HTML: The Definitive Guide

Overview

Learning HTML is like learning any new language, computer or human. Most students first immerse themselves in examples. Studying others is a natural way to learn, making learning easy and fun. Imitation can take you only so far, though. It's as easy to learn bad habits through imitation as it is to acquire good ones. The better way to become HTML fluent is through a comprehensive language reference, a resource that covers the language syntax, semantics, and variations in detail and helps you distinguish between ...
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Overview

Learning HTML is like learning any new language, computer or human. Most students first immerse themselves in examples. Studying others is a natural way to learn, making learning easy and fun. Imitation can take you only so far, though. It's as easy to learn bad habits through imitation as it is to acquire good ones. The better way to become HTML fluent is through a comprehensive language reference, a resource that covers the language syntax, semantics, and variations in detail and helps you distinguish between good and bad usage. HTML: The Definitive Guide helps you both ways: the authors cover every element of HTML, in detail, explaining how each element works and how it interacts with other elements. Many hints about HTML style help you accomplish a variety of tasks, from simple online documentation to complex marketing and sales presentations. With hundreds of examples, the book gives you models for writing your own effective Web pages and mastering advanced features.
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Editorial Reviews

Ray Duncan

Tagging -- No Spraycan Required!

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) has been evolving rapidly over the last year, due mostly to the vicious battle for browser market-share (and, indirectly, for control of HTML itself) between Netscape and Microsoft. The HTML standards effort has become fragmented, and the browsers in popular use on the Net vary widely in their capabilities and the set of HTML features supported. Moreover, the "user-friendly" WYSIWYG editors for HTML, such as PageMill and HotMetal, have all failed to keep pace with the HTML tags supported by the popular browsers.

You can choose to look at this situation as a messy, disgusting anarchy or a beautiful example of the free market system in action and survival of the fittest. Either way, the result is that Webmasters everywhere cannot yet rely on specialized HTML editors and are still designing -- or at minimum, polishing -- the HTML source code for their Web pages by direct manual entry of HTML tags. Consequently, every Webmaster needs a trustworthy reference to the extant HTML tags, the various levels of HTML standards or standards-in-waiting, and the subsets of HTML tags supported by the dominant Web browsers.

Several fine reference books on HTML are already on the market, such as the HTML Manual of Style by Larry Aronson (Ziff Davis Press) and HTML Sourcebook by Ian S. Graham (Wiley). But in my own experience, all of them are too beginner-oriented, or too UNIX-specific, or try to cover too broad a territory to serve as a day-in, day-out keyboard-side HTML coding reference for the busy Webmaster. None of those other books, in spite of their many virtues, can compete in clarity, focus, and authoritativeness with the newly released book HTML, The Definitive Guide from the technical publisher par excellence, O'Reilly and Associates.

There is virtually no mainstream HTML tag or technique that you will not find concisely explained in this book. Nicely organized chapters on forms, frames, tables, client-pull and server-push documents, and other advanced concepts are included. Browser-specific tags are explicitly designated throughout. The appendices contain a HTML tag quick reference, HTML grammar (BNF), the HTML DTD, and handy lists of character entities and color names. There is also a nifty pull-out HTML reference card that you can put under your keyboard for emergencies.

If your job involves the design, creation, or maintenance of a World-Wide-Web server, then HTML, The Definitive Guide is one of the very few books among the flood that you can't afford to be without. For my own part, I bought two copies -- one for home and one for the office!--Dr. Dobb's Electronic Review of Computer Books

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780596150204
  • Publisher: O'Reilly Media, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 8/28/1998
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 608

Meet the Author


Chuck Musciano has spent his life on the East Coast, living in Maryland, Georgia, and New Jersey before acquiring a B.S. in computer science from Georgia Tech in 1982. He began his career as a compiler writer and crafter of tools then went on to join Harris Corporation's Advanced Technology Group, where he helped develop large-scale multiprocessors. His prolonged interest in user-interface research and development finally gave way to a position as manager of UNIX Systems in Harris' Corporate Data Center. He left Harris in 1997 to become the chief information officer of the American Kennel Club in Raleigh, North Carolina. There he focuses on re-engineering their legacy information systems to exploit client/server technology over the Internet. Throughout his career, he has known and loved the Internet, having contributed a number of publicly available tools to the Net, and helped start the Internet Movie Database.

Chuck has written on UNIX- and Web-related topics in the trade press for the past decade, most visibly as the "Webmaster" columnist for Sunworld Online (http://www.sunworld.com) and the "Tag of the Week" columnist for Web Review (http://www.webreview.com). In his spare time he enjoys life in North Carolina with his wife Cindy, daughter Courtney, and son Cole. He can be reached at cmusciano@aol.com.

Bill Kennedy is currently president and chief technical officer of ActivMedia, Inc., a new media marketing and marketing research company based in beautiful Peterborough, NH, but which conducts business with clients and associates from around the world primarily over the Internet (http://www.activmedia.com). When nothacking new HTML pages or writing about them, "Dr. Bill" (Ph.D. in biophysics of all things) is out promoting a line of intelligent mobile robots as real-world platforms for artificial intelligence and fuzzy logic research and for education (http://www.activmedia.com/robots). Contact Dr. Bill directly at bkennedy@activmedia.com.

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Read an Excerpt


Chapter 10: Forms

10.5.4.1 Submission buttons

The submit button does what its name implies, setting in motion the form's submission to the server from the browser. You may have more than one submit button in a form. You may also include name and value attributes with the submit type of input form button.

With the simplest submit button (that without a name or value attribute), the browser displays a small rectangle or oval with the default label "Submit". Otherwise, the browser labels the button with the text you include with the tag's value attribute. If you provide a name attribute, the value attribute for the submit button is added to the parameter list the browser sends along to the server. That's good, because it gives you a way to identify which button in a form was pressed, letting you process any one of several different forms with a single form-processing application.The following are all valid submission buttons:

submit
Order Kumquats
Ship Overnight

The first one is also the simplest: the browser displays a button, labeled "Submit," which activates the form-processing sequence when clicked by the user. it does not add an element to the parameter list that the browser passes to the formprocessing server and application.

The second example button has the value attribute that makes the displayed button label "Order Kumquats," but like the first example does not include the button's value in the form's parameter list.

The last example sets the button label and makes it part of the form's parameter list. When clicked by the user, that last example of the submissionbutton adds the parameter Ship_style= "Ship Overnight" to the form's parameter list.

10.5.4.2 Reset buttons

The reset type of form input button is nearly self-explanatory: it lets the user reset -- erase or set to some default value-all elements in the form. Unlike the other buttons, a reset button does not initiate form processing. Instead, the browser does the work of resetting the form elements. The server never knows (or cares, for that matter) if or when the user might have pressed a reset button.

