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Overview

Instructors at hundreds of colleges and universities have turned to How to Write Anything for clear, focused writing advice that gives students just what they need, when they need it. And students love it—because John Ruszkiewicz’s tone makes writing in any genre approachable, with a flexible, rhetorical framework for a range of common academic and real-world genres, and a reference with extra support for writing, research, design, style, and grammar.

The new edition is accompanied and enhanced by LaunchPad for How to Write Anything, an online course space of pre-built units featuring the full e-text, multimodal readings, and adaptive LearningCurve activities to help students hone their understanding of reading and writing. The new edition also gives students more support for writing portfolios, more help working with the concept of genre, and more emphasis on critical reading and writing—all essential to academic success. And you’ll find more teaching ideas and syllabi from the community of teachers led by coauthor Jay Dolmage. The result is everything you need to teach composition in a flexible and highly visual guide, reference, and reader.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781457602436
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 1/5/2012
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Edition description: Second Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 704
  • Sales rank: 137,252
  • Product dimensions: 7.20 (w) x 9.10 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author

JOHN J. RUSZKIEWICZ is a professor at the University of Texas at Austin where he has taught literature, rhetoric, and writing for more than thirty years. A winner of the President’s Associates Teaching Excellence Award, he was instrumental in creating the Department of Rhetoric and Writing in 1993 and directed the unit from 2001-05. He has also served as president of the Conference of College Teachers of English (CCTE) of Texas. For Bedford/St. Martin's, he is also the co-author, with Andrea A. Lunsford, of The Presence of Others, Fifth Edition, and Everything's an Argument, Fifth Edition.

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents

Preface 

guide

Part 1 Genres 

1 Narratives 

Deciding to write a narrative 
   *LITERACY NARRATIVE: Allegra Goodman, O.K., You’re Not Shakespeare. Now Get Back to Work
Exploring purpose and topic 
   Brainstorm, freewrite, build lists, and use memory prompts 
   Choose a manageable subject 
Understanding your audience 
   Focus on people 
   Select events that will keep readers engaged 
   Pace the story 
   Adjust your writing to intended readers 
Finding and developing materials 
   Consult documents 
   Consult images 
   Talk to the people involved 
  Trust your experiences 
Creating a structure 
   Consider a simple sequence 
   Build toward a climax 
Choosing a style and design 
   Don’t hesitate to use first person—I 
   Use figures of speech such as similes, metaphors, and analogies to make memorable comparisons 
  In choosing verbs, favor active rather than passive voice 
  Keep the language simple
   Develop major characters through action and dialogue 
   Develop the setting to set the context and mood 
   Use images to tell a story 
Examining models 
   MEMOIR/REFLECTION: Miles Pequeno, Check. Mate? 
   GRAPHIC NARRATIVE (EXCERPT): Marjane Satrapi, from Persepolis 
  ASSIGNMENTS 

2 Reports 

Deciding to write a report 
   Present information 
   Find reliable sources 
   Aim for objectivity 
   Present information clearly 
    *RESEARCH REPORT: Susan Wilcox, Marathons for Women 
Exploring purpose and topic 
   Answer questions 
   Review what is already known about a subject 
   Report new knowledge 
Understanding your audience 
   Suppose you are the expert 
   Suppose you are the novice 
  Suppose you are the peer 
Finding and developing materials 
   Base reports on the best available sources 
   Base reports on multiple sources 
  Fact-check your report 
Creating a structure 
   Organize by date, time, or sequence 
   Organize by magnitude or order of importance 
   Organize by division 
   Organize by classification 
   Organize by position, location, or space 
   Organize by definition 
   Organize by comparison/contrast 
   Organize by thesis statement 
Choosing a style and design 
  Present the facts cleanly 
  Keep out of it 
   Avoid connotative language 
   Pay attention to elements of design 
Examining models 
  *FEATURE STORY: Lev Grossman, From Scroll to Screen 
  *INFOGRAPHIC: The White House, Wind Technologies Market Report 2012 
    ASSIGNMENTS 

