How to Write Anything: A Guide and Reference with Readings / Edition 2

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How to Write Anything supports students wherever they are in their writing process.  Designed to be clear and simple, the Guide lays out focused advice for writing common academic and real-world genres, while the Reference covers the range of writing skills that students needs as they work across genres and disciplines. Genre-based readings — including narratives, reports, arguments, evaluations, proposals and rhetorical, causal, and literary analyses — are sure to engage students and inspire ideas.  The result is everything you need to teach composition in a flexible, highly visual guide, reference and reader. This new edition gives students more support for academic writing, more help choosing and working with genres, and more emphasis on multimodal composing. Read the preface.


Order E-Library for How to Write Anything, Second Edition packaged with:

  • How to Write Anything, Second Edition [paperback] using ISBN-13 978-1-4576-2265-6
  • How to Write Anything, Second Edition [spiral bound] using ISBN-13 978-1-4576-2283-0
  • How to Write Anything with Readings, Second Edition [paperback] using ISBN-13 978-1-4576-2264-9
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312674892
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 1/10/2012
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1072
  • Sales rank: 127,020
  • Product dimensions: 7.30 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

JOHN J. RUSZKIEWICZ is a professor at the University of Texas at Austin where he has taught literature, rhetoric, and writing for more than thirty years. A winner of the President’s Associates Teaching Excellence Award, he was instrumental in creating the Department of Rhetoric and Writing in 1993 and directed the unit from 2001-05. He has also served as president of the Conference of College Teachers of English (CCTE) of Texas. For Bedford/St. Martin's, he is also the co-author, with Andrea A. Lunsford, of The Presence of Others, Fifth Edition, and Everything's an Argument, Fifth Edition.

JAY DOLMAGE is an Assistant Professor of English at the University of Waterloo, acting Chair of the NCTE Committee on Disability Issues in College Composition, and a member of the NCTE Public Language Awards Committee. His award-winning research on rhetoric and the teaching of writing has appeared in many journals and anthologies, including College English, CCC, Rhetoric Review, JAC, Prose Studies, and Disability Studies Quarterly. He is also co-editor of the professional resources Disability and the Teaching of Writing (Bedford/St.Martin’s 2008) and The Bedford Bibliographer (2010).

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Table of Contents

* Chapter is new to this edition




1  Narratives

Why choose a narrative?
REFLECTION: Mark Edmunson, The Pink Floyd Night School
Exploring purpose and topic Understanding your audience Finding and developing materials Creating a structure Choosing a style and design Examining models
LITERACY NARRATIVE: Richard Rodriguez, Strange Tools     
STUDENT MEMOIR: Miles Pequeno, Check. Mate.
GRAPHIC NOVEL: Marjane Satrapi, from Persepolis


2  Reports 
Why choose a report?
NEWS REPORT: Laura Layton, Uranus’s Second Ring-Moon System
Exploring purpose and topic Understanding your audience Finding and developing materials Creating a structure Choosing a style and design Examining models
INVESTIGATIVE REPORT:  Tyghe Trimble, The Running Shoe Debate
ACADEMIC REPORT: Annie Winsett, Inner and Outer Beauty
FLOW CHART/PROCESS REPORT: Worth and Cooper Guasco, How a Bill Becomes a Law


3  Arguments 
Why choose an argument?
ARGUMENT TO ADVANCE A THESIS: Scott Keyes, Stop Asking Me My Major
Exploring purpose and topic Understanding your audience Finding and developing materials Creating a structure Choosing a style and design Examining models
EXPLORATORY ARGUMENT: Lynn Ehlers, “’Play Freebird!’ ”
REFUTATION ARGUMENT: Cathy Young, Duke’s Sexist Sexual Misconduct Policy
VISUAL ARGUMENT: Visualizing the BP Oil Spill