By default, the browser displays a reset button with the label "Reset." You can change that by specifying a value attribute with your own button label.

Here are two sample reset buttons:

reset
Use Defaults

The first one creates a reset button labeled "Reset"; the browser labels the second example reset button with "Use Defaults." They both initiate the same reset response in the browser.

10.5.4.3 Custom image buttons

The image type of input form element creates a custom button that is a "clickable" image. it's a special button made out of your specified image that, when clicked by the user, tells the browser to submit the form to the server, and includes the x,y coordinates of the mouse pointer in the form's parameter list, much like the mouse-sensitive image maps we discuss in Chapter 7, Links and Webs. Image buttons require a src attribute with the URL of the image file, and you can include a name attribute and a descriptive alt attribute for non-graphical browsers. You may also use align and border (Netscape only) attributes to control image alignment within the current line of text and the width of the frame that Netscape places around the image, respectively, much like the align and border attributes for the <img> tag (Internet Explorer doesn't place a border on form input images).

Here are a couple of valid image buttons:...

The browser displays the designated image within the form's content flow. The second button's image will be aligned with the top of the adjacent text, as specified by the align attribute. Some browsers (Netscape, for instance) also add a border, as it does when an image is part of an anchor (<a> tag), to signal that the image is a form button.

When the user clicks the image, the browser sends the horizontal offset, in pixels, of the mouse from the left edge of the image and the vertical offset from the top edge of the image to the server. These values are assigned the name of the image as specified with the name attribute, followed by .x and .y, respectively. Thus, if someone clicked the image specified earlier in the example, the browser would send parameters named map.x and map.y to the server.

Image buttons behave much like mouse-sensitive image maps (usemaps), and, like the programs or client-side <map> tags that process image maps, your formprocessor may use the x,y mouse-pointer parameters to choose a special course of action. You should use an image button when you need additional form information to process the user's request. If an image map of links is all you need, use a mouse-sensitive image map. Mouse-sensitive images also have the added benefit of providing server-side support for automatic detection of shape selection within the image, letting you deal with the image as a selectable collection of shapes. Buttons with images require you to write code that determines where the user clicked on the image and how this position can be translated to an appropriate action by the server.

Oddly, the HTML 4.0 standard allows the use of the usemap attribute with an image button, but does not explain how such a use might conflict with normal server processing of the x,y coordinates of the mouse position. We recommend not mixing the two, using mouse-sensitive images outside of forms and image buttons within forms.

10.5.4.4 Push buttons

Using the <input type=button> tag (or the <button> tag, described in section 10.5-6), you can create a button that can be clicked by the user but that does not submit or reset the form. The value attribute can be used to set the label on the button; the name attribute, if specified, will cause the supplied value to be passed to the form processing script.

You might wonder what value such buttons provide: little or none, unless you supply one or more of the event attributes along with a snippet of JavaScript to be executed when the user interacts with the button. Thus empowered, regular buttons can be used to validate form contents, update fields, manipulate the document, and initiate all sorts of client-side activity. [JavaScript event handlers, 13.3.3]

10.5.4.5 Multiple buttons in a single form

You can have several buttons of the same or different types in a single form. Even simple forms have both reset and submit buttons, for example. To distinguish between them, make sure each has a different value attribute, which the browser uses for the button label. Depending on the way you program the form-processing application, you might also make the name of each button different, but it is usually easier to name all similarly acting buttons the same and let the button handling subroutine sort them out by value. For instance:...

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Table of Contents

Preface

1. HTML and the World Wide Web
The Internet, Intranets, and Extranets
Talking the Internet Talk
HTML: What It Is
HTML: What It Isn't
Nonstandard Extensions
Tools for the HTML Designer
2. HTML Quick Start
Writing Tools
A First HTML Document
HTML Embedded Tags
HTML Skeleton
The Flesh on an HTML Document
HTML and Text
Hyperlinks
Images Are Special
Lists, Searchable Documents, and Forms
Tables
Frames
Style Sheets and JavaScript
Forging Ahead
3. Anatomy of an HTML Document
Appearances Can Deceive
Structure of an HTML Document
HTML Tags
Document Content
HTML Document Elements
The Document Header
The Document Body
Editorial Markup
The <bdo> Tag
4. Text Basics
Divisions and Paragraphs
Headings
Changing Text Appearance
Content-based Style Tags
Physical Style Tags
Expanded Font Handling
Precise Spacing and Layout
Block Quotes
Addresses
Special Character Encoding
5. Rules, Images, and Multimedia
Horizontal Rules
Inserting Images in Your Documents
Document Colors and Background Images
Background Audio
Animated Text
Other Multimedia Content
6. Document Layout
Creating Whitespace
Multicolumn Layout
Layers
7. Links and Webs
Hypertext Basics
Referencing Documents: The URL
Creating Hyperlinks
Creating Effective Links
Mouse-Sensitive Images
Creating Searchable Documents
Establishing Document Relationships
Supporting Document Automation
8. Formatted Lists
Unordered Lists
Ordered Lists
The <li> Tag
Nesting Lists
Directory Lists
Menu Lists
Definition Lists
Appropriate List Usage
9. Cascading Style Sheets
The Elements of Styles
Style Syntax
Style Properties
Tag-less Styles: The <span> Tag
Applying Styles to Documents
10. Forms
Form Fundamentals
The <form> Tag
A Simple Form Example
Using Email to Collect Form Data
The <input> Tag
Multiline Text Areas
Multiple Choice Elements
General Form Control Attributes
Labeling and Grouping Form Elements
Creating Effective Forms
Forms Programming
11. Tables
The HTML Table Model
Table Tags
New HTML 4.0 Table Tags
Beyond Ordinary Tables
12. Frames
An Overview of Frames
Frame Tags
Frame Layout
Frame Contents
The <noframes> Tag
Inline Frames
Named Frame or Window Targets
13. Executable Content
Applets and Objects
Embedded Content
JavaScript
JavaScript Style Sheets
14. Dynamic Documents
An Overview of Dynamic Documents
Client-Pull Documents
Server -Push Documents
15. Tips, Tricks, and Hacks
Top of the Tips
Trivial or Abusive?
Custom Bullets
Tricks with Tables
Transparent Images
Tricks with Windows and Frames
A. HTML Grammar
B. HTML Tag Quick Reference
C. Cascading Style Sheet Properties Quick Reference
D. The HTML 4.0 DTD
E. Character Entities
F. Color Names and Values