3 Arguments 

Deciding to write an argument 
  Offer levelheaded and disputable claims 
  Offer good reasons to support a claim 
  Understand opposing claims and points of view 
  Frame arguments powerfully—and not in words only 
   *ARGUMENT TO ADVANCE A THESIS: Stefan Casso, Worth the Lie 
Exploring purpose and topic 
   Learn much more about your subject 
   State a preliminary claim, if only for yourself 
   Qualify your claim to make it reasonable 
   Examine your core assumptions 
Understanding your audience 
   Consider and control your ethos 
   Consider self-imposed limits 
   Consider the worlds of your readers 
Finding and developing materials 
   List your reasons 
  Assemble your hard evidence 
  Cull the best quotations 
  Find counterarguments 
  Consider emotional appeals 
Creating a structure 
   Make a point or build toward one 
   Spell out what’s at stake
   Address counterpoints when necessary, not in a separate section 
   Hold your best arguments for the end 
Choosing a style and design 
  Invite readers with a strong opening 
  Write vibrant sentences 
  Ask rhetorical questions 
  Use images and design to make a point 
Examining models 
  *REFUTATION ARGUMENT: Bjørn Lomborg, The Limits of Panic 
  *VISUAL ARGUMENT: Matt Bors, Can We Stop Worrying about Millenials Yet? 
   ASSIGNMENTS 

4 Evaluations 
Deciding to write an evaluation 
   Explain your mission 
   Establish and defend criteria 
  Offer convincing evidence 
   Offer worthwhile advice 
   *ARTS REVIEW: Lisa Schwarzbaum, The Hunger Games
Exploring purpose and topic 
   Evaluate a subject you know well 
   Evaluate a subject you need to investigate 
  Evaluate a subject you’d like to know more about 
  Evaluate a subject that’s been on your mind 
Understanding your audience 
  Write for experts 
  Write for a general audience 
  Write for novices 
Finding and developing materials 
  Decide on your criteria 
  Look for hard criteria 
  Argue for criteria that can’t be measured 
  Stand by your values 
  Gather your evidence 
Creating a structure 
  Choose a simple structure when your criteria and categories are predictable 
  Choose a focal point 
  Compare and contrast 
Choosing a style and design 
  Use a high or formal style 
  Use a middle style 
  Use a low style 
  Present evaluations visually 
Examining models 
   SOCIAL SATIRE: Jordyn Brown, A Word from My Anti-Phone Soapbox 
  *PRODUCT REVIEW: Eric Brown, Monsters U.’s Site Might Just Give You “Web-Site Envy”  
  ASSIGNMENTS 

5 Causal Analyses 

Deciding to write a causal analysis 
   Don’t jump to conclusions 
  Appreciate your limits 
  Offer sufficient evidence for claims 
  CAUSAL ANALYSIS: Jonah Goldberg, Global Warming and the Sun 
Exploring purpose and topic 
  Look again at a subject you know well 
  Look for an issue new to you 
  Examine a local issue 
  Choose a challenging subject 
  Tackle an issue that seems settled 
Understanding your audience 
  Create an audience 
  Write to an existing audience 
Finding and developing materials 
  Understand necessary causes 
  Understand sufficient causes 
  Understand precipitating causes 
  Understand proximate causes 
  Understand remote causes 
  Understand reciprocal causes 
Creating a structure 
  Explain why something happened 
  Explain the consequences of a phenomenon 
  Suggest an alternative view of cause and effect 
  Explain a chain of causes 
Choosing a style and design 
  Consider a middle style 
  Adapt the style to the subject matter 
  Use appropriate supporting media 
Examining models 
  *RESEARCH STUDY: Alysha Behn, Where Have All the Women Gone? 
  *CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Lance Hosey, Why We Love Beautiful Things 
   ASSIGNMENTS 

6 Proposals 

Deciding to write a proposal 
  Define a problem 
  Target the proposal 
  Consider reasonable options 
  Make specific recommendations 
  Make realistic recommendations 
  TRIAL BALLOON: Barrett Seaman, How Bingeing Became the New College Sport 179
Exploring purpose and topic 
  Look for a genuine issue 
  Look for a challenging problem 
  Look for a soluble problem 
  Look for a local issue 
Understanding your audience 
  Appeal to people who can make a difference 
  Rally people who represent public opinion 
Finding and developing materials 
  Define the problem 
  Examine prior solutions 
 Outline a proposal 
  Defend the proposal 
  Figure out how to implement the proposal 
Creating a structure 
Choosing a style and design 
  Use a formal style 
  Use a middle style, when appropriate 
  Pay attention to elements of design 
Examining models 
  MANIFESTO: Katelyn Vincent, Technology Time-out 
  *VISUAL PROPOSAL: Jen Sorenson, Loan Bone 
   ASSIGNMENTS

