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How to Live, or A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer

How to Live, or A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer

3.8 49
by Sarah Bakewell

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How to get along with people, how to deal with violence, how to adjust to losing someone you love—such questions arise in most people’s lives. They are all versions of a bigger question: how do you live? How do you do the good or honorable thing, while flourishing and feeling happy?

This question obsessed Renaissance writers, none more than Michel


How to get along with people, how to deal with violence, how to adjust to losing someone you love—such questions arise in most people’s lives. They are all versions of a bigger question: how do you live? How do you do the good or honorable thing, while flourishing and feeling happy?

This question obsessed Renaissance writers, none more than Michel Eyquem de Monatigne, perhaps the first truly modern individual. A nobleman, public official and wine-grower, he wrote free-roaming explorations of his thought and experience, unlike anything written before. He called them “essays,” meaning “attempts” or “tries.” Into them, he put whatever was in his head: his tastes in wine and food, his childhood memories, the way his dog’s ears twitched when it was dreaming, as well as the appalling events of the religious civil wars raging around him. The Essays was an instant bestseller and, over four hundred years later, Montaigne’s honesty and charm still draw people to him. Readers come in search of companionship, wisdom and entertainment—and in search of themselves.

This book, a spirited and singular biography, relates the story of his life by way of the questions he posed and the answers he explored. It traces his bizarre upbringing, youthful career and sexual adventures, his travels, and his friendships with the scholar and poet Étienne de La Boétie and with his adopted “daughter,” Marie de Gournay. And we also meet his readers—who for centuries have found in Montaigne an inexhaustible source of answers to the haunting question, “how to live?”

Editorial Reviews

Early in her cunning reconstruction of Michel de Montaigne's life (or perhaps more accurately, of his mind), Sarah Bakewell admits that in our age "the word 'essay' falls with a dull thud." Montaigne may have virtually created the form and with it his own fame, but the essay brings the dread high school term paper balefully to mind. It takes keen devotion and some sparkling writing to save the essay (and its sixteenth-century inventor) from its reputation.

Not that Montaigne is a bore who needs rouging up. He has disarmed readers over four centuries, as generation after generation "discover" him. In reading his musings about himself they find -- themselves. "It seemed to me," Emerson wrote in baffled admiration, "as if I had myself written the book, in some former life." A century later, André Gide said pretty much the same thing: "It seems he is my very self."

Montaigne's essential discovery, still startling today, was that the self is not a problem, not even a subject, but rather a finely calibrated instrument whose purpose is to pay attention to the world. Following that hunch, he made a very modern leap, writing steadfastly from the idiosyncrasies of his point of view. He proved that individual consciousness constructs a mirror not just for the writer, but for readers to see themselves as well..Montaigne weaves his way, seemingly at random, over the sun and shade of existence, using his own consciousness as a probe to enduring questions.

Bakewell begins, as Montaigne does, with the vexing classical philosophical question of how to die well. It becomes for Montaigne the more immediate question of how to overcome fear of death, a terror that disfigured his youth. He tweezes apart the tangled strands of his own near-death experience (a violent fall from his horse), and meditates on the strangely relaxed sensation of letting go he experienced at that violent moment.

This is reminiscent of Tolstoy's description of the wounded Prince André on the field of Austerlitz in War and Peace, the uncanny calm, the free float of the self knocked off its moorings. As Montaigne writes his way around his own experience, he finds there is, after all, nothing to fear: death itself, as part of nature, supplies its own answers when the time comes.

The lifting of that terror plunges Montaigne into his essential task -- How to Live, the "One Question" that Bakewell poses, organizing her book into twenty "attempts" to investigate this mystery. Her word "attempt" is a salute to Montaigne's project, for the word he gave his writing -- essai -- did not denote a literary form as it does for us. In French it simply meant -- and means -- "a try," or as Bakewell jauntily puts it, to give something a whirl.  Montaigne's essais are the opposite of set pieces. They are hops, skips, jumps. They meander, they circle back, they contradict themselves, shift gears, come to full stops and lurch off again. In this the reader sees the one essential quality of the essayist: the mind at work (or at play?), paying attention, attempting (that Montaignean word) to make sense of sensation, observation, and perception.