Index

Symbols
& (ampersand)
      entities, 23, 45, 453
      in URLs, 326
, (comma) in styles, 279
= (equal sign) for tag attributes, 41
< (less-than sign), 23
<!-- --> tags, 20, 45
% (percent sign) for character encoding, 195
# (pound sign)
      for entities, 23
      for name anchors, 28, 219
      in URLs, 199
? (question mark) in URLs, 195, 200
" (quotation mark)
      for attribute values, 41
      in URLs, 195
/ (slash)
      in ending tags, 19
      in URLs, 195, 199
~ (tilde) in URLs, 199

A
<a> tags, 27, 211-219
      hyperlink states, 283
      linking external documents, 166
      (see also hyperlinks)
abbr attribute (<th> and <td>), 390
<abbr> tags, 76
above attribute (<layer>), 184-186
absbottom, absmiddle values, 139
      (see also alignment)
absolute font size, 91-92
absolute URLs, 26, 209
accept attribute (<input type=file>), 337
accept-charset attribute (<form>), 325
accesskey attribute
      <a>, 218
      form controls, 355
      <legend>, 358
<acronym> tags, 76
action attribute
      <form>, 321
      <isindex>, 239
action buttons (forms), 340-343
ActiveX technology, 428
<address> tags, 113-115
addresses, 112-115
      IP addresses, 197
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), 2
align attribute, 142
      <applet>, 440
      <caption>, 390
      <div>, 60
      <embed>, 443
      <h#>, 69
      <hr>, 122
      <iframe>, 419
      <img>, 30, 136-139
      <input type=image>, 342
      <legend>, 358
align attribute (continued)
      <marquee>, 163
      <object>, 433
      <p>, 65
      <spacer>, 173
      <table>, 373-374
      <th> and <td>, 386
      <tr>, 382-383
alignment
      <center> tags, 104-106
      form elements, 358, 362
      frames, 419
      headings, 69
      horizontal rules, 122
      image buttons (forms), 342
      images, 30, 136-139, 141
      layers, 182-184, 191
      sections, 60
      table captions, 390
      table cell contents, 377-378, 386
      table rows, 382-383
      tables, 373-374
      text, 298, 300
            in marquees, 163
            paragraphs, 65
      whitespace blocks, 173
      (see also align attribute; format; page layout)
alink attribute (<body>), 156
all value (style media), 273
alt attribute
      <applet>, 440
      <area>, 230
      <img>, 134-135
alternate value (marquee behavior), 164
ampersand (&)
      entities, 23, 45, 453
      in URLs, 326
anchors, 27-29
      (see also <a> tags; hyperlinks)
animation
      frame-by-frame (GIF), 128
      of text, 162-166
annotated lists (see definition lists)
anonymous FTP, 202
appearance of text (see text)
<applet> tags, 438-441
applets, 7, 29, 425-428
application/x-www-form-urlencoded encoding, 322-323
archive attribute
      <applet>, 440
      <object>, 432
<area> tag, 31, 147, 229-234
ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), 2
audience, designing for, 474
audio, 160-162, 167
      <bgsound> tag, 160-162
      client-pull feature for, 466-467
      (see also multimedia)
aural value (style media), 273
authoring (see writing HTML documents)
automation, document, 245-248
AVI movies, 149
      (see also video)
axis attribute (<th> and <td>), 390

B
<b> tags, 23, 83
background
      audio, 160-162
      colors, 153, 158, 292
            layers, 187
            marquees, 165
            in tables, 374, 388
            troubleshooting, 159-160
      images, 153-155, 158, 291
            behind specific elements, 292
            layers, 187
            placement of, 293-295
            in tables, 374, 389
            tiling whole background, 295
            troubleshooting, 158-159
      layers (see layers)
      style properties for, 291-296
      (see also transparency)
background attribute
      <body>, 153-155, 158
      <layer>, 187
      <table>, 374
      <th> and <td>, 389
background property, 295-296, 534
background-attachment property, 291, 534
background-color property, 292, 534
background-image property, 292, 534
background-position property, 293-295, 534
background-repeat property, 295, 534
<base> tag, 52, 240-242, 422-424
base URLs, 26, 240-242
<basefont> tags, 88-89
baseline value, 139
      (see also alignment)
<bdo> tags, 57-58
behavior attribute (<marquee>), 164
"being visited" link state, 283
below attribute (<layer>), 184-186
bgcolor attribute
      <body>, 153, 158
      <layer>, 187
      <marquee>, 165
      <table>, 374
      <th> and <td>, 388
      <tr>, 384
bgproperties attribute (<body>), 155
<bgsound> tag, 160-162
bibliographic citations, 76
<big> tags, 83
binary files, 7
blank lines (see paragraphs)
_blank target, 421, 486
<blink> tags, 85, 475
blinking text, 298
block items, 313
block quotes, 108-112
      <blockquote> tags, 109
      <q> tags, 111-112
blocks of whitespace, 173
body content, 19, 53
      margins for, 156
<body> tags, 40, 47, 53
      bug with, 13
      color extensions, 152-158
boilerplate HTML documents, 475
boldface text, 83, 290
border attribute
      <embed>, 443
      <img>, 142-143
      <input type=image>, 342
      <object>, 433
      <table>, 374, 376
border property, 534
border-bottom, border-left, border-right, border-top properties, 305, 534-535
border-bottom-width property, 535
border-color property, 304, 535
border-left-width property, 535
border-right-width property, 535
border-style property, 305, 535
border-top-width property, 535
border-width property, 304, 535
bordercolor attribute
      <frame>, 415
      <table>, 375
      <th> and <td>, 389
      <tr>, 384
bordercolorlight, bordercolordark attributes
      <table>, 375
      <th> and <td>, 389
      <tr>, 384
borders
      colors, 304
      frame, 409-410, 415
      image buttons (forms), 342
      images, 142-143, 213
      size, 304
      style properties for, 303-306
      tables, 374-375, 384, 389
      (see also margins)
bottom value, 30, 139
      (see also alignment)
boundary string, 469
box style properties, 301-309
<br> tag, 24, 94-97, 174
      vertical <spacer> vs., 172
      (see also line breaks)
braille value (style media), 273
browsers (see web browsers)
buffer space (see margins)
bugs
      in HTML extensions, 13
      <img> height/width attributes, 145
      multiple <body> tags, 13
bulleted (unordered) lists, 249-252
      bullet shape, 257
      custom bullets, 476
      list marker style properties, 310-312
      nesting, 259
<button> tags, 344-346
buttons
      form action buttons, 340-343
      mouse (see event attributes; JavaScript language)
      radio buttons, 339-340