 
7 Literary Analyses 

Deciding to write a literary analysis 
  Begin with a close reading 
  Make a claim or an observation 
  Use texts for evidence 
  Present works in context 
  Draw on previous research 
   *LITERARY INTERPRETATION: William Deresiewicz, What Gatsby’s Really Looking For 
Exploring purpose and topic 
  Choose a text you connect with 
  Choose a text you want to learn more about 
  Choose a text that you don’t understand 
Understanding your audience 
  Clearly identify the author and works you are analyzing 
  Define key terms 
  Don’t aim to please professional critics 
Finding and developing materials 
  Examine the text closely 
  Focus on the text itself 
  Focus on meanings, themes, and interpretations 
  Focus on authorship and history 
  Focus on genre 
  Focus on influence 
  Focus on social connections 
  Find good sources 
Creating a structure 
  Imagine a structure 
  Work on your opening 
Choosing a style and design 
  Use a formal style for most assignments 
  Use a middle style for informal or personal papers 
  Follow the conventions of literary analysis 
  Use appropriate abbreviations 
  Review quotations 
  Cite plays correctly 
  Explore alternative media 
Examining models 
  CLOSE READING: Emily Dickinson, I felt a Funeral, in my Brain 
  Kanaka Sathasivan, Insanity: Two Women 
  PHOTOGRAPHS AS LITERARY TEXTS: Dorothea Lange, Jobless on Edge of Pea Field, Imperial Valley, California 
  Walker Evans, Burroughs Family Cabin, Hale County, Alabama 
  Gordon Parks, American Gothic 
  ASSIGNMENTS 

8 Rhetorical Analyses 
Deciding to write a rhetorical analysis 
  Take words and images seriously 
  Spend time with texts 
  Pay attention to audience 
  Mine texts for evidence 
  *RHETORICAL ANALYSIS: Paula Marantz Cohen, Too Much Information: The Pleasure of Figuring Out Things for Yourself 
Exploring purpose and topic 
  Make a difference 
  Choose a text you can work with 
  Choose a text you can learn more about 
  Choose a text with handles 
  Choose a text you know how to analyze 
Understanding your audience 
Finding and developing materials 
  Consider the ethos of the author 
  Consider how a writer plays to emotions 
  Consider how well reasoned a piece is 
Creating a structure 
  Develop a structure 
Choosing a style and design 
  Consider a high style 
  Consider a middle style 
  Make the text accessible to readers 
Examining models 
  ANALYSIS OF AN ARGUMENT: Matthew James Nance, A Mockery of Justice 
  CULTURAL ANALYSIS: J. Reagan Tankersley, Humankind’s Ouroboros 
  ASSIGNMENTS

 
Part 2 Special Assignments 


9 Essay Examinations 

Understanding essay exams 
  Anticipate the types of questions to be asked 
  Read exam questions carefully 
  Sketch out a plan for your essay(s) 
  Organize your answers strategically 
  Offer strong evidence for your claims 
  Come to a conclusion 
  Keep the tone serious 
Getting the details right 
  Use transitional words and phrases 
  Do a quick check of grammar, mechanics, and spelling 
  Write legibly or print 
Wade Lamb, Plato’s Phaedrus 

10 Position Papers 

Understanding position papers 
  Read the assignment carefully 
  Review the assigned material carefully 
  Mine the texts for evidence   
  Organize the paper sensibly 
Getting the details right 
  Identify key terms and concepts and use them correctly and often 
  Treat your sources appropriately 
  Spell names and concepts correctly 
  Respond to your colleagues’ work 
Heidi Rogers, Triumph of the Lens 

11 Annotated Bibliographies 
Understanding annotated bibliographies 
  Begin with an accurate record of research materials 
  Describe or summarize the content of each item in the bibliography 
  Assess the significance or quality of the work 
  Explain the role the work plays in your research 
Getting the details right 
  Record the information on your sources accurately 
  Follow a single documentation style 
  Keep summaries and assessments brief 
  Follow directions carefully 

12 Synthesis Papers 

Understanding synthesis papers 
  Identify reputable sources on your subject 
  Summarize and paraphrase the works you have identified 
  Look for connections between your sources 
  Acknowledge disagreements and rebuttals 
  Don’t rush to judgment 
  Cite materials that both support and challenge your thesis 
Getting the details right 
  Provide a context for your topic 
  Tell a story 
  Pay attention to language 
  Be sure to document your sources 
Lauren Chiu, Time to Adapt? 

