How to Grade for Learning, K-12 / Edition 3

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Overview

Implement standards-based grading practices that help students succeed!

The new edition of this bestseller demonstrates how to improve grading practices by linking grades with standards and establishing policies that better reflect student achievement. Ken O’Connor updates eight guidelines for good grading, provides practical applications, and examines a number of additional grading issues, including grade point average calculation and computer grading programs. Thoroughly revised, this edition includes:

  • A greater emphasis on standards-based grading practices
  • Updated research and additional information on feedback and homework
  • New sections on academic dishonesty, extra credit, and bonus points
  • Additional information on utilizing level scores
  • Reflective exercises

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Editorial Reviews

Douglas Reeves
"Once again, Ken O'Connor has addressed one of the most emotional issues in education: grading. This book not only makes a compelling case for reformed grading practices, but also provides practical advice for the classroom teacher, school and system administrator, and policy maker at every level."
Forrest Clark
"Unlike some books that are long on theory and short on implementation, this book combines convincing arguments and research with practical classroom procedures. Writing with the teacher in mind, O'Connor provides the detailed procedures and examples needed to implement standards-based grading in the classroom. After using these concepts and procedures for the past four years, I would recommend O'Connor's approach to all teachers who believe that grades should clearly communicate actual student learning. For educators who want to make student grades more meaningful and useful to students, parents, and teachers, this is the book to read."
Patricia Schenck
"O'Connor not only provides readers with valuable information regarding the theory, context, and purpose of grading, he also includes practical strategies and solutions for classroom implementation."
Duane Coleman
"O'Connor's patient, methodical approach, along with realistic examples, gives the reader a road map to define and implement grades that are truly based on academic achievement."
Rick Wormeli
"O'Connor has raised the stakes and opened more thinking about grading with this third edition, updated for the critically thinking, research-based teacher of our increasingly diverse classrooms. O'Connor presents clear advice on grading homework, moving beyond points and percentages, grading academic dishonesty, grading cooperative learning groups, gradebook formats, dealing with zeroes and late work, students re-doing work, students' self-assessments, what grades can and cannot reveal, and much more."
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412953825
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 5/19/2009
  • Edition description: Third Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 296
  • Sales rank: 721
  • Product dimensions: 8.50 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

Ken O'Connor has been an independent consultant on assessment and evaluation from 1996 to present. He has been a staff development presenter and facilitator on assessment, grading and reporting in 33 states and 7 provinces and 5 countries outside North America. He was a keynote presenter at the EARCOS Teachers Conference in Bangkok in March 2003 and an institute presenter at AISA conferences in Cameroon, Tanzania and Zimbabwe in October 2005. His teaching career included experience as a geography teacher and department head at L'Amoreaux C.I. and Maplewood High School in Scarborough, Ontario, 1976-90, and teaching at four schools in Toronto and Melbourne, Australia (Grade 7 - 12) starting in 1967. Ken was a Curriculum Coordinator responsible for Student Assessment and Evaluation for the Scarborough Board of Education and then the Toronto District School Board from March 1990 to June 1999. He has also worked as a consultant on Secondary Assessment at the Ontario Ministry of Education.

His major extra-curricular interest is field hockey, as a player, umpire and coach. As a coach, three of his players went on to represent Canada in the Olympics. He also umpired at the 1984 Olympic Games and the 1990 World Cup.

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Table of Contents

Foreword by Rick Stiggins
Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Author
Introduction
What Grading Terminology Is Needed?
What Is the Context of Grading?
Constructivist Theories of Learning
How Do These Concepts Affect Assessment?
Why Grade?
What Are the Underlying Perspectives on Grading?
Grading Practices and Guidelines
Grading Issues
1. Linking Grades
Guideline 1
The Case of Michael's Amazing Passing Shop Grade
What's the Purpose of the Guideline?
What Are the Key Elements of the Guideline?
What's the Bottom Line?
What's My Thinking Now?
A Reflection on Guideline 1
2. Using Performance Standards
Guideline 2
The Case of Sally's Shocking Grade
What's the Purpose of the Guideline?
What Are the Key Elements of the Guideline?
What's the Bottom Line?
What's My Thinking Now?
A Reflection on Guideline 2
3. Grading Individual Achievement
Guideline 3
The Case of Rick's Mysterious Falling Grade
What's the Purpose of the Guideline?
What Are the Key Elements of the Guideline?
What's the Bottom Line?
What's My Thinking Now?
A Reflection on Guideline 3
4. Sampling Student Performance
Guideline 4
The Case of Heather's Grim Grade
What's the Purpose of the Guideline?
What Are the Key Elements of the Guideline?
What's the Bottom Line?
What's My Thinking Now?
A Reflection on Guideline 4
5. Changing Grades
Guideline 5
The Case of Anil's Amazing Improvement
What's the Purpose of the Guideline?
What Are the Key Elements of the Guideline?
What's the Bottom Line?
What's My Thinking Now?
A Reflection on Guideline 5
6. Crunching Numbers
Guideline 6
The Case of Alexis' Absences
What's the Purpose of the Guideline?
What Are the Key Elements of the Guideline?
What's the Bottom Line?
What's My Thinking Now?
A Reflection on Guideline 6
7. Quality Assessment and Keeping Records
Guideline 7
The Case of Brian's Boosted Grade
What's the Purpose of the Guideline?
What Are the Key Elements of the Guideline?
What's the Bottom Line?
What's My Thinking Now?
A Reflection on Guideline 7
8. Communicating With Students About Grades
Guideline 8
The Case of Huan's Lunchtime Surprise
What's the Purpose of the Guideline?
What Are the Key Elements of the Guideline?
What's the Bottom Line?
What's My Thinking Now?
A Reflection on Guideline 8
9. Putting It All Together
Grade Book and Checklists
Conclusion
10. More Grading Issues
Grading Systems
Grading Exceptional Students
Computer Grading Programs
Calculating Grade Point Averages
Other Legal Issues
Grading Policy
11. Communicating Student Achievement to Others
Report Cards
Expanded-Format Reporting
Informal Communications
Student-Involved Conferencing
Summary
12. The Way Ahead
De-emphasizing Traditional Grades
Demystifying the Entire Grading Process
Focusing on the Process of Learning
Focusing on the Progress of the Individual Student
Summary
Recommendations
What's My Thinking Now?
Appendix I: Glossary
Appendix II: Guidelines for Grading in Standards-Based Systems
Appendix III: A Proposed Grading Policy
Bibliography
Additional Resources
Index

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