How to Think Logically / Edition 1

How to Think Logically / Edition 1

by Gary Seay
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0321337778

ISBN-13: 9780321337771

Pub. Date: 08/23/2007

Publisher: Longman

This concise, affordable, and engaging new text is designed for introductory courses on logic and critical thinking. This unique book covers the basic principles of informal logic while also raising substantive issues in other areas of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science.

The author’s presentation strikes

Overview

This concise, affordable, and engaging new text is designed for introductory courses on logic and critical thinking. This unique book covers the basic principles of informal logic while also raising substantive issues in other areas of philosophy: epistemology, ethics, philosophy of language, and philosophy of science.

The author’s presentation strikes a careful balance: it offers clear, jargon-free writing while preserving rigor. Brimming with numerous pedagogical features this accessible text assists students with analysis, reconstruction, and evaluation of arguments and helps them become independent, analytical thinkers. Introductory students are exposed to the basic principles of reasoning while also having their appetites whetted for future courses in philosophy.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780321337771
Publisher:
Longman
Publication date:
08/23/2007
Series:
Penguin Academics Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
592
Product dimensions:
5.35(w) x 8.28(h) x 1.06(d)

Table of Contents

Preface

Acknowledgments

About the Authors

PART I: THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF REASONING

CHAPTER ONE

What Is Logical Thinking? And Why Should We Care?

1.1 The Study of Reasoning

Inference or Argument

1.2 Logic and Reasoning

Dimensions of the Subject

Formal Logic

Informal Logic

EXERCISES

1.3

Arguments and Non-Arguments

1.4 Argument Analysis

Reconstructing and Evaluating Arguments

Identifying Premises and Conclusion

Premise and Conclusion Indicators

Arguments with No Premise or Conclusion Indicator

EXERCISES

1.5 The Philosopher’s Corner

What is Philosophical About All This

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

1.6 Chapter Summary

1.7 Key Words

CHAPTER TWO

Thinking Logically and Speaking One’s Mind

2.1 Rational Acceptability

Logical Connectedness

Evidential Support

Truth and Evidence

2.2 Beyond Rational Acceptability

Linguistic Merit

Retorical Power

Rhetoric vs. Logical Thinking

EXERCISES

2.3 From Belief to Statement

Propositions

2.4 Uses of Language

Types of Sentence

Declarative Sentences

2.5 Indirect and Non-Literal Language

Indirect Language

Non-Literal Language

EXERCISES

2.6 The Philosopher’s Corner

The Study of Language and Its Dimensions

Type and Token

Use and Mention

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

2.7 Chapter Summary

2.8 Key Words

CHAPTER THREE

The Virtues of Belief

3.1 Belief, Disbelief, and Non-Belief

EXERCISES

3.2 Beliefs’ Virtues and Vices

3.3 Accuracy and Truth

Accuracy and Inaccuracy

Truth and Falsity

3.4 Reasonableness

Empirical and Conceptual Reasonableness

3.5 Consistency

Defining ‘Consistency’ and ‘Inconsistency’

Logically Possible Propositions

Logically Impossible Propositions

Consistency and Possible Worlds

Consistency in Logical Thinking

3.6 Conservatism and Revisability

Conservatism Without Dogmatism

Revisability Without Relativism

3.7 Rationality vs. Irrationality

EXERCISES

3.8 The Philosopher’s Corner

Evaluative Reasons

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

3.9 Chapter Summary

3.10 Key Words

PART II: REASON AND ARGUMENT

CHAPTER FOUR

Tips for Argument Analysis

4.1 A Principled Way of Reconstructing Arguments

Faithfulness

Charity

When Faithfulness and Charity Conflict

4.2 Missing Premises

4.3 Extended Arguments

EXERCISES

4.4 Types of Reason and Types of Argument

Deductive vs. Inductive Arguments

4.5 Evaluative Arguments with Missing Premises

Evaluative Arguments

Moral Arguments and Moral Principles

Implicit Evaluative Premises

EXERCISES

4.6 The Philosopher’s Corner

Can ‘Ought’ Follow Deductively from ‘Is’? Hume’s Position

Searle’s Reply

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

4.7 Chapter Summary

4.8 Key Words

CHAPTER FIVE

Evaluating Deductive Arguments

5.1 Valid Arguments

‘Validity’ as a Technical Term

EXERCISES

Some Valid Propositional Argument Forms

Some Valid Syllogistic Argument Forms

The Cash Value of Validity

EXERCISES

5.2 Sound vs. Unsound Arguments

The Cash Value of Soundness

5.3 Cogent vs. Non-Cogent Arguments

The Cash Value of Cogency

EXERCISES

5.4 The Philosopher’s Corner

Deductive Arguments and the A Priori/A Posteriori Distinction

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

5.5 Chapter Summary

5.6 Key Words

CHAPTER SIX

Analyzing Inductive Arguments

6.1 Reconstructing Inductive Arguments

What Is an Inductive Argument?

6.2 Some Types of Inductive Argument

Enumerative Induction

Statistical Syllogism Causal Argument

Analogy

EXERCISES

6.3 Evaluating Inductive Arguments

Inductive Reliability

Inductive Strength

EXERCISES

6.4 The Philosopher’s Corner

Is Natural Science Inductive?