13 E-mails 

Understanding e-mail 
  Explain your purpose clearly and logically 
  Tell readers what you want them to do 
  Write for intended and unintended audiences 
  Keep your messages brief 
  Distribute your messages sensibly 
Getting the details right 
  Choose a sensible subject line 
  Arrange your text sensibly 
  Check the recipient list before you hit send 
  Include an appropriate signature 
  Use standard grammar 
  Have a sensible e-mail address 
  Don’t be a pain 
*Ima Steudant, Writing Center Course Eligibility 

14 Business Letters 
Understanding business letters 
  Explain your purpose clearly and logically 
  Tell readers what you want them to do 
  Write for your audience 
  Keep the letter focused and brief 
  Follow a conventional form 
Getting the details right 
 Use consistent margins and spacing 
  Finesse the greeting 
 Distribute copies of your letter sensibly 
  Spell everything right 
 Photocopy the letter as a record 
  Fold the letter correctly and send it in a suitable envelope 
  Don’t forget the promised enclosures 
Nancy Linn, Cover Letter 
John Humbert, To Home Design Magazine 

15 Résumés 
Understanding résumés 
  Gather the necessary information 
  Decide on appropriate categories 
 Arrange the information within categories in reverse chronological order 
  Design pages that are easy to read 
Getting the details right 
 Proofread every line in the résumé several times 
  Don’t leave unexplained gaps in your education or work career 
  Be consistent 
  Protect your personal data 
  Look for help 
Andrea Palladino, Résumé 

16 Personal Statements 
Understanding personal statements 
  Read the essay prompt carefully 
  Decide on a focus or theme 
  Be realistic about your audience
  Organize the piece strategically 
  Try a high or middle style 
Getting the details right 
  Don’t get too artsy 
  Use common sense 
  Compose the statement yourself 
 Michael Villaverde, Application Essay for Academic Service Partnership Foundation Internship 

17 Writing Portfolios 
Understanding writing portfolios 
  Take charge of the portfolio assignment 
  Appreciate the audiences for a portfolio 
  Present authentic materials 
  Take reflections seriously 
Getting the details right 
  Polish your portfolio 
  Understand the portfolio activities 
  Give honest feedback to colleagues 
  Take advantage of multimedia 

18 Oral Reports 
Understanding oral reports 
  Know your stuff 
  Organize your presentation 
  Keep your audience on track 
  Use your voice and body 
  Adapt your material to the time available 
  Practice your talk 
  Prepare for the occasion 
Getting the details right 
  Be certain you need presentation software 
  Use slides to introduce points, not cover them 
  Use a simple and consistent design 
  Consider alternatives to slide-based presentations 
Terri Sagastume, Presentation on Edenlawn Estates 

reference

Part 3 Ideas 

19 Brainstorming 

Find routines that support thinking 
Build from lists 
Map your ideas 
Try freewriting 
Use memory prompts 
Search online for your ideas 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Browse for Ideas 

20 Smart Reading 

Read to deepen what you already know 
Read above your level of knowledge 
Read what makes you uncomfortable 
Read against the grain 
Read slowly 
Annotate what you read 

21 Critical Thinking 

Think in terms of claims and reasons 
Think in terms of premises and assumptions 
Think in terms of evidence 
Anticipate objections 
Avoid logical fallacies 

22 Experts 

Talk with your instructor 
Take your ideas to the writing center 
Find local experts 
Check with librarians 
Chat with peers 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Use the Writing Center 

23 Writer’s Block 

Break the project into parts 
Set manageable goals 
Create a calendar 
Limit distractions 
Do the parts you like first 
Write a zero draft 
Reward yourself 

Part 4 Shaping & Drafting 

24 Thesis 

Compose a complete sentence 
Make a significant claim or assertion 
Write a declarative sentence, not a question 
Expect your thesis to mature 
Introduce a thesis early in a project 
Or state a thesis late in a project 
Write a thesis to fit your audience and purpose 

25 Strategies 

Use description to set a scene 
Use division to divide a subject 
Use classification to sort objects or ideas by consistent principles 
Use definition to clarify meaning 
Use comparison and contrast to show similarity and difference 

26 Organization 

Examine model documents 
Sketch out a plan or sequence 
Provide cues or signals for readers 
Deliver on your commitments 