C
capitalization, 300
caption, table, 34
<caption> tags, 34, 390
carriage returns (see paragraphs)
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), 270-318
      box properties, 301-309
      classification properties, 312-313
      color and background properties, 291-296
      font properties, 288-291
      how to use, 315-318
      list properties, 309-312
      quick reference, 532-539
      rectangular box model for, 301-303
      style properties, 285-313
      style syntax, 278-285
      tagless styles (<span>), 314-315
      text properties, 297-301
case sensitivity, 41, 198, 457
cellpadding attribute (<table>), 376
cells, table (see tables)
cellspacing attribute (<table>), 376
center attribute (<img>), 141
<center> tags, 104-106
center value (alignment), 139
centering (see alignment)
char attribute
      <th> and <td>, 389
      <tr>, 383
character entities, 23, 45, 115, 196, 557-562
      JavaScript, 453
characters
      letter spacing, 297
      reserved/unsafe in URLs, 196
      word spacing, 301, 539
charoff attribute
      <th> and <td>, 389
      <tr>, 383
charset attribute
      <a>, 218
      <meta>, 247
      <script>, 448
checkboxes, 338
child document relationship, 216
circular bullets, 257
circular image map areas, 231
cite attribute
      <blockquote>, 110
      <ins> and <del>, 55
      <q>, 111
<cite> tags, 22, 76
class attribute, 98, 501
      <a>, 217
      <address>, 114
      <area>, 234
      <blockquote>, 110
      <body>, 157
      <caption>, 391
      <center>, 106
      content-based style tags, 81
      <div>, 63
      <dl>, <dt>, and <dd>, 267
      <font>, 94
      <form>, 327, 354
      form controls, 354
      <frameset>, 411
      <isindex>, 239
      <layer>, 190
      <map>, 229
      <multicol>, 180
      <object>, 434
      <p>, 67, 70
      physical style tags, 86
      <pre>, 104, 112
      <q>, 111
      table attributes, 380
      <ul>, <ol>, and <li>, 251
classes, style, 281-285, 458
classid attribute
      <object>, 431
classification style properties, 312-313
clear attribute (<br>), 95-97
clear images (see transparency)
clear property, 306, 536
clickable image maps, 31, 147-148, 225-236
      <area> tag, 147, 229-234
      client-side, 31, 147, 227, 234
      <map> tags, 147, 228
      server-side, 31, 147, 225-227
      web browsers and, 235
client-pull documents, 463-468
clients, 6
client-side image maps, 31, 147, 227
      example of, 234
clip attribute (<layer>), 189
code attribute (<applet>), 440
<code> tags, 22, 77
codebase attribute (<applet>), 431
codetype attribute (<object>), 432
<col> tag, 398-401
<colgroup> tags, 398-402
color attribute
      <basefont>, 88
      <font>, 92
      <hr>, 123
color property, 296, 536
color values, 563
colormaps, 484, 565
colors, 152-160, 563-566
      background, 153, 158, 292
            layers, 187
            marquees, 165
            troubleshooting, 159-160
      <body> tag extensions, 152-158
      border, 304
      dithered, 485
      frame borders, 415
      graphics file formats and, 126
      horizontal rules, 123
      hyperlinks, 156
      performance considerations, 158-160
      standard color map, 565
      style properties for, 287, 291-296
      tables, 374-375, 384, 388
      text, 92, 155, 296
      transparency, 127
      true color images, 484
cols attribute
      <col>, 408-409
      <multicol>, 176
      <table>, 376
      <textarea>, 347
colspan attribute (<td> and <th>), 387-388
columns
      frames, 408-409
      <multicol> tags, 175-180
      multiline text entry areas, 347
      tables, 376, 387-388, 398-402
      text layout in, 175-180, 476-478
      whitespace between (gutter), 177
      (see also tables)
comma (,) in styles, 279
comments, 20, 45
      <comment> tags, 46
      in <style> tags, 277
compact attribute
      <dl>, 266
      <ol>, 255
      <ul>, 251
connecting to Internet, 15
content attribute (<meta>), 246, 465
content-based style tags, 22, 44-46, 74-82
Content-Disposition header, 324, 337
Content-Type header, 324, 337, 469
content types, 167, 244
      application/x-www-form-urlencoded, 322-323
      file-selection controls and, 337
      literal_text, plain_text, style_text, 492
      multipart/form-data, 322-324
      multipart/mixed, 469
      multipart/x-mixed-replace, 470
      text/css, 273
      text/plain, 324
contextual selectors, 279-281
contextual( ) (JavaScript), 459
contextual styles, 459
controls attribute (<img>), 150
controls, form (see forms, input controls)
conventions for HTML programming, 489-492
coordinates in image maps, 225
coords attribute
      <a>, 218
      <area>, 230
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets), 36-37, 270-318
      box properties, 301-309
      classification properties, 312-313
      color and background properties, 291-296
      font properties, 288-291
      how to use, 315-318
      list properties, 309-312
      quick reference, 532-539
      rectangular box model for, 301-303
      style properties, 285-313
      style syntax, 278-285
CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) (continued)
      tagless styles (<span>), 314-315
      text properties, 297-301
custom bullets, 310-312, 476
custom image buttons (forms), 342
cycling documents, 465

D
dashed borders, 305
data attribute (<object>), 432
datetime attribute (<ins> and <del>), 55
<dd> tag, 268
declare attribute (<object>), 434
defer attribute (<cript>), 448
definition lists, 32, 264-269
      custom list item markers, 476
<del> tags, 54-56
delay
      document refresh, 464
      loading (see performance)
      marquee movement, 166
designing in HTML (see writing HTML documents)
<dfn> tags, 22, 77
dir attribute, 81, 85, 501
      <a>, 217
      <address>, 114
      <area>, 234
      <blockquote>, 110
      <center>, 106
      <div>, 62
      <dl>, <dt>, and <dd>, 267
      <font>, 94
      <form>, 328
      form controls, 354
      <head>, 50
      <html>, 48
      <isindex>, 239
      <object>, 436
      overriding with <bdo>, 57
      <p>, 66, 70
      <pre>, 104
      <q>, 111
      table tags, 380
      <title>, 52
      <ul>, <ol>, and <li>, 252
<dir> tags, 261-262
direction attribute (<marquee>), 164
directory lists, 261-262
disabled attribute (form controls), 355
disc bullets, 257
display property, 313, 536
displays, form contents and, 360
dithering, 485
<div> tags, 24, 60-63
<dl> tags, 32, 264-266
<!DOCTYPE> command, 46
document automation, 245-248
document pathnames, 198
documentation
      for form elements, 360
      HTML tag quick reference, 501-531
      <meta> tags for, 245-247
document-level styles, 272-274, 317, 456
document-related events, 451
documents
      embedding, 166, 168
      HTML (see HTML documents)
      as layers, 189
      (see also content types; HTML documents)
domains, 5, 26
dotted borders, 305
downloading delay (see performance)
downloading images (see images)
<dt> tags, 32, 266-267
DTD for HTML, 46-49, 489, 540-556
dynamic documents, 462-472
      client-pull, 464-468
      server-push, 468-472
dynsrc attribute (<img>), 150