4  Evaluations Why choose evaluations and reviews?
PRODUCT REVIEW: David PogueLooking at the iPad from Two Angles
Exploring purpose and topic Understanding your audience Finding and developing materials Creating a structure Choosing a style and design Examining models
ARTS REVIEW: Christopher Isherwood, Stomping onto Broadway with a Punk Temper Tantrum
SOCIAL SATIRE: Jordyn Brown,  A Word from My Anti-Phone Soapbox
VISUAL COMPARISONInsurance Institute for Highway Safety, Crash Test


5  Causal Analyses Why choose an causal analysis?
CAUSAL ANALYSIS: Jonah Goldberg, Global Warming and the Sun
Exploring purpose and topic Understanding your audience Finding and developing materials Creating a structure Choosing a style and design Examining models
RESEARCH STUDY: Kyu-Heong Kim, Bending the Rules for ESL Writers
EXPLORATORY ESSAY: Liza Mundy, What’s Really Behind the Plunge in Teenage Pregnancy
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Charles Paul Freund, The Politics of Pants


6  Proposals Why choose a proposal?
TRIAL BALLOON: Barrett Seaman, How Bingeing Became the New College Sport
Exploring purpose and topic Understanding your audience Finding and developing materials Creating a structure Choosing a style and design Examining models
FORMAL PROPOSAL: Donald Lazere, A Core Curriculum for Civic Literacy
MANIFESTO OR SUGGESTION: Katelyn VincentTechnology Time-out
VISUAL PROPOSAL: Palletttruth.comAsian LongHorned Beetles…


7  Literary Analyses 
Why choose a literary analysis?
LITERARY INTERPRETATION: Kelsi Stayart, Authentic Beauty in Morrison’s The Bluest Eye Exploring purpose and topic Understanding your audience Finding and developing materials Creating a structure Choosing a style and design Examining models
CLOSE READING: Kanaka Sathasivan, Insanity: Two Women
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Kelli Marshall, Glee’s Unevenness Explained
Dorothea Lange, Jobless on Edge of Pea Field, Imperial Valley, California
Walker Evans, Burroughs Family Cabin, Hale County, Alabama
Gordon Parks, American Gothic


8  Rhetorical Analyses 
Why choose a rhetorical analysis?
ANALYSIS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT: Seth Stevenson, Can Cougars Sell Cough Drops?
Exploring purpose and topic Understanding your audience Finding and developing materials Creating a structure Choosing a style and design Examining models
ANALYSIS OF AN ARGUMENT: Matthew James Nance, A Mockery of Justice
ANALYSIS OF A VISUAL TEXT: J. Reagan Tankersly, Humankind’s Ourobouros
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Beth Teitell, A Jacket of The People


9  Essay Examinations 
Understanding essay exams
Wade Lamb, Plato’s Phaedrus
Getting the details right


10  Position Papers Understanding position papers
Heidi Rogers, Triumph of the Lens
Getting the details right
11  Annotated Bibliographies*
Understanding annotated bibliographies Getting the details right


12  Synthesis Paper*
Understanding synthesis papers Getting the details right


13  E-mail  
Understanding e-mail
John Ruszkiewicz, Annual Big Bend Trip
Getting the details right
14  Business Letters 
Understanding business letters
Nancy Linn, Cover Letter
John Humbert, To Home Design Magazine
Getting the details right


15  Résumés 

Understanding résumés
Andrea Palladino, Résumé
Getting the details right


16  Personal Statements 
Understanding personal statements
Michael Villaverde, Application Essay for American Service Partnership Foundation Internship
Getting the details right


17  Lab Reports Understanding lab reports
Sandra Ramos, Synthesis of Luminol
Getting the details right
18  Oral Reports 
Understanding oral reports
Terri Sagastume, Presentation on Edenlawn Estates
Getting the details right


Part 3  IDEAS

19  Brainstorming 
Find routines that support thinking 
Build lists 
Map your ideas 
Try freewriting 
Use memory prompts 
Search online for your ideas 

VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Browse for Ideas


20  Brainstorming with Others 
Choose a leader 
Begin with a goal and set an agenda 
Set time limits 
Encourage everyone to participate 
Avoid premature criticism 
Test all ideas 
Keep good records 
Agree on an end product