27 Outlines 

Start with scratch outlines 
List key ideas 
Look for relationships 
Subordinate ideas 
Decide on a sequence 
Move up to a formal outline 

28 Paragraphs 

Make sure paragraphs lead somewhere 
Develop ideas adequately 
Organize paragraphs logically 
Use paragraphs to manage transitions 
Design paragraphs for readability 

29 Transitions 

Use appropriate transitional words and phrases 
Use the right word or phrase to show time or sequence 
Use sentence structure to connect ideas 
Pay attention to nouns and pronouns 
Use synonyms 
Use physical devices for transitions 
Read a draft aloud to locate weak transitions 

30 Introductions and Conclusions 

Shape an introduction 
Draw a conclusion 

31 Titles 

Use titles to focus documents 
Create searchable titles 
Avoid whimsical or suggestive titles 
Capitalize and punctuate titles carefully 

Part 5 Style 

32 High, Middle, and Low Style 

Use high style for formal, scientific, and scholarly writing 
Use middle style for personal, argumentative, and some academic writing 
Use a low style for personal, informal, and even playful writing 

33 Inclusive and Culturally Sensitive Style 

Avoid expressions that stereotype genders or sexual orientation 
Avoid expressions that stereotype races, ethnic groups, or religious groups 
Treat all people with respect 
Avoid sensational language 

34 Vigorous, Clear, Economical Style 

Build sentences around specific and tangible subjects and objects 
Prefer specific nouns and noun phrases to abstract ones 
Avoid sprawling phrases 
Avoid sentences with long windups 
Favor simple, active verbs 
Avoid strings of prepositional phrases 
Don’t repeat key words close together 
Avoid doublings 
Turn clauses into more direct modifiers 
Cut introductory expressions such as it is and there is/are when you can 
Vary your sentence lengths and structures 
Read what you have written aloud 
Cut a first draft by 25 percent—or more 

Part 6 Revising & Editing 

35 Revising Your Own Work 

Revise to see the big picture 
Edit to make the paper flow 
Edit to get the details right 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Revise Your Work 

36 Peer Editing 

Peer edit the same way you revise your own work 
Be specific in identifying problems or opportunities 
Offer suggestions for improvement 
Praise what is genuinely good in the paper 
Use proofreading symbols 
Keep comments tactful 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Insert a Comment in a Word Document 

Part 7 Research & Sources 

37 Beginning Your Research 

Know your assignment 
Come up with a plan 
Find a manageable topic 
Ask for help 
Distinguish between primary and secondary sources 
Record every source you examine 
Prepare a topic proposal 

38 Finding Print and Online Sources 

Search libraries strategically 
Explore library reference tools 
Use professional databases 
Explore the internet 

39 Doing Field Research 

Interview people with unique knowledge of your subject 
Make careful and verifiable observations 
Learn more about fieldwork 

40 Evaluating Sources 

Preview source materials for their key features and strategies 
Check who published or produced the source 
Check who wrote a work 
Consider the audience for a source 
Establish how current a source is 
Check the source’s documentation 

41 Annotating Sources 

Annotate sources to understand them 
Read sources to identify claims 
Read sources to understand assumptions 
Read sources to find evidence 
Record your personal reactions to source material 

42 Summarizing Sources 

Prepare a summary for every item you examine in a project 
Use a summary to recap what a writer has said 
Be sure your summary is accurate and complete 
Use a summary to record your take on a source 
Use summaries to prepare an annotated bibliography 

43 Paraphrasing Sources 

Identify the key claims and structure of the source 
Track the source faithfully 
Record key pieces of evidence 
Be certain your notes are entirely in your own words 
Avoid misleading or inaccurate paraphrasing 
Use your paraphrases to synthesize sources 

44 Incorporating Sources into Your Work 

Cue the reader in some way whenever you introduce borrowed material, whether it is summarized, paraphrased, or quoted directly 
Select an appropriate “verb of attribution” to frame borrowed material 
Use ellipsis marks [ . . . ] to shorten a lengthy quotation 
Use brackets [ ] to insert explanatory material into a quotation 
Use ellipsis marks, brackets, and other devices to make quoted materials suit the grammar of your sentences 
Use [sic] to signal an obvious error in quoted material 

45 Documenting Sources 

Understand the point of documentation 
Understand what you accomplish through documentation 