E
<em> tags, 22, 78
email, mailto URL for, 206, 322
      form data via, 330-332
<embed> tags, 442-445
      for audio, 162
embedded guides, 482
embedded links (see hyperlinks)
embedded objects, 166, 168
      <applet> tags, 438-441
      <embed> tags, 442-445
      <noembed> tag, 445
      <object> tags, 429-437
      <param> tags, 437-438
embedded tags, 18
      (see also HTML tags)
emphasis, tags for
      <b>, 83
      <blink>, 85
      <dfn>, 77
      <em>, 78
      <i>, 84
      <strong>, 79
encoding
      characters (see special characters)
      file-selection controls and, 337
      (see also content types)
enctype attribute
      <form>, 322-325
      <input type=file>, 337
ending tags, 19, 42-43
entities, 23, 45, 115, 196, 557-562
      JavaScript, 453
equal sign (=) for tag attributes, 41
event attributes
      <a> tags, 215
      <address>, 115
      <area> (client-side image maps), 232
      <blockquote>, 111
      <center>, 106
      content-based tags, 81
      <div>, 63
      <form>, 328
      form controls, 353
      frames and, 410
      <h#> tags, 70
      <img>, 148
      <input type=button> (push buttons), 343
      objects and, 436
      <p>, 67
      physical style tags, 86
      <pre>, 104
      <q>, 112
      table tags, 381
      <ul>, 252
event handlers, JavaScript, 449-452
      (see also event attributes)
executable content, 425-461
      applets, 425-428
      JavaScript (see JavaScript language)
      JavaScript style sheets, 454-461
explicit label associations (forms), 356
Extended Font Model, 88
extensions, HTML, 8, 11-13
external style sheets, 274-276, 316, 455
extranets, 2

F
face attribute
      <basefont>, 88
      <font>, 93
fade-in effect, 13
family, font, 288
<fieldset> tags, 357-359
file server, 203
File Transfer Protocol (see FTP)
files
      file URLs, 203
      HTML (see HTML documents)
file-selection controls (forms), 336-337
fixed value (background image position), 155
flashing text, 85, 298
float property, 306, 536
flood-filling images, 144
flowing around images, 95-97
flowing text (see wrapping text)
font-family property, 288, 536
font property, 290, 536
font-size property, 289, 536
font-style property, 289, 536
<font> tags, 288
font-variant property, 290, 537
font-weight property, 290, 537
fonts
      <basefont> tags, 88-89
      color (see colors)
      font size (see text size)
      <font> tags, 90-94
      heading tags to change, 72
      HTML tags for, 87-94
      style properties for, 288-291
footers
      rules with, 124
      table, 393
for attribute (<label>), 356
foreground colors, 296
<form> tags, 33, 320-332
format
      alignment (see alignment)
      encoding (see content types)
      graphics formats, 126-129, 131
format (continued)
      HTML (see page layout; style sheets)
      indentation (see indentation; whitespace)
      list items, 257-259
      multimedia file formats, 161
      paragraph rendering, 64
      preformatted text (see preformatted text)
      styles (see styles)
      (see also page layout)
forms, 33, 319-369
      <button> tags, 344-346
      example of, 329
      improving layout of, 481-482
      input controls, 332-346
            action buttons, 340-343
            checkboxes, 338
            common attributes for, 353-355
            hidden fields, 344
            labeling and grouping, 356-359
            multiline text entry areas, 346-348
            multiple-choice elements, 348-353
            radio buttons, 339-340
            text fields, 333-337
      layout of, 361-363
      mailto URL with, 330-332
      with nested tables, 481
      programming, 363-369
            parameters in URLs, 326
      writing effectively, 359-363
FQDNs, 5
fragment identifiers, 28, 199, 219
frame attribute (<table>), 375
frame-by-frame animation, 128
<frame> tags, 35, 413-416
frameborder attribute
      <frame>, 415
      <frameset>, 409
frames, 34-35, 404-424
      alignment, 419
      borders, 409-410
      contents of, 412-416
      <frameset> tags, 48, 54
      as hyperlink targets, 217, 241, 327, 420-424, 486-487
            image maps and, 233
      inline frames, 418-420
      layout, 407-412
      margins and borders, 415
      <noframes> tags, 416-417
      opening multiple at one time, 487-488
      scrolling, 414
      tips and tricks, 486-488
<frameset> tags, 35, 407-412
framesets, 405
framespacing attribute (<frameset>), 410
FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
      ftp URLs, 202
      obtaining browsers via, 14
fully qualified domain names, 5

G
generic style classes, 282
GET method, 325-326, 365-367
GIF (Graphics Interchange Format), 126-128, 131
      GIF animation, 128
      GIF89a, 484-485
giftrans utility, 485
Giles, Aaron, 485
glossary document relationship, 216
gopher URLs, 208
Graphics Interchange Format (see GIF)
graphics (see images)
grooved borders, 305
grouping form elements, 357-359
guides, embedded, 482
gutter attribute (<multicol>), 177

