How Teachers Taught: Constancy and Change in American Classrooms, 1890-1990, 2nd Edition / Edition 2

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780807732267
  • Publisher: Teachers College Press
  • Publication date: 3/1/1993
  • Series: IRT
  • Edition description: REV
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 384
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.96 (d)

Table of Contents

Foreword to the First Edition
Foreword to the Second Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
Introduction 1
Reforming Schools and Classrooms 3
Explanations for Constancy and Change 14
Pt. I Progressivism and Classroom Practice, 1890-1990
Ch. 1 Teaching at the Turn of the Century: Tradition and Challenge 23
Elementary School Classrooms 24
High School Classrooms 31
Similarities and Differences in Instruction 37
Student-Centered Instruction 38
Ch. 2 Behind the Classroom Door: New York, 1920-1940 46
Classrooms in the City 50
New York City Schools 51
Organizational Context for Classroom Teaching 55
Social Context for Classrooms 61
Implementing Progressive Practices 64
Ch. 3 Behind the Classroom Door: Denver, 1920-1940 76
The District Setting 78
The Eight-Year Study 83
The Classroom 86
Ch. 4 Behind the Classroom Door: Washington, D.C., 1920-1940 92
The Social and Organizational Setting for Classroom Instruction 95
Summary of Classroom Practices in Three Cities 112
Ch. 5 Rural and Urban Schools: 1920-1940 115
Rural Michigan Classrooms 117
Rural Classrooms Across the Nation 120
Rural Black Schools 126
Photos and Written Accounts of Rural Classrooms 128
Prevalent Teaching Practices in Rural and Urban Schools 130
Pt. II Open Classrooms and Alternative Schools: Progressivism Revisited, 1965-1975
Ch. 6 Informal Education, 1965-1975 149
The Setting for Informal Classrooms: The 1960s 150
Open Classrooms: The 1970s 154
New York City 162
Regular and Alternative High Schools 173
Washington, D.C. 180
The National Picture 196
Ch. 7 Local and National Snapshots of Classroom Practices, 1975-1990 205
Arlington, Virginia, 1974-1981 208
National Data on Classroom Practice, 1975-1990 222
Teaching Practices in the 1980s 229
Pt. III Constancy and Change in the Classroom, 1890-1990
Ch. 8 Explaining How They Taught: An Exploratory Analysis 243
Phases and Levels of School Reform 243
Explanations 248
Applying the Criteria to the Arguments 256
Situationally Constrained Choice 260
Ch. 9 So What? Implications for Policymakers, Practitioners, and Researchers 272
Overall Implications for Those Who Seek to Reform Classroom Teaching 276
Appendix 291
Notes 295
References 327
Index 347
About the Author 359
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