46 MLA Documentation and Format 

Document sources according to convention 
MLA in-text citation 
MLA works cited entries 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Cite from a Book 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Cite from a Magazine 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Cite from a Web Site 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Cite from a Database 
Sample MLA pages 

47 APA Documentation and Format 

APA in-text citation 
APA reference entries 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Cite from a Web Site 
VISUAL TUTORIAL: How to Cite from a Database 
Sample APA pages 

Part 8 Media & Design 

48 Understanding Digital Media 

Choose a media format based on what you hope to accomplish 
Use social networks and blogs to create communities 
Create Web sites to share information 
Use wikis to collaborate with others 
Make podcasts to share audio files 
Use maps to position ideas 
Make videos to show and tell 
Use appropriate digital formats 
Edit and save digital elements 
Respect copyrights 

49 Tables, Graphs, and Infographics 

Use tables to present statistical data 
Use line graphs to display changes or trends 
Use bar and column graphs to plot relationships within sets of data 
Use pie charts to display proportions 
Explore the possibilities of infographics 

50 Designing Print and Online Documents 

Understand the power of images 
Keep page designs simple and uncluttered 
Keep the design logical and consistent 
Keep the design balanced 
Use templates sensibly 
Coordinate your colors 
Use headings if needed 
Choose appropriate fonts 

Part 9 Common Errors 

51 Capitalization 

Capitalize the names of ethnic, religious, and political groups 
Capitalize modifiers formed from proper nouns 
Capitalize all words in titles except prepositions, articles, or conjunctions 
Take care with compass points, directions, and specific geographical areas 
Understand academic conventions 
Capitalize months, days, holidays, and historical periods 

52 Apostrophes 

Use apostrophes to form the possessive 
Use apostrophes in contractions 
Don’t use apostrophes with possessive pronouns 

53 Commas 

Use a comma and a coordinating conjunction to join two independent clauses 
Use a comma after an introductory word group 
Use commas with common transitional words and phrases 
Put commas around nonrestrictive (that is, nonessential) elements 
Use commas to separate items in a series 
Do not use commas to separate compound verbs 
Do not use a comma between subject and verb 
Do not use commas to set off restrictive elements 

54 Comma Splices, Run-ons, and Fragments 

Identify comma splices and run-ons 
Fix comma splices and run-ons 
Identify sentence fragments 
Fix sentence fragments in your work 
Watch for fragments in the following situations 
Use deliberate fragments only in appropriate situations 

55 Subject/Verb Agreement 

Be sure the verb agrees with its real subject 
In most cases, treat multiple subjects joined by and as plural 
When compound subjects are linked by either . . . or or neither . . . nor, make the verb agree with the nearer part of the subject 
Confirm whether an indefinite pronoun is singular, plural, or variable 
Be consistent with collective nouns 

56 Irregular Verbs 

57 Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement 

Check the number of indefinite pronouns 
Correct sexist pronoun usage 
Treat collective nouns consistently 

58 Pronoun Reference 

Clarify confusing pronoun antecedents 
Make sure a pronoun has a plausible antecedent 
Be certain that the antecedent of this, that, or which isn’t vague 

59 Pronoun Case 

Use the subjective case for pronouns that are subjects 
Use the objective case for pronouns that are objects 
Use whom when appropriate 
Finish comparisons to determine the right case 
Don’t be misled by an appositive 

60 Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers 

Position modifiers close to the words they modify 
Place adverbs such as only, almost, especially, and even carefully 
Don’t allow a modifier to dangle 

61 Parallelism 

When possible, make compound items parallel 
Keep items in a series parallel 
Keep headings and lists parallel 

reader

Part 10 Readings 

62 Narratives: Readings

 *Genre Moves: LITERACY NARRATIVE (EXCERPT): Amy Tan, from Mother Tongue 
*NARRATIVE: Patton Oswalt, Zombie Spaceship Wasteland 
GRAPHIC NARRATIVE (EXCERPT): Lynda Barry, Lost and Found 
REFLECTION: Naomi Shihab Nye, Mint Snowball 
MEMOIR: Ira Sukrungruang, Chop Suey 
LITERACY NARRATIVE: Jonathan Franzen, The Comfort Zone 