H
<h#> tags, 25, 68-73
handheld value (style media), 273
hanging indents, 298-299
head document relationship, 216
head of HTML documents, 19, 40, 47, 49-50
<head> tags, 40, 47, 49-50
headers
      rules with, 124
      table, 34, 392
      vertical spacers with, 172
headers attribute (<th> and <td>), 389
headings, 25, 67-73
      images in, 73
      side heads (tables), 478-480
      straddle heads (tables), 478
      text size and, 71
height attribute
      <applet>, 441
      <embed>, 443
      <iframe>, 419
      <img>, 143-145
      <marquee>, 165
      <spacer>, 173
      <table>, 379
      <tr>, 387
height property, 307, 537
helper applications, 7, 29
hexadecimal color values, 563
hexadecimal RGB triples (see colors)
hidden attribute (<embed>), 443
hidden form fields, 344
hidden text entry fields, 336
hide value (layer visibility), 187
home pages, 6, 28, 199
horizontal
      alignment (see alignment)
      margins (see margins)
      rules, 25, 117-124
      whitespace, 170-171
      (see also width attribute)
hot keys for hyperlinks, 218
<hr> tag, 25, 117-123
href attribute
      <a>, 212-213, 225
      <area>, 231
      <base>, 240
      <link>, 242
hreflang attribute (<a>), 218
hspace attribute
      <embed>, 443
      <img>, 145-147
      <marquee>, 165
      <table>, 377
HTML, 7-11
      creation of, 3
      documents in (see HTML documents)
      DTD (Document Type Definition), 46-49, 489, 540-556
      extensions to, 8, 11-13
      grammar of, 489-500
      grammatical conventions, 489-492
      object model, 426-428
      styles (see styles)
      tags (see HTML tags)
      text editors for, 16
      tips and tricks, 473-488
      version 4.0, dxciv-dxcvi, 8, 391-402
HTML attributes (see HTML tags)
HTML documents
      boilerplates, 475
      colors in (see colors)
      columns (see columns)
      designing for your audience, 474
      document automation, 245-248
      document-level styles, 272-274, 317
      document-related events, 451
      dynamic, 462-472
      editorial markup tags, 54-57
      executable content, 425-461
      forms (see forms)
      frames (see frames)
      headings in (see headings)
      "Hello World!" example, 17-18
      home pages, 6, 28, 199
      images in (see images)
      layout (see page layout)
      length of, 27
      linking to (see hyperlinks)
      margins for body content, 156
      pathnames, 198
      refreshing automatically, 464-466
      relationships between, 240-245
      searchable, 33, 236-240
      sectioning, 59-67, 124
      structure of, 19-21, 38-40, 49-54
      style sheets (see styles)
      styles (see styles)
      tables of contents, 219-220
      tables (see tables)
      titles of, 20, 50-52, 71
      whitespace in (see whitespace)
      (see also web browsers)
HTML tags, 18, 40-44
      attributes for, 40
      content-based style, 22, 44-46, 74-82
      for editorial markup, 54-57
      font handling, 87-94
      grammar for, 492-500
      nesting, 42
      physical style, 23, 74, 82-87
      quick reference, 501-531
      starting and ending tags, 19, 42-43
      styles for (see styles)
HTML tags (continued)
      tagless styles (<span>), 314-315
      (see also under specific attribute and tag names)
<html> tags, 19, 40, 47
http-equiv attribute (<meta>), 246, 464
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), 6
      Redirect header, 467
      Refresh header, 464-466
http servers, 197
http URLs, 196-201
hyperlinks, 3, 25-29, 193
      clickable image maps, 31, 147-148, 225-236
            <area> tag, 31, 147, 229-234
            <map> tags, 31, 147, 228
            web browsers and, 235
      colors for, 156
      effective use of, 220-224
      embedded guides, 482
      to external content, 168
      images and, 224
      linking within documents, 28, 219
      to multiple frames, 487-488
      navigating with Tab and hot keys, 218
      relationships between, 216
      states of, 283
      targets for, 217, 241, 327, 420-424, 486-487
            image maps and, 233
      (see also <a> tags)
Hypertext Markup Language (see HTML)
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (see HTTP)

I
<i> tags, 23, 84
      <em> tags vs., 78
id attribute, 148, 501
      <a>, 214
      <address>, 114
      <basefont>, 88
      <blockquote>, 111
      <center>, 106
      <div>, 60, 62
      <dl>, <dt>, and <dd>, 267
      <form>, 327
      form controls, 353
      <frameset>, 411
      for hyperlink targets, 219
      <isindex>, 239
      <label>, 357
      <map>, 229
      <object>, 434
      <p>, 66, 70
      <q>, 111
      for style classes, 282
      table tags, 380
      <ul>, <ol>, and <li>, 252
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), 9
<iframe> tags, 418-419
ignored HTML tags, 43
<ilayer> tags, 190-192
images, 29-31, 125-152, 167
      alignment, 136-139, 141
      background, 153-155, 158, 291
            behind specific elements, 292
            layers, 187
            placement of, 293-295
            in tables, 389
            tiling whole background, 295
            troubleshooting, 158-159
            in tables, 374
      borders, 142-143, 213
      clickable image maps, 31, 147-148, 225-236
            <area> tag, 31, 147, 229-234
            <map> tags, 31, 147, 228
            web browsers and, 235
      converting to GIF89a, 485
      custom image buttons (forms), 342
      download performance, 129-131
      fixing against scrolling, 155, 291
      flowing text around, 95-97
      graphics formats, 126-129, 131
      in headings, 73
      hyperlinks and, 224
      as list item signifiers, 310
      margins around, 145-147
      rules (see horizontal rules)
      size, 143-145
      text flow around, 95-97
      text in place of, 134-135
      transparent (see transparency)
      true color images, 484
      when to use, 129
      wrapping text around, 139-141
      (see also multimedia)
<img> tag, 29-31, 132-152
      custom image buttons (forms), 342
      emulating spacers with, 174
      video extensions, 149-152
implicit label associations (forms), 356
@import command, 275
imported external style sheets, 275-276, 316
inclusions, 426
indentation, 39
      abusing <dt> for, 267
      block quotes, 108-112
      paragraphs, with <spacer>, 171
      text-indent property for, 298-299
index document relationship, 216
infinite value (marquee looping), 164
inherit value (layer visibility), 187
inheritance, styles and, 285, 287
inline
      frames, 418-420
      images, 29-31
      items, 313
      layers, 190-192
      references, 222-223
      styles, 272, 317, 456
<input> tags, 332-346
      action buttons, 340-343
      checkboxes (type=checkbox), 338
      file-selection (type=file), 336-337
      hidden fields (type=hidden), 344
      masked text entry (type=password), 336
      radio buttons (type=radio), 339-340
      text entry (type=text), 333-336
<ins> tags, 54-56
inset borders, 305
interlacing, 127
Internet, 1-7
      connecting to, 15
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), 9
Internet Explorer, 149
      Active technology and, 428
      obtaining, 14
Internet Protocol (see IP)
intranets, 2
IP addresses, 197
IP (Internet Protocol), 5
<isindex> tag, 33, 52, 237-240
ismap attribute (<img>), 31, 147-148, 225
italic, 84, 289
      (see also emphasis, tags for)

J
Java language, 428
JavaScript language, 36, 446-454
      event handlers, 148, 449-452
            (see also event attributes)
      frames and, 410
      <img> attributes, 148
      javascript pseudo-protocol, 201
      <noscript> tags, 448
      overriding hyperlink targets, 487
      <script> tags, 446-448
      style sheet properties, 460
      style sheets (JSS), 36, 454-461
javascript pseudo-URLs, 453
JPEG format, 129, 131
JSS (JavaScript style sheets), 36, 454-461
      style sheet properties, 460
justification (see alignment, text)
justify value (align attribute), 69