Bakewell's twenty "attempts" at answers (including Don't worry about death; Pay attention; Read a lot, forget most of what you read; Be slow-witted; Keep a private room behind the shop; Be convivial with others; Be ordinary and imperfect) provide staging areas where she considers Montaigne's project and life. Her tone is immediate and searching -- very much Montaigne's tone. The scholarship necessary for the book is deftly tucked into the narrative, never clouding the stride of what are, after all, her own essays.

It is curious -- something of a tour de force -- that only at the end does it occur that Bakewell has not written in the first person. Alain de Botton's charming book, The Consolations of Philosophy (which includes a chapter on Montaigne), has many self-referential gestures, but Bakewell suits up as a literary detective, searching out the mystery of Montaigne's impulse without any autobiographical vignettes (except in the acknowledgements, where she tells how she came to read Montaigne to begin with -- completely by chance, in the off-hand style of her great model).

She has managed to bring "the first modern man" (as Montaigne is sometimes labeled) to life for our age, tipping in vivid quotations from the Essais and giving the microphone to a writer who was, finally, all voice. Her book has the narrative pace and drive of a novel, perhaps because at its core a life is at stake. Whether it is Montaigne's or Bakewell's or the reader's is impossible to say, but that is the magnificent achievement of this beguiling book.

--Patricia Hampl

Library Journal
At the beginning of this delightful book about Michel de Montaigne (1533–92), British author Bakewell (The English Dane) notes that Montaigne's essays "rarely offer to explain or teach anything." There's no moralizing. He wrote about how to live, not how one should live, unlike, for example, Francis Bacon, whose essays are from the same period. Using the question "How to live" as her framework, Bakewell gives us not only a biography of Montaigne but an exploration of the themes of his essays, a history of reaction to them both negative (e.g., René Descartes, Blaise Pascal, T.S. Eliot) and positive (e.g., Denis Diderot, Stefan Zweig, Virginia Woolf), and their implications and value for us today. VERDICT This is a rich book, both because of its subject and because Bakewell has a wondrous way with words. It's an exceptionally readable explication of serious ideas, drawn from a man whom we could all benefit from knowing better. Readers who have appreciated Alain de Botton's popular excursions into philosophy, e.g., How Proust Can Change Your Life, will love this book as well.—David Keymer, Modesto, CA
Kirkus Reviews

Former Wellcome Library curator Bakewell (Creative Writing/City Univ. London; The English Dane: A Life of Jorgen Jorgenson, 2005, etc.) sketches the life of essayist Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (1533–1592) and traces his evolving reputation.

The author notes that Montaigne is particularly appropriate in our time, "[a century] full of people who are full of themselves." He was a revolutionary writer, the founding father of the personal essay and the man who realized that his own life could serve as a mirror for others. Bakewell identifies 20 Montaignian answers to her title's question, though her treatment of each answer varies both in length and focus. Some answers occasion major biographical attention; others are dense summaries of the philosophical positions of the day. Some comprise Bakewell's appealing summaries and analyses of the essays; others elicit her thoughts on Montaigne's stature in the literary world. By the end of the book, readers will have a good sense of the sweep of the subject's life and times and writing. Among the highlights: Montaigne's notion that reading ought to be pleasurable, even exciting (he loved Ovid, Virgil, Plutarch); Bakewell's account of the profound early friendship of Montaigne and fellow French philosopher Étienne de La Boétie, whose early death devastated Montaigne; Montaigne's careful choreography with the church and its leaders, kings and other dignitaries; his late-life relationship with Marie de Gournay, who became his posthumous editor and whose work remains both revered and disdained. Bakewell describes Montaigne's travels, his physical ailments (kidney stones killed his father and plagued Montaigne as well) and his fascinations with the ordinary—from eating habits to sexual practices to observations that cats and people occupy the same space and observe one another with interest.