21  Smart Reading Read to deepen what you already know Read above your level of knowledge Read what makes you uncomfortable Read against the grain Read slowly Annotate what you read Read visually


22  Critical Thinking*
Think in terms of claims and reasons Think in terms of premises and assumptions Think in terms of evidence Anticipate objections Avoid logical fallacies


23  Experts 
Talk with your instructor 
Take your ideas to the writing center 
Find local experts 
Check with librarians 
Chat with peers
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Use the Writing Center


24  Writer’s Block 
Break the project into parts Set manageable goals Create a calendar Limit distractions Do the parts you like first Write a zero draft Reward yourself


25  Genre*
Recognize the variety of genres Know how to use genres Appreciate that genres change


26  Thesis Write a complete sentence Make a significant claim or assertion Write a declarative sentence, not a question Expect your thesis to mature Introduce a thesis early in a project Or state a thesis late in a project Write a thesis to fit your audience and purpose


27  Strategies*
Use description to set a scene Use division to divide a subject Use classification to sort objects or ideas by consistent principles Use definition to clarify meaning Use comparison and contrast to show similarity and difference


28  Organization Examine model documents Sketch out a plan or sequence Visualize structure when appropriate Provide clear steps or signals for readers Deliver on your commitments


29  Outlines Begin with scratch outlines List key ideas Look for relationships Subordinate ideas Decide on a sequence Move up to a formal outline


30  Paragraphs Make sure paragraphs lead somewhere Develop ideas adequately Organize paragraphs logically Design paragraphs for readability Use paragraphs to manage transitions


31  Transitions Use appropriate transitional words and phrases Use the right word or phrase to show time or sequence Use sentence structure to connect ideas Pay attention to nouns and pronouns Use synonyms Use physical devices for transitions Read a draft aloud to locate weak transitions


31  Introductions Announce your project Preview your project Provide background information Catch the attention of readers Set a tone Follow any required formulas Write an introduction when you’re ready


33  Conclusions Summarize your points, then connect them Reveal your point Finish dramatically


34  Titles Use titles to focus documents Create searchable titles Avoid whimsical or suggestive titles Capitalize and punctuate titles carefully

Part 5  STYLE


35  High, Middle, Low Style Use high style for formal, scientific, and scholarly writing Use middle style for personal, argumentative, and some academic writing Use a low style for personal, informal, and even playful writing


36  Inclusive and Culturally Sensitive Style Avoid expressions that stereotype genders Avoid expressions that stereotype races, ethnic groups, or religious groups Treat all people with respect Avoid sensational language


37  Vigorous, Clear, Economical Style Improve your sentences Use strong, concrete subjects and objects Avoid clumsy noun phrases Avoid sentences with long windups Avoid strings of prepositional phrases Avoid doublings Turn clauses into more direct modifiers Cut introductory expressions such as it is and there is/are when you can Vary your sentence lengths and structures Listen to what you have written Cut a first draft by 25 percent—or more



38   Revising Your Own Work Revise to see the big picture Edit to make the paper flow Edit to get the details right

VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Revise your Work


39   Peer Editing Peer edit the same way you revise your own work Be specific in identifying problems or opportunities Offer suggestions for improvement Praise what is genuinely good in the paper Use proofreading symbols Keep comments tactful
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Insert a Comment in a Word Document


40   Beginning Your Research Know your assignment Come up with a plan Find a manageable topic Seek professional help Distinguish between primary and secondary sources Record every source you examine Prepare a topic proposal


41   Finding Print and Online Sources Learn to navigate the library catalog Locate research guides Identify the best reference tools for your needs Use online sources intelligently


42   Doing Field Research Interview people with unique knowledge of your subject Make careful and verifiable observations Learn more about field work


43   Evaluating Sources Preview source materials for their key features and strategies Check who published or produced the source Check who wrote the work Consider the audience for a source Establish how current a source is Check the source’s documentation


44  Annotating Sources Annotate a source to understand it Read sources to identify claims Read sources to understand assumptions Read sources to find evidence Record your personal reactions to source material