K
<kbd> tags, 22, 78
keyboard events, 451
keyboard input, tag for, 78
keyword property values, 285
keywords for documents, 246

L
label attribute
      <optgroup>, 353
      <option>, 351
<label> tags, 356-357
labeling form elements, 356-357
lang attribute, 81, 85, 501
      <a>, 217
      <address>, 114
      <area>, 234
      <blockquote>, 110
      <center>, 106
      <div>, 62
      <dl>, <dt>, and <dd>, 267
      <font>, 94
      <form>, 328
      form controls, 354
lang attribute (continued)
      <head>, 50
      <html>, 48
      <isindex>, 239
      <object>, 436
      <p>, 66, 70
      <pre>, 104
      <q>, 111
      table tags, 380
      <title>, 52
      <ul>, <ol>, and <li>, 252
language attribute (<script>), 447
layers, 181-192
      alignment, 182-184, 191
      <ilayer> tags, 190-192
      <layer> tags, 181-190
      visibility of, 187
layout (see page layout)
left alignment (see alignment)
left attribute
      <ilayer>, 191
      <layer>, 182-184
leftmargin attribute (<body>), 156
<legend> tags, 357-359
length property values, 285
length (see size)
less-than sign (<), 23
letter-spacing property, 297, 537
<li> tags, 32, 256-259
line breaks, 24, 94-101, 174
      allowing with <wbr>, 100-101
      nowrap attribute and, 61
      suppressing with <nobr>, 98-99
      vertical <spacer>, 172
      (see also preformatted text)
line-height property, 297, 537
line-style-image property, 537
line-style-position property, 537
line-style property, 537
line-style type property, 537
line-through text style, 84, 298
link attribute (<body>), 156
<link> tag, 52, 216, 242-245, 274-276, 455
      web browser limitations, 276
      (see also external style sheets)
linked external style sheets, 274-276, 316
links (see hyperlinks)
list-style-image property, 310
list-style-position property, 310
list-style property, 311
list-style-type property, 311
<listing> tags, 106
lists, 32, 249-269
      custom list item markers, 476
      definition lists, 264-269
      directory lists, 261-262
      of hyperlinks, 221
      items of, 256-259
      list items, 313
      menu lists, 262-264
      nesting, 259-261
      ordered (numbered), 252-255, 260
      selection lists (forms), 348-353
      style properties for, 309-312
      unordered (bulleted), 249-252, 259
literal_text content type, 492
loading delay (see performance)
longdesc attribute
      <frame>, 416
      <img>, 135
loop attribute
      <bgsound>, 162
      <img>, 151
      <marquee>, 164
looping
      audio, 162
      marquee text, 164
      video, 151
lowsrc attribute (<img>), 133-134
Lynx (see text-only browsers)

M
mailto URLs, 206, 322
      form data via, 330-332
<map> tags, 31, 147, 228
maps
      image (see clickable image maps)
      standard color, 565
margin-border property, 538
margin collapsing, 301
margin-left, margin-right, margin-top, margin-bottom properties, 308
margin-left property, 538
margin property, 537
margin-right property, 538
margin-top property, 538
marginheight attribute (<frame>), 415
margins
      around CSS boxes, 301-303
      around table cells, 376
      body content, 156
      frames, 415
      images, 145-147
      marquee areas, 165
      style properties for, 308
      (see also borders; whitespace)
marginwidth attribute (<frame>), 415
<marquee> tags, 163-166
masked text entry fields, 336
maxlength attribute
      <input type=file>, 336
      <input type=text>, 334
mayscript attribute (<applet>), 441
media attribute (<style>), 273
menu lists, 262-264
<menu> tags, 263-264
<meta> tags, 52, 245-247, 464-466
method attribute (<form>), 325-327
Microsoft Internet Explorer (see Internet Explorer)
middle value, 30, 137
      (see also alignment)
MIME types, 167, 244
      application/x-www-form-urlencoded, 322-323
      file-selection controls and, 337
      multipart/form-data, 322-324
      multipart/mixed, 469
      multipart/x-mixed-replace, 470
      text/css, 273
      text/plain, 324
missing HTML tags, 43
monitor, form contents and, 360
monospaced text
      <code> tags, 77
      <kbd> tags, 78
      <plaintext> tags, 108
      <tt> tags, 85
      <var> tags, 80
Mosaic browser, 3
mouse-related events, 451
mouse-sensitive images (see clickable image maps)
movies (see animation; video)
MSIE (see Internet Explorer)
<multicol> tags, 175-180, 476-478
multicolumn layout (see columns)
multiline text entry areas, 346-348
multimedia, 21, 166-168
      audio, 160-162
      client-pull feature for, 466-467
      common file formats, 161
      GIF animation, 128
      images (see images)
      text animation, 162-166
      video, 150
            <img> extensions for, 149-152
multipart/form-data encoding, 322-324
multipart/mixed encoding, 469
multipart/x-mixed-replace encoding, 470
multiple attribute (<select>), 349
multiple-choice elements (forms), 348-353

N
n attribute (<nextid>), 247
name attribute
      <a>, 28, 214
      <applet>, 441
      <basefont>, 88
      <div>, 60
      <embed>, 443
      <form>, 327
      form input elements, 332
      <frame>, 406, 414
      <img>, 148
      <label>, 357
      <layer>, 181
      <map>, 229
      <meta>, 246
      <object>, 434
      <param>, 437
name servers, 5
named form parameters, 326, 365
named frames (see frames, as hyperlink targets)
naming conventions for HTML, 490
navigating with hyperlinks, 27-28
Navigator (see Netscape Navigator)
nesting
      content-based style tags, 82
      contextual style rules, 280
      <frameset> tags, 411
      HTML tags, 42
      layers (see layers)
      lists, 259-261
nesting (continued)
      <multicol> tags, 176
      physical style tags, 87
      tables, 481
Netscape Navigator, 4, 11
      obtaining, 14
      plug-ins, 149, 168
news URLs, 204-205
newsgroups, 204-206
next document relationship, 216
<nextid> tag, 52, 247
nntp URLs, 205-206
<nobr> tags, 98-100
      centered content and, 105
      (see also line breaks)
<noembed> tag, 445
<noframes> tags, 416-417
nohref attribute (<area>), 232
noresize attribute (<frame>), 414
<noscript> tags, 448
noshade attribute (<hr>), 120
"not visited" link state, 283
notab attribute
      form controls, 354
      <map>, 232
      <object>, 436
nowrap attribute
      <div> tags, 61
      <table>, 377-378
      <th> and <td>, 388
      <tr>, 384
numbered (ordered) lists, 32, 252-255
      list marker style properties, 310-312
      nesting, 260
      numbering style, 257

