How to Read a Paper: The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine / Edition 4

How to Read a Paper: The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine / Edition 4

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by Trisha Greenhalgh
     
 

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ISBN-10: 1444334360

ISBN-13: 9781444334364

Pub. Date: 06/15/2010

Publisher: Wiley

The book that health professionals turn to for a full and clear explanation of the principles of evidence-based medicine.

The author's descriptions of clinical research papers and how to critically appraise them are so simply presented as to be understandable by readers at all levels, from student to specialist. Chapters on searching the literature and

Overview

The book that health professionals turn to for a full and clear explanation of the principles of evidence-based medicine.

The author's descriptions of clinical research papers and how to critically appraise them are so simply presented as to be understandable by readers at all levels, from student to specialist. Chapters on searching the literature and implementing the evidence provide guidance on using evidence-based medicine in clinical practice.

This fourth edition retains the winning style, and takes in the recent developments and shifts of emphasis in evidence-based medicine and now includes:

  • Thoroughly revised and updated chapters on searching, qualitative research, systematic review, and implementing evidence-based practice

  • 2 new chapters on quality improvement and the emerging field of complex interventions

This new edition will be welcomed by those who teach and those needing to learn the basics of evidence-based medicine.

Praise for previous editions

"One of the greatest aspects of this book is the section relating to searching the literature and whilst we may think we may all practise this on a fairly regular basis under the assumption that we do a pretty decent job of it, this section holds the key to excelling."

From a review in Urology News

"This clear and concise book provides an excellent starting point for those interested in finding their way through the medical literature."

From a review in Palliative Medicine

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781444334364
Publisher:
Wiley
Publication date:
06/15/2010
Series:
HOW - How To Series, #8
Pages:
256
Product dimensions:
5.40(w) x 8.40(h) x 0.60(d)

Table of Contents


Foreword to the First Edition   Professor Sir David Weatherall     ix
Preface to the Third Edition     xi
Preface to the First Edition: do you need to read this book?     xiii
Acknowledgements     xv
Why read papers at all?     1
Does 'evidence-based medicine' simply mean 'reading papers in medical journals'?     1
Why do people often groan when you mention evidence-based medicine?     3
Before you start: formulate the problem     9
Searching the literature     15
Searching for evidence: key principles     15
Medline and other 'raw' databases     17
Databases with search filters     20
Databases of pre-appraised articles     21
Databases of synthesised evidence     23
Databases of ongoing research     24
Citation searching     24
Human contact sources     25
Worked examples of search problems     26
Getting your bearings: what is this paper about?     40
The science of 'trashing' papers     40
Three preliminary questions to get your bearings     42
Randomised controlled trials     44
Cohort studies     49
Case-control studies     50
Cross-sectional surveys     51
Case reports     52
The traditional hierarchy of evidence     53
A note on ethical considerations     53
Assessing methodological quality     59
Was the study original?     59
Whom is the study about?     60
Was the design of the study sensible?     61
Was systematic bias avoided or minimised?     62
Was assessment 'blind'?     66
Were preliminary statistical questions addressed?     67
Summing up     70
Statistics for the non-statistician     73
How can non-statisticians evaluate statistical tests?     73
Have the authors set the scene correctly?     74
Paired data, tails and outliers     79
Correlation, regression and causation     81
Probability and confidence     83
The bottom line     86
Summary     88
Papers that report drug trials     90
'Evidence' and marketing     90
Making decisions about therapy     92
Surrogate end points     93
How to get evidence out of a 'drug rep'     96
Papers that report diagnostic or screening tests      100
Ten men in the dock     100
Validating diagnostic tests against a gold standard     101
Ten questions to ask about a paper which claims to validate a diagnostic or screening test     105
A note on likelihood ratios     110
Papers that summarise other papers (systematic reviews and meta-analyses)     114
When is a review systematic?     114
Evaluating systematic reviews     117
Meta-analysis for the non-statistician     122
Explaining heterogeneity     126
New approaches to systematic review     130
Papers that tell you what to do (guidelines)     134
The great guidelines debate     134
How can we help ensure that evidence-based guidelines are followed?     137
Ten questions to ask about a clinical guideline     142
Papers that tell you what things cost (economic analyses)     152
What is economic analysis?     152
Measuring costs and benefits of health interventions     154
Ten questions to ask about an economic analysis     159
Conclusion     163
Papers that go beyond numbers (qualitative research)     166
What is qualitative research?     166
Evaluating papers that describe qualitative research      170
Conclusion     177
Papers that report questionnaire research     180
The rise and rise of questionnaire research     180
Ten questions to ask about a paper describing a questionnaire study     181
Getting evidence into practice     191
Why are health professionals slow to adopt evidence-based practice?     191
How can we influence health professionals' behaviour to promote evidence-based practice?     193
What does an 'evidence-based organisation' look like?     198
What evidenced-based interventions are there for achieving organisational change to support evidence-based practice?     200
Why is it so hard to yet evidence into policy making?     205
Checklists for finding, appraising and implementing evidence     212
Assessing the effects of an intervention     220
Index     221

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How to Read a Paper: The Basics of Evidence-Based Medicine 2.7 out of 5 based on 0 ratings. 3 reviews.
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