A bright, genial and generous introduction to the master's methods.

Michael Dirda
…packed with useful information…How to Live touches on every aspect of Montaigne's thought, life and influence, and culminates in a fascinating chapter on the complicated textual history of the Essays.
—The Washington Post
From the Publisher
“This charming biography shuffles incidents from Montaigne’s life and essays into twenty thematic chapters…Bakewell clearly relishes the anthropological anecdotes that enliven Montaigne’s work, but she handles equally well both his philosophical influences and the readers and interpreters who have guided the reception of the essays.” —The New Yorker

“Serious, engaging, and so infectiously in love with its subject that I found myself racing to finish so I could start rereading the Essays themselves…It is hard to imagine a better introduction—or reintroduction—to Montaigne than Bakewell’s book.” —Lorin Stein, Harper’s Magazine

“Ms. Bakewell’s new book, How to Live, is a biography, but in the form of a delightful conversation across the centuries.” —The New York Times

“So artful is Bakewell’s account of [Montaigne] that even skeptical readers may well come to share her admiration.” —The New York Times Book Review

“Extraordinary…a miracle of complex, revelatory organization, for as Bakewell moves along she provides a brilliant demonstration of the alchemy of historical viewpoint.” —Boston Globe

“Well, How to Live is a superb book, original, engaging, thorough, ambitious, and wise.” —Nick Hornby, in the November/December 2010 issue of The Believer
“In How to Live, an affectionate introduction to the author, Bakewell argues that, far from being a dusty old philosopher, Montaigne has never been more relevant—a 16th-century blogger, as she would have it—and so must be read, quite simply, ‘in order to live’…Bakewell is a wry and intelligent guide.” —The Daily Beast

“Witty, unorthodox…How to Live is a history of ideas told entirely on the ground, never divorced from the people thinking them. It hews close to Montaigne’s own preoccupations, especially his playful uncertainty – Bakewell is a stickler for what we can’t know. …How to Live is a delight…” —The Plain Dealer

“This book will have new readers excited to be acquainted to Montaigne’s life and ideas, and may even stir their curiosity to read more about the ancient Greek philosophers who influenced his writing. How to Live is a great companion to Montaigne’s essays, and even a great stand-alone.” —San Francisco Book Review

“A bright, genial, and generous introduction to the master’s methods.” —Kirkus Reviews
“[Bakewell reveals] one of literature's enduring figures as an idiosyncratic, humane, and surprisingly modern force.” —Publisher’s Weekly (starred)
“As described by Sarah Bakewell in her suavely enlightening How to Live, or A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer Montaigne is, with Walt Whitman, among the most congenial of literary giants, inclined to shrug over the inevitability of human failings and the last man to accuse anyone of self-absorption. His great subject, after all, was himself.” —Laura Miller, Salon.com

“Lively and fascinating . . . How To Live takes its place as the most enjoyable introduction to Montaigne in the English language.” —The Times Literary Supplement
“Splendidly conceived and exquisitely written . . . enormously absorbing.” —Sunday Times
How to Live will delight and illuminate.” —The Independent
“It is ultimately [Montaigne’s] life-loving vivacity that Bakewell succeeds in communicating to her readers.” —The Observer
“This subtle and surprising book manages the trick of conversing in a frank and friendly manner with its centuries-old literary giant, as with a contemporary, while helpfully placing Montaigne in a historical context.  The affection of the author for her subject is palpable and infectious.” —Phillip Lopate, author of The Art of the Personal Essay
“An intellectually lively treatment of a Renaissance giant and his world.” —Saturday Telegraph
“Like recent books on Proust, Joyce, and Austen, How to Live skillfully plucks a life-guide from the incessant flux of Montaigne’s prose . . . A superb, spirited introduction to the master.” —The Guardian