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

6.5 Chapter Summary

6.6 Key Words

PART III: INFORMAL FALLACIES

CHAPTER SEVEN

Some Ways an Argument Can Fail

7.1 What Is a Fallacy?

7.2 Classification of Informal Fallacies

7.3 When Inductive Arguments Go Wrong

Hasty Generalization

Weak Analogy

False Cause

Appeal to Ignorance

Appeal to Unqualified Authority

EXERCISES

7.4 The Philosopher’s Corner

Appeal to Ignorance in Philosophical Arguments

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

7.5 Chapter Summary

7.6 Key Words

CHAPTER EIGHT

Avoiding Ungrounded Assumptions

8.1 Fallacies of Presumption

8.2 Begging the Question

Circular Reasoning

The Burden of Proof

8.3 Begging-the-Question-Against

EXERCISES

8.4 Complex Question

8.5 False Alternatives

8.6 Accident

EXERCISES

8.7 The Philosopher’s Corner

Is the Open Question Argument Viciously Circular?

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

8.8 Chapter Summary

8.9 Key Words

CHAPTER NINE

From Unclear Language to Unclear Reasoning

9.1 Unclear Language and Argument Failure

9.2 Semantic Unclarity

9.3 Vagueness

The Sorites Paradox

The Slippery Slope Fallacy

9.4 Ambiguity

Equivocation

Amphiboly

9.5 Confused Predication

Composition

Division

9.6 Antidote to Unclear Language: Semantic Definitions

Reportive Definitions

The Method of Counterexample

Ostensive and Contextual Definitions

9.7 The Philosopher’s Corner

Real Definitions

Philosophical Analysis

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

9.8 Chapter Summary

9.9 Key Words

CHAPTER TEN

Avoiding Irrelevant Premises

10.1 Fallacies of Relevance

10.2 Appeal to Pity

10.3 Appeal to Force

10.4 Appeal to Emotion

The Bandwagon Appeal

Appeal to Vanity

10.5 Ad Hominem

The Abusive Ad Hominem

Tu Quoque

Non-Fallacious Ad Hominem

10.6 Beside the Point

10.7 Straw Man

EXERCISES

10.8 The Philosopher’s Corner

Is the Appeal to Emotion Always Fallacious?

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

10.9 Chapter Summary

10.10 Key Words

PART IV: MORE ON DEDUCTIVE REASONING

CHAPTER ELEVEN

Compound Propositions

11.1 Argument as a Relation Between Propositions

11.2 Simple and Compound Propositions

Negation

Conjunction

Disjunction

Material Conditional

Material Biconditional

11.3 A Closer Look at Compound Propositions

Punctuation Symbols

Well-Formed Formulas

EXERCISES

11.4 Defining Connectives with Truth Tables

11.5 Truth Tables for Compound Propositions

11.6 Logically Necessary and Logically Contingent Propositions

Tautologies

Contradictions

Contingencies

EXERCISES

11.7 The Philosopher’s Corner

Tautologies and Other Necessary Propositions

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

11.8 Chapter Summary

11.9 Key Words

CHAPTER TWELVE

Checking the Validity of Propositional Arguments

12.1 Checking Validity with Truth Tables

EXERCISES

12.2 Reviewing Some Standard Argument Forms

Modus Ponens

Modus Tollens

Contraposition

Hypothetical Syllogism

Disjunctive Syllogism

EXERCISES

12.3 Formal Fallacies

Affirming the Consequent

Denying the Antecedent

Affirming a Disjunct

EXERCISES

12.4 An Informal Approach to Proofs of Validity

The Basic Rules

What Is a Proof of Validity

How to Construct a Proof of Validity

Proofs vs. Truth Tables

EXERCISES

12.5 The Philosopher’s Corner

Reductio ad Absurdum Arguments

Reductio in Philosophy

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

12.6 Chapter Summary

12.7 Key Words

CHAPTER THIRTEEN

Categorical Propositions

13.1

What Is a Categorical Proposition?

Categorical Propositions

Standard Form Categorical Propositions

Non-Standard Categorical Propositions

EXERCISES

13.2 Venn Diagrams for Categorical Propositions

EXERCISES

13.3 The Square of Opposition

The Traditional Square of Opposition

Existential Import

The Modern Square of Opposition

EXERCISES

13.4 Other Immediate Inferences

Conversion

Obversion

Contraposition

EXERCISES

13.5 The Philosopher’s Corner

Generalization and the Appeal to Counterexample

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

13.6 Chapter Summary

13.7 Key Words

CHAPTER FOURTEEN

Categorical Syllogisms

14.1 What Is a Categorical Syllogism

Recognizing Categorical Syllogisms

14.2 Mood and Figure

EXERCISES

14.3 Testing for Valid ity with Venn Diagrams

EXERCISES

14.4 Distribution of Terms

14.5 Rules of Validity and Fallacies

EXERCISES

14.6 The Philosopher’s Corner

Standard Syllogisms and Singular Propositions

EXERCISES

WRITING PROJECT

14.7 Chapter Summary

14.8 Key Words

Appendix: Summary of Informal Fallacies

Answers to Selected Exercises

Glossary/Index

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