of the Bridging Tier within the Social Movement Sector
184(5)
Conclusion
189(1)
Theoretical Conclusions
190(13)
Black Women as Leaders, Not Just Organizers
190(2)
Emotion and Spontaneity in Social Movements
192(1)
Organizational Forms, Mobilizing Structures, and Charismatic Leaders
193(3)
Political Opportunities and Outcomes
196(7)
Epilogue Lessons from Our Past 203(7)
Appendix A The Study 210(2)
Appendix B Interviews 212(2)
Appendix C Archives and Primary Sources 214(2)
Notes 216(19)
Bibliography 235(12)
Index 247

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