How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education with PowerWeb / Edition 6

How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education with PowerWeb / Edition 6

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by Jack R. Fraenkel, Norman E. Wallen, Norman E. Wallen, Norman E. Wallen
     
 

ISBN-10: 0073126543

ISBN-13: 9780073126548

Pub. Date: 04/22/2005

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

This comprehensive introduction to educational research covers the most widely used research methodologies and discusses the research process in detail. Step-by-step analysis of real research studies provides students with practical examples of how to prepare their work and read that of others. End-of-chapter problem sheets, comprehensive coverage of data analysis,

Overview

This comprehensive introduction to educational research covers the most widely used research methodologies and discusses the research process in detail. Step-by-step analysis of real research studies provides students with practical examples of how to prepare their work and read that of others. End-of-chapter problem sheets, comprehensive coverage of data analysis, and discussion of the preparation of research proposals and reports make the text appropriate for courses that focus on doing research as well as for courses that stress reading and understanding research.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780073126548
Publisher:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education
Publication date:
04/22/2005
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
620
Product dimensions:
7.70(w) x 10.10(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents


Preface     xxiii
Introduction to Research     1
The Nature of Research     2
Interactive and Applied Learning     3
Some Examples of Educational Concerns     3
Why Research Is of Value     4
Ways of Knowing     4
Types of Research     7
General Research Types     14
Critical Analysis of Research     16
A Brief Overview of the Research Process     19
Main Points     21
Key Terms     22
For Discussion     23
Notes     23
Research Exercise 1     24
Problem Sheet 13     24
The Basics of Educational Research     25
The Research Problem     26
Interactive and Applied Learning     27
What Is a Research Problem?     27
Research Questions     27
Characteristics of Good Research Questions     29
Research Questions Often Investigate Relationships     34
Main Points     35
Key Terms     35
For Discussion     35
Research Exercise 2     37
Problem Sheet 2     37
Variables and Hypotheses     38
Interactive and Applied Learning     39
The Importance of Studying Relationships     39
Variables     40
Hypotheses     46
Main Points     50
Key Terms     50
For Discussion     51
Research Exercise 3     52
Problem Sheet 3     52
Ethics and Research     53
Interactive and Applied Learning     54
Some Examples of Unethical Practice     54
A Statement of Ethical Principles     54
Protecting Participants from Harm     56
Ensuring Confidentiality of Research Data     56
Should Subjects Be Deceived?     57
Three Examples Involving Ethical Concerns     58
Research with Children     60
Regulation of Research     61
Main Points     63
For Discussion     64
Notes     64
Research Exercise 4     65
Problem Sheet 4     65
Review of the Literature     66
Interactive and Applied Learning     67
The Value of a Literature Review     67
Types of Sources     67
Steps Involved in a Literature Search      68
Doing a Computer Search     76
Writing the Literature Review Report     86
Main Points     87
Key Terms     88
For Discussion     88
Notes     89
Research Exercise 5     90
Problem Sheet 5     90
Sampling     91
Interactive and Applied Learning     92
What Is a Sample?     92
Random Sampling Methods     95
Nonrandom Sampling Methods     98
A Review of Sampling Methods     102
Sample Size     103
External Validity: Generalizing from a Sample     104
Main Points     107
Key Terms     107
For Discussion     109
Research Exercise 6     110
Problem Sheet 6     110
Instrumentation     111
Interactive and Applied Learning     112
What Are Data?     112
Means of Classifying Data-Collection Instruments     118
Examples of Data-Collection Instruments     118
Types of Scores     137
Norm-Referenced Versus Criterion-Referenced Instruments     138
Measurement Scales     139
Preparing Data for Analysis      142
Main Points     144
Key Terms     145
For Discussion     146
Notes     147
Research Exercise 7     148
Problem Sheet 7     148
Validity and Reliability     149
Interactive and Applied Learning     150
The Importance of Valid Instruments     150
Validity     150
Reliability     157
Main Points     165
Key Terms     165
For Discussion     166
Notes     166
Research Exercise 8     167
Problem Sheet 8     167
Internal Validity     168
Interactive and Applied Learning     169
What Is Internal Validity?     169
Threats to Internal Validity     170
How Can a Researcher Minimize These Threats to Internal Validity?     182
Main Points     183
Key Terms     184
For Discussion     184
Note     185
Research Exercise 9     186
Problem Sheet 9     186
Data Analysis     187
Descriptive Statistics     188
Interactive and Applied Learning      189
Statistics Versus Parameters     189
Two Fundamental Types of Numerical Data     189
Techniques for Summarizing Quantitative Data     191
Techniques for Summarizing Categorical Data     210
Main Points     215
Key Terms     217
For Discussion     217
Research Exercise 10     218
Problem Sheet 10     218
Inferential Statistics     219
Interactive and Applied Learning     220
What Are Inferential Statistics?     220
The Logic of Inferential Statistics     221
Hypothesis Testing     228
Practical Versus Statistical Significance     229
Inference Techniques     231
Main Points     242
Key Terms     243
For Discussion     244
Research Exercise 11     245
Problem Sheet 11     245
Statistics in Perspective     246
Interactive and Applied Learning     247
Approaches to Research     247
Comparing Groups: Quantitative Data     248
Relating Variables within a Group: Quantitative Data     252
Comparing Groups: Categorical Data     257
Relating Variables within a Group: Categorical Data     259
A Recap of Recommendations     259
Main Points     261
Key Terms     262
For Discussion     262
Research Exercise 12     263
Problem Sheet 12     263
Quantitative Research Methodologies     265
Experimental Research     266
Interactive and Applied Learning     267
The Uniqueness of Experimental Research     267
Essential Characteristics of Experimental Research     268