O
object attribute (<applet>), 441
object model (HTML v4.0), 426-428
<object> tags, 52, 429-437
offset (see alignment)
<ol> tags, 32, 253-255
omitting HTML tags, 43
onAbort attribute, 149, 452
onBlur attribute, 452
onChange attribute, 451-452
onClick attribute, 451, 501
onDblClick attribute, 451, 501
onError attribute, 149, 452
onFocus attribute, 452
onKeyDown attribute, 451, 502
onKeyPress attribute, 451, 502
onKeyRelease attribute, 451
onKeyUp attribute, 502
onLoad attribute, 149, 451-452
onMouseDown attribute, 451, 502
onMouseMove attribute, 451, 502
onMouseOut attribute, 232, 451, 502
onMouseOver attribute, 215, 232, 450-451, 502
onMouseUp attribute, 451, 502
onReset attribute, 328, 451-452
onSelect attribute, 451-452
onSubmit attribute, 328, 451-452
onUnload attribute, 451-452
<optgroup> tags, 352-353
<option> tags, 350-351
ordered (numbered) lists, 32, 252-255
      list marker style properties, 310-312
      nesting, 260
      numbering style, 257
outset borders, 305
overlining, 298
overriding hyperlink targets, 487

P
<p> tags, 24, 43, 63-67
      style pseudo-classes for, 283
padding-bottom, padding-left, padding-right, padding-top properties, 308
padding-bottom property, 538
padding-left property, 538
padding properties, 308
padding property, 538
padding-right property, 538
padding (see margins)
padding-top property, 538
page layout, 21
      alignment (see alignment)
      columns, 175-180
      content vs. appearance, 9
      designing for your audience, 474
      forms, 361-363, 481-482
      frames, 407-412
      HTML tags for, 94-101
      layers, 181-192
      multiple columns, 476-478
      style sheets (see styles)
      tables (see tables)
      web browsers and, 11
      whitespace (see whitespace)
      wrapping text, 61
      wrapping text (see wrapping text)
      (see also format)
palette attribute (<embed>), 444
paragraphs, 24, 63-67
      identing with <spacer>, 171
      style pseudo-classes for, 283
<param> tags, 437-438
parameters, form, 326, 365-369
parent document relationship, 216
_parent target, 422
password input fields, 336
pathnames, 26, 198
percent sign (%) for character encoding, 195
percentage property values, 286
performance
      applets, 427
      background images, 158-159
      client-pull documents, 468
      colors, 158-160
      flood-filling, 144
      image maps, 227
      images and, 129-131
      lowsrc attribute (<img>) for, 133-134
      marquee movement, 166
      server-push documents, 470
      text, 130
physical style tags, 23, 74, 82-87
physical text wrapping, 348
plain_text content type, 492
<plaintext> tags, 108
plug-in accessories, 7, 29
plug-ins, 149, 168
pluginspage attribute (<embed>), 444
polygonal image map area, 231
ports
      ftp servers, 202
      nntp, 205
      web servers, 198
POST method, 325-326, 367-369
pound sign (#)
      for entities, 23
      for name anchors, 28, 219
      in URLs, 199
<pre> tags, 25, 101-104
preformatted text, 25
      <listing> tags, 106
      <pre> tags, 101-104
      <xmp> tags, 107
prev document relationship, 216
print value (style media), 273
private webs, 7
profile attribute (<head>), 50
programming forms, 363-369
      parameters in URLs, 326
projection value (style media), 273
prompt attribute (<isindex>), 238
properties, style, 285-313
      JavaScript style sheets, 460
protocols, 26
pseudo-classes, style, 283-284
punctuation conventions for HTML, 490
push buttons, 343

Q
<q> tags, 111-112
query URLs, 239
QUERY_STRING variable, 365
question mark (?) in URLs, 195, 200
quick reference for HTML tags, 501-531
quotation mark (")
&nbs p;     for attribute values, 41
      in URLs, 195

R
radio buttons, 339-340
random URL generator, 468
readability, whitespace and, 41
readonly attribute (form controls), 355
rectangular image map area, 231
Redirect header, 467
redundant HTML tags, 43
references, inline, 222-223
referencing external content, 167
Refresh header, 464-466
rel attribute
      <a>, 216
      <link>, 243
relationships
      between HTML documents, 240-245
      between hyperlinks, 216
relative font size, 91-92
relative frame sizes, 408
relative URLs, 26, 209-210
      <base> tag, 240-242
reserved characters (see special characters)
reset buttons, 341
resizing images, 144
reusing images, 131
rev attribute
      <a>, 216
      <link>, 243
RGB color values, 93
      (see also colors)
ridged borders, 305
right alignment (see alignment)
rows attribute
      <frameset>, 408-409
      <textarea>, 347
rows, table (see tables)
rowspan attribute (<th> and <td>), 387
rules attribute (<table>), 375
rules (see horizontal rules)

S
<s> tags (see <strike> tags)
<samp> tags, 22, 79
scheme attribute (<meta>), 247
schemes, URL, 194, 209
scope attribute (<th> and <td>), 389
screen value (style media), 273
<script> tags, 52, 446-448
scroll value (marquee behavior), 164
scrollamount attribute (<marquee>), 166
scrolldelay attribute (<marquee>), 166
scrolling
      fixing images against, 155, 291
      frames, 414
      <marquee> tags and, 163-166
scrolling attribute (<frame>), 414
search parameter of URLs, 200
searchable documents, 33, 236-240
sections
      document, 60, 124
      performance and, 131
      table, 392-397
security, ActiveX and, 428
<select> tags, 348-350
selected attribute (<option>), 351
selection lists, 348-353
selectors (see tag selectors)
_self target, 422
<server> tags, 454
server-push documents, 463, 468-472
servers, 6
      data to/from (see forms)
      file servers, 203
      form programming, 363-369
      ftp servers, 202
      http servers, 197
      <isindex> tag and, 239
      nntp servers, 205
server-side applications, 364
server-side image maps, 31, 147, 225-227
SGML DTD (see DTD for HTML)
shape attribute
      <a>, 218
      <area>, 230, 233
shapes attribute (<object>), 435
show value (layer visibility), 187
side heads (tables), 478-480
size
      applets, 441
      borders, 304
      column width (see columns)
      CSS boxes, 301-303, 307, 309
      embedded objects, 443, 445
      font size, 289
      form entry controls, 360
      frames, 408-409, 414, 419
      horizontal rule, 121
      HTML documents, 27
      image map areas, 230, 233
      images, 143-145
      layers, 188
      line height, 297
      marquee area, 165
      selection lists, 349
      table cells, 386
      tables, 379
      text, 71
            <basefont> tags, 