45  Summarizing Use a summary to recap what a writer has said Be sure your summary is accurate and complete Use a summary to record your take on a source Prepare a summary to provide a useful record of a source Use summaries to prepare an annotated bibliography


46   Paraphrasing Sources Identify the key claims and structure of the source Track the source faithfully Record key pieces of evidence Be certain your notes are entirely in your own words Avoid misleading or inaccurate paraphrasing Use your paraphrases to synthesize sources


47  Integrating Sources into Your Work Cue the reader whenever you introduce borrowed material, whether it is summarized, paraphrased, or quoted directly Select an appropriate “verb of attribution” to frame borrowed material Use ellipsis marks […]to shorten a length quotation Use brackets [ ] to insert explanatory material into a quotation Use ellipsis marks, brackets, and other devices to make quoted materials suit the grammar of your sentences Use [sic] to signal an obvious error in quoted material


48  Documenting Sources Understand the point of documentation Understand what you accomplish through documentation


49   MLA Documentation and Format Document sources according to convention MLA in-text citation General Guidelines for MLA Works Cited Entries MLA works cited entries
VISUAL TUTORIAL:  How to Cite from a Book VISUAL TUTORIAL:  How to Cite from a magazine VISUAL TUTORIAL:  How to Cite from a Web Site VISUAL TUTORIAL:  How to Cite from a Database
Sample MLA pages


50   APA Documentation and Format APA in-text citation APA reference entries
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Cite from a Database
Sample APA pages



51   Understanding Digital Media*
Choose a media format based on what you hope to accomplish Use blogs to create communities Create Web sites to share information Use Wikis to collaborate with others Make podcasts to share audio files Use maps to position ideas Make “movies” to show and tell Try remixes and mashups to create something new


52   Digital Elements*
Have good reasons for using new media Download and save digital elements Use tools to edit digital media Use appropriate digital formats Caption images correctly Respect copyrights
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Insert an Image into a Word Document


53   Charts, Tables and Graphs Use tables to present statistical data Use line graphs to display changes or trends Use bar and column graphs to plot relationships within sets of data Use pie charts to display proportions Use maps to display varying types of information Explore the possibilities of infographics


54    Designing Print and Online Documents Keep page designs simple and uncluttered Keep the design logical and consistent Keep the design balanced Use templates sensibly Coordinate your colors Use headings if needed Choose appropriate fonts




55  Capitalization Capitalize the names of ethnic, religious, and political groups Capitalize modifiers formed from proper nouns Capitalize all words in titles except prepositions, articles, or conjunctions Take care with compass points, directions, and specific geographical areas Understand academic conventions Capitalize months, days, holidays, and historical periods


56  Apostrophes Use apostrophes to form the possessive Use apostrophes in contractions Don’t use apostrophes with possessive pronouns


57  Commas Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction to separate two independent clauses Use a comma after an introductory word group Use commas with transitional words and phrases Put Commas around nonrestrictive (that is, nonessential) elements Use commas to separate items in a series Do not use commas to separate compound verbs Do not use a comma between subject and verb Do not use commas to set off restrictive elements

58  Comma Splices, Run-ons, Fragments Identify comma splices and run-ons Fix  comma splices and run-ons Identify sentence fragments Fix sentence fragments in your work Watch for fragments in the following situations Use deliberate fragments only in appropriate situations


59  Subject/Verb Agreement Be sure the verb agrees with its real subject In most cases, treat multiple subjects joined by and as plural When compound subjects are linked by either…or or neither…nor, make the verb agree with the nearer part of the subject Confirm whether an indefinite pronoun is singular, plural, or variable Be consistent with collective nouns


60  Irregular Verbs


61  Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement Check the number of indefinite pronouns Correct sexist pronoun usage Treat collective nouns consistently


62  Pronoun Reference Clarify confusing pronoun antecedents Make sure a pronoun has a plausible antecedent Be certain that the antecedent of this, that, or which isn’t vague


63  Pronoun Case Use the subjective case for pronouns that are subjects Use the objective case for pronouns that are objects Use whom when appropriate Finish comparisons to determine the right case Don’t be misled by an appositive