“[How to Live] is written in the form of a delightful conversation across the ages with one of the most appealing, likeable writers who ever lived.” —Independent Mail

"More than just a straightforward biography of Michel de Montaigne, Sarah Bakewell cleverly breaks away from chronology to explore the fundamental questions of living through the philosophy, beliefs, essays and experiences of the French master we often reference as the “father” of “essay.”—Cerise Press

"[A] must-read in its entirety." —Brainpickings

"Bakewell’s writing style is equal parts fluid and fascinating." —The Flâneur’s Turtle 

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Other Press, LLC
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Read an Excerpt

The riding accident, which so altered Montaigne’s perspective, lasted only a few moments in itself, but one can unfold it into three parts and spread it over several years. First, there is Montaigne lying on the ground, clawing at his stomach while experiencing euphoria. Then comes Montaigne in the weeks and months that followed, reflecting on the experience and trying to reconcile it with his philosophical reading. Finally, there is Montaigne a few years later, sitting down to write about it – and about a multitude of other things. The first scene could have happened to anyone; the second to any sensitive, educated young man of the Renaissance. The last makes Montaigne unique.
     The connection is not a simple one: he did not sit up in bed and immediately start writing about the accident. He began the Essays a couple of years later, around 1572, and, even then, he wrote other chapters before coming to the one about losing consciousness. When he did turn to it, however, the experience made him try a new kind of writing, barely attempted by other writers: that of re-creating a sequence of sensations as they felt from the inside, following them from instant to instant.

Meet the Author

Sarah Bakewell was a curator of early printed books at the Wellcome Library before becoming a full-time writer, publishing her highly acclaimed biographies The Smart and The English Dane. She lives in London, where she teaches creative writing at City University and catalogues rare book collections for the National Trust.