Control of Extraneous Variables     270
Group Designs in Experimental Research     270
Control of Threats to Internal Validity: A Summary     281
Evaluating the Likelihood of a Threat to Internal Validity in Experimental Studies     284
Control of Experimental Treatments     286
An Example of Experimental Research     288
Research Report     289
Analysis of the Study     298
Main Points     300
Key Terms     302
For Discussion     302
Notes     303
Research Exercise 13     304
Problem Sheet 13     304
Single-Subject Research     305
Interactive and Applied Learning     306
Essential Characteristics of Single-Subject Research     306
Single-Subject Designs     306
Threats to Internal Validity in Single-Subject Research     312
An Example of Single-Subject Research     318
Research Report     319
Analysis of the Study     330
Main Points     332
Key Terms     333
For Discussion     333
Correlational Research     334
Interactive and Applied Learning     335
The Nature of Correlational Research     335
Purposes of Correlational Research     336
Basic Steps in Correlational Research     342
What Do Correlation Coefficients Tell Us?     344
Threats to Internal Validity in Correlational Research     344
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Correlational Studies     348
An Example of Correlational Research     350
Research Report     351
Analysis of the Study     364
Main Points     366
Key Terms     367
For Discussion     368
Notes     368
Causal-Comparative Research     369
Interactive and Applied Learning      370
What Is Causal-Comparative Research?     370
Steps Involved in Causal-Comparative Research     373
Threats to Internal Validity in Causal-Comparative Research     374
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Causal-Comparative Studies     376
Data Analysis     377
Associations Between Categorical Variables     379
An Example of Causal-Comparative Research     380
Research Report     380
Analysis of the Study     391
Main Points     393
For Discussion     394
Note     395
Survey Research     396
Interactive and Applied Learning     397
What Is a Survey?     397
Why Are Surveys Conducted?     398
Types of Surveys     398
Survey Research and Correlational Research     399
Steps in Survey Research     399
Nonresponse     409
Problems in the Instrumentation Process in Survey Research     411
Evaluating Threats to Internal Validity in Survey Research     411
Data Analysis in Survey Research     412
An Example of Survey Research     412
Research Report     412
Analysis of the Study      421
Main Points     423
Key Terms     424
For Discussion     424
Notes     425
Introduction to Qualitative Research     427
The Nature of Qualitative Research     428
Interactive and Applied Learning     429
What Is Qualitative Research?     429
General Characteristics of Qualitative Research     430
Philosophical Assumptions Underlying Qualitative as Opposed to Quantitative Research     431
Postmodernism     432
Steps in Qualitative Research     433
Approaches to Qualitative Research     435
Generalization in Qualitative Research     440
Internal Validity in Qualitative Research     441
Ethics and Qualitative Research     441
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Reconsidered     442
Main Points     444
Key Terms     445
For Discussion     445
Notes     446
Observation and Interviewing     448
Interactive and Applied Learning     449
Observation     449
Interviewing     455
Validity and Reliability in Qualitative Research     462
An Example of Qualitative Research      463
Research Report     464
Analysis of the Study     476
Main Points     478
Key Terms     480
For Discussion     480
Notes     481
Content Analysis     482
Interactive and Applied Learning     483
What Is Content Analysis?     483
Some Applications     484
Categorization in Content Analysis     485
Steps Involved in Content Analysis     485
An Illustration of Content Analysis     491
Using the Computer in Content Analysis     492
Advantages of Content Analysis     494
Disadvantages of Content Analysis     494
An Example of a Content Analysis Study     495
Research Report     495
Analysis of the Study     505
Main Points     506
Key Terms     508
For Discussion     508
Notes     508
Qualitative Research Methodologies     509
Ethnographic Research     510
Interactive and Applied Learning     511
What Is Ethnographic Research?     511
Ethnographic Concepts     513
Sampling in Ethnographic Research      515
Do Ethnographic Researchers Use Hypotheses?     515
Data Collection in Ethnographic Research     516
Data Analysis in Ethnographic Research     520
Roger Harker and His Fifth-Grade Classroom     522
Advantages and Disadvantages of Ethnographic Research     523
An Example of Ethnographic Research     524
Research Report     525
Analysis of the Study     539
Main Points     540
Key Terms     542
For Discussion     542
Notes     542
Historical Research     544
Interactive and Applied Learning     545
What Is Historical Research?     545
Steps Involved in Historical Research     546
Data Analysis in Historical Research     551
Generalization in Historical Research     551
Advantages and Disadvantages of Historical Research     552
An Example of Historical Research     553
Research Report     554
Analysis of the Study     560
Main Points     562
Key Terms     563
For Discussion     563
Notes     564
Research by Practitioners      565
Action Research     566
Interactive and Applied Learning     567
What Is Action Research?     567
Types of Action Research     568
Steps in Action Research     570
Similarities and Differences Between Action Research and Formal Quantitative and Qualitative Research     573
The Advantages of Action Research     573
Some Hypothetical Examples of Practical Action Research     575
An Example of Action Research     580
A Published Example of Action Research     581
Research Report     581
Analysis of the Study     588
Main Points     590
Key Terms     591
For Discussion     597
Notes     591
Writing Research Proposals and Reports     593
Preparing Research Proposals and Reports     594
Interactive and Applied Learning     595
The Research Proposal     595
The Major Sections of a Research Proposal or Report     595
Sections Unique to Research Reports     602
A Sample Research Proposal     606
Main Points     618
For Review     678
Key Terms     679
For Discussion      679
Notes     679
Appendixes     A-1
Portion of a Table of Random Numbers     A-2
Selected Values from a Normal Curve Table     A-3
Chi-Square Distribution     A-4
Using SPSS     A-5
Glossary     G-1
Index     I-1

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