64  Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers Position modifiers close to the words they modify Place adverbs such as only, almost, especially, and even carefully Don’t allow a modifier to dangle


65  Parallelism When possible, make compound items parallel Keep items in a series parallel Keep headings and lists parallel

Part 10  READINGS 


66  Narrative: Readings 
LITERACY NARRATIVE: David Sedaris, Me Talk Pretty One Day
MEMOIR: Rob SheffieldRumblefish                       
GRAPHIC NOVEL EXCERPT: Lynda Barry, Lost and Found 
MEMOIR: Naomi Shihab Nye, Mint Snowball 
MEMOIR: Ira Sukrungruang, Chop Suey 
*LITERACY NARRATIVE: Jonathan Franzen, The Comfort Zone


67  Report: Readings 
INFORMATIVE REPORT: Sharon Begley, Learning to Love Climate “Adaptation” 
*INFORMATIVE REPORT: David Wolman, The Truth About Autism
*INFORMATIVE REPORT: Kathryn Miles, Dog is Our Co-Pilot
*LEGAL REPORT: Philip DeLoria, Cherokee Nation Decision
*DESCRIPTIVE REPORT: Molly Young, Sweatpants in Paradise

68  Argument: Readings 
*OP-ED: Maureen Dowd, Don't Send in the Clones
PROFILE: Nancy Gibbs, Cool Running 
ARGUMENT FOR CHANGE: Emily Bazelon, Hitting Bottom: Why America Should Outlaw Spanking 
ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL VALUES: Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel, The Young, the Rich, and the Famous: Individualism as an American Cultural Value
*POLICY ARGUMENT: Daniel Engber, Glutton Intolerance


69  Evaluation: Readings 
CULTURAL REVIEW: Carrie Brownstein, So I Thought I Could Dance
*SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION: Michio Kaku, Force Fields
*TECHNOLOGY REVIEW: Sasha Frere Jones, You, the DJ
*TELEVISION REVIEW: Nelle Engoron, Why Mad Men is Bad for Women
*CONCERT REVIEW: Ann Powers, Live Review: Lady Gaga at Staples Center


70  Causal Analysis: Readings 
*TECHNOLOGY ANALYSIS: Nicholas Carr, Is Google Making Us Stupid?
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Natalie Angier, Almost Before We Spoke, We Swore 
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Alex Williams, Here I Am Taking My Own Picture 
*CAUSAL ANALYSIS: Virginia Postrel, Pop Psychology
*EXPLORATORY ESSAY: Tricia Rose, Hip Hop Causes Violence


71  Proposal: Readings 
*PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE: Bill and Melinda Gates, Educating America’s Young People for the Global Economy
PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE: Eileen McDonagh and Laura Pappano, Time to Change the Rules
*PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE: Thomas Friedman, Start-Ups, Not Bailouts
*SATIRICAL PROPOSAL: Kembrew McLeod, A Modest Free-Market Proposal for Education Reform
*PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE: Peter Singer, One Person, One Share of the Atmosphere


72  Literary Analysis: Readings 
*FORMAL ANALYSIS: Adam Bradley, Rap Poetry 101
Charles Schulz, Peanuts Cartoon 
Geraldine Deluca, “I felt a Funeral, in my Brain”: The Fragile Comedy of Charles Schulz 
Joni Mitchell, “Woodstock” (song lyrics) 
Camille Paglia, “Woodstock” 
*HISTORICAL ANALYSIS: Sara Buttsworth, Twilight, Fairy Tales, and the Twenty-First-Century American Dream
*CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Gish Jen, Holden Raises Hell


73  Rhetorical Analysis: Readings 
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: Deborah Tannen, Oh, Mom. Oh, Honey.: Why Do You Have to Say That? 
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Laurie Fendrich, The Beauty of the Platitude 
MEDIA ANALYSIS: John W. Jordan, Sports Commentary and the Problem of Television Knowledge 
*ANALYSIS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT: Carolyn Leader, Dudes Come Clean

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