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How to Live, or A Life of Montaigne in One Question and Twenty Attempts at an Answer 3.9 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 49 reviews.
TheReadingWriter More than 1 year ago
When the publishing industry is in decline and our expectation of instant gratification make TV and the internet our primary sources for news, one would have to ask oneself: is this the best time to publish a new book on the philosophy of a discursive French essayist who died over 400 years ago? Of course, the answer would have to be "it depends." Sarah Bakewell has managed to make Michel de Montaigne seem relevant, perhaps even revolutionary, but certainly eminently likeable. Montaigne would have been an exceedingly popular blogger, for he took incidents of daily life and held them up for examination as well as using them as stepping stones to rambling narrative. He inspired loyal devotees and provoked, and enjoyed, passionate rebuttal. "No propositions astonish me, no belief offends me, whatever contrast it offers with my own." One could argue endlessly, happily, and undoubtedly profitably, with such a man. For twenty years, from ages 38 to 59, he mainly stayed at his estate in the Bordeaux region along the Dordogne River, and wrote essays. He came close to death in a riding accident, weathered various occurrences of plague (though the love of a lifetime, La Boétie, was taken), and was victim of various ailments that could have been alleviated today but which eventually killed him. Importantly, he lived through the period of time known as The Saint Bartholomew Wars, which was recently cited in a book on modern counter-insurgency as an example of one of the longest and most consequential non-state religion-based internecine conflicts characterized by extreme violence, bloodshed and carnage: Catholics on Protestants. It led Montaigne to write, "There is no hostility that exceeds Christian hostility." And yet Montaigne managed to maintain a sense of proportion and breadth of perspective that seems positively Zen. Montaigne had a fascination with pragmatic schools of philosophy like Stoicism, Epicureanism, and Skepticism. All these schools had the same aim: to achieve a way of living known as "happiness," "joy," or "human flourishing" (from the Greek eudaimonia). The schools agreed that the best path to eudaimonia was ataraxia, which can be translated as "imperturbability" or "freedom from anxiety." (Does this not sound like Buddhism to you?) It appears a key to living well, fully, and without regret is cultivating mindfulness: A person who does not sleepwalk through the world.is freed to respond to situations in the right way, without hesitation-as if they were questions asked all of a sudden, as Epictetus puts it...Whatever happens, however unforeseen it is, you should be able to respond in a suitable way. This is why, for Montaigne, learning to live "appropriately" (à propos) is the "great and glorious masterpiece" of human life. (pp. 111-112) But what it is about this book that makes me convinced there is no better time to introduce this back into the mainstream? It is Sarah Bakewell's handling of the material, in which she proves herself a fascinating conversationalist. In lesser hands, the material could have seemed distant at best. But she allows Montaigne himself to shine: his work seems as amusing and fresh as a friend declaiming over a glass of wine-red wine, white wine-you never know with with Michel. I haven't yet read Montaigne's Essays, but I certainly intend to now. It seems a pity to leave Montaigne to experts. I relished the background and erudition
voltaireTW More than 1 year ago
Montaigne is a great pleasure to read and to read about. Part of the pleasure is that his essays are so vivid while standing over 400 years away from us. On top of that, the structure of this biography is very clever. It not only provides 20 meaty answers to the question, How to Live?, but also takes us easily through Montaigne's writings, the classical sources of his writings, the events of his life, the history he lived through and the varying receptions his writing got in his and succeeding eras.
Wilvis More than 1 year ago
A "best of practice" guide to living and dying, in the form of 20 questions, drawn from sources going back three thousand years, written by a Frenchman living in the late 1500s. His name was Montaigne. Landowner, lawyer and Mayor, he had a near brush with death, and by almost dying, commenced to write about himself and his world. He published, and invented the genre of personal essay. Author Sarah Bakewell captures not only his world, but effect of Montaigne's writing on the four hundred subsequent years of authors grappling with the everyday mysteries of life and practical things you and I can do to act with honor and grace. Sarah Bakewell does us a great service by doing a hell  of a lot reading. The various authors who read Montaigne and how doing so influenced their work and life and times.  Montaigne has never gone out of print as each generation has found meaning for themselves in his musings, meanders which guide us in our own choices about how to live. I liked it so much I read large portions aloud to my wife, who asked for more!
shellyschultz More than 1 year ago
Great read....but it.....a very wise man...but lived in a different time
deadairman More than 1 year ago
Sarah Bakewell does a magnificent job of looking at a complicated man.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Clearly written with intelligence insight and wit.
ElaineDrew More than 1 year ago
This is a very readable and accessible account of Montaigne's life, times, and thought. Sarah Bakewell has made me feel as if I know the man, and he's an affable and thought-provoking companion.
TedMorgan More than 1 year ago
I just received my copy of what I think will be a terrific work. However, the poor quality of the paper on which this work is printed upsets me. Books like this, books one hopes to read more than once and to keep, ought to be printed on better quailty paper. However, This is a delightful essay. Reading it is fun. The discursive style of the book mirrors the best in Montaigne and those who emulate him. I will return to this volume from time to time.