63 Reports: Readings 

*Genre Moves: DESCRIPTIVE REPORT (EXCERPT): N. Scott Momaday, from The Way to Rainy Mountain
*REPORT: Kamakshi Ayyar, Cosmic Postcards: The Adventures of an Armchair Astronaut 
*INFORMATIVE REPORT: Steve Silberman, Neurodiversity Rewires Conventional Thinking about Brains 
*INFORMATIVE REPORT: Ross Perlin, Down and Out in the Magic Kingdom
LEGAL REPORT: Philip Deloria, The Cherokee Nation Decision 
*GRAPHIC REPORT: Mark Graham and Stefano De Sabbata, The Age of Internet Empires 

64 Arguments: Readings 

*Genre Moves: ARGUMENTATIVE SPEECH (EXCERPT): Sojourner Truth, from Ain’t I a Woman?
EDITORIAL: Maureen Dowd, Don’t Send in the Clones 
*ARGUMENTATIVE ARTICLE: Jeff Wise, The Sad Science of Hipsterism 
ARGUMENT FOR CHANGE: Emily Bazelon, Hitting Bottom: Why America Should Outlaw Spanking 
ANALYSIS OF CULTURAL VALUES: Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel, The Young, the Rich, and the Famous: Individualism as an American Cultural Value 
POLICY ARGUMENT: Daniel Engber, Glutton Intolerance 

65 Evaluations: Readings 

*Genre Moves: EVALUATION (EXCERPT): Naomi Klein, from No Logo
*TELEVISION REVIEW: Emily Nussbaum, To Stir, with Love 
SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION: Michio Kaku, Force Fields 
*MUSIC REVIEW: Sasha Frere-Jones, The Next Day 
TELEVISION REVIEW: Nelle Engoron, Why "Mad Men" Is Bad for Women 
*MEDIA ANALYSIS: Leigh Alexander, Domino’s, The Pizza that Never Sleeps

66 Causal Analyses: Readings 

*Genre Moves: DESCRIPTIVE REPORT (EXCERPT): James Baldwin, from If Black English Isn’t a Language, Then Tell Me, What Is?
*TECHNOLOGY ANALYSIS: Rita King, How Twitter is Reshaping the Future of Storytelling 
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Natalie Angier, Almost Before We Spoke, We Swore 
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Alex Williams, Here I Am Taking My Own Picture 
*CAUSAL ANALYSIS: Robert Gehl, A History of Like 
EXPLORATORY ESSAY: Tricia Rose, Hip Hop Causes Violence 

67 Proposals: Readings 

*Genre Moves: PROPOSAL (EXCERPT): Rachel Carson, from The Obligation to Endure
*PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE: Michael Todd, Is That Plastic in Your Trash a Hazard? 
*PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE: Jane McGonigal, Video Games: An Hour a Day Is Key to Success in Life 
*PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE: Neil deGrasse Tyson, The Cosmic Perspective
SATIRICAL PROPOSAL: Kembrew McLeod, A Modest Free Market Proposal for Education Reform 
PROPOSAL FOR CHANGE: Peter Singer, “One Person, One Share” of the Atmosphere 

68 Literary Analyses: Readings 

*Genre Moves: LITERARY ANALYSIS (EXCERPT): Gloria Naylor, from The Meanings of a Word
FORMAL ANALYSIS: Adam Bradley, Rap Poetry 101 
*TEXTUAL ANALYSIS: Zadie Smith, Their Eyes Were Watching God: What Does Soulful Mean? 
TEXTUAL ANALYSIS:
Joni Mitchell,
Woodstock” (song lyrics) 
Camille Paglia,Woodstock” 
HISTORICAL ANALYSIS: Sara Buttsworth, CinderBella: Twilight, Fairy Tales, and the Twenty-First-Century American Dream 
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Gish Jen, Holden Raises Hell 

69 Rhetorical Analyses: Readings 

*Genre Moves: RHETORICAL ANALYSIS (EXCERPT): Susan Sontag, from Notes on “Camp”
DISCOURSE ANALYSIS: Deborah Tannen, Oh, Mom. Oh, Honey.: Why Do You Have to Say That? 
ANALYSIS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT: Stanley Fish, The Other Car 
CULTURAL ANALYSIS: Laurie Fendrich, The Beauty of the Platitude 
*FILM ANALYSIS: Daniel D’Addario, Johnny Depp’s Tonto Misstep: Race and The Lone Ranger 
ANALYSIS OF AN ADVERTISEMENT: Caroline Leader, Dudes Come Clean: Negotiating a Space for Men in Household Cleaner Commercials 

Index 

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