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Positive (For the non-expert Montaigne reader): Relates many key biographical points on Montaigne's life to readers who would never have even attempted to read Montaigne; which sparks a renewed interest in Montaigne. Yay! She also does a good job of explaining complex philosophical concepts, which I would not have grasped at all in my reading of Hugo Friedrich and Jean Starobinski without her help. I mean really, how many philosophical concepts can one man convey!? My sincere thanks for making Montaigne more approachable Sarah Bakewell. Negative: Sarah Bakewell's view of Montaigne is one of a middle-aged lady from the 21st century who refuses to humble herself to understand a Christian man from the Renaissance. Instead of exploring Montaigne's Christianity, she explores her own views on spirituality and being free of judgement...both definitions that are not held by Christians of Montaigne's time, but by modern secularists in the Anglophone world. She lacks the reflective discourse necessary to gauge a figure such as Montaigne in a critical manner, yet masterfully appeals to the modern English-speaking reader with superficial musings which guide the reader into believing that not only was Montaigne "free of judgement" and "spiritual", but that this prescription be for the reader to apply this to his or her life as well. Bakewell tries so hard to fuse modern ways of thinking with Montaigne, that she actually ends by making Montaigne, for the reader, into something that he is not. As hippy dippy as she makes him seem, and her suggesting that he had an affair with his adopted daughter, and that he was having a homosexual relationship with a man simply because he admired him, I ended up feeling cheated by the end of the book because of Bakewell's lack of depth. Being adulterous with his adopted daughter and being homosexual were mentioned by Bakewell without a shred of evidence, but simply posited as things that men back then did. Her entire book has the taint of her bias. I found that Sarah Bakewell's hatred of patriarchal figures made her want to demystify Montaigne into her actually ridiculing him. Better put, she emasculates him. Sarah Bakewell made Montaigne's Essais easier to understand, but I did not learn to respect Montaigne until I actually read his work itself. I was like a child hearing stories about a deceased grandfather (Montaigne) that everyone said was so wise...unfortunately the one telling me the story was my crazy aunt Gladys (Bakewell) from Great Britain who formalized her identity during the hipster years. MJM
Anonymous More than 1 year ago
Lance_Wilcox More than 1 year ago
In writing a review of "How to Live" by Sarah Bakewell, I feel myself to be discharging a debt: Bakewell’s book provided as much sheer reading pleasure as anything I’ve come across in some time. In fact (not to get too “meta”), in writing her book, Bakewell seems to have felt she was discharging a debt to Montaigne for the same gift. For over four centuries, readers have been finding in Montaigne less an author than a friend, one of the sanest, most observant, courageous, and disarmingly modest friends one could hope for, and often one of the funniest. Few writers have ever so vividly reflected their personalities in their writing as Montaigne, or had such attractive personalities to reflect. Bakewell, who is frankly and endearingly in love with him, understands and deftly reproduces the very qualities of his writing that have made him so popular for so long. Montaigne’s great structural breakthrough was shattering the form of the autobiography and reassembling the pieces on his own terms. He presents himself and his experiences to the reader, not chronologically, but in sparkling, free-form fragments, writing about whatever strikes him at the moment. Bakewell has written a “Life” of Montaigne—not quite a “biography”—along the same lines. Each chapter explores and illuminates some aspect of Montaigne’s life, from his early (and oddly consoling) brush with death, his anguished struggle with the religious violence besetting France, and his love for his adopted (sort of) daughter, to the long gallery of new “Montaignes” constructed by each cultural period since his own. Within chapters, Bakewell is perhaps more systematic than her subject and model, but not by a lot. The result is a portrait of Montaigne along Montaigne’s own lines—relaxed, conversational, freewheeling, and sometimes (again like Montaigne) very funny.
clahain1 More than 1 year ago
A biography of literature's first essayist organized around twenty-one answers to the question: How to Live? Bakewell's exploration of Michel de Montaigne gives us a good sense of the man, his time and his philosophy...or rather his attempt to arrive at a philosophy. Montaigne was an admirer of the Skeptic and  Stoic branches of Hellenic thought, which basically tells people to a) question everything and b) take life  as it comes. This is a great prescription for studying the world and one's own mind, but it wasn't all that conducive to one's health and safety in a time of religious fanaticism and civil strife.  The author does a good job presenting the complicated political and religious conflicts of the time in a way that is understandable to those without specific knowledge about life in 16th-century France. She also shows us how Montaigne, a politician as well as a thinker, managed to negotiate his way through these troubles while keeping his humanity in tact. Some chapters are harder work than others. Bakewell also juggles three time lines: biographical, historical and literary. It requires time and close attention to take it all in. For me, it was the literary time line that lagged. All the intrigue about the many versions of the essays produced in Montaigne's lifetime and then the petty intellectual battles surrounding the editing and interpretation of the work through the centuries got a bit tedious.  Nevertheless, this is an excellent introduction for Montaigne and it made me add his daunting ESSAYS to my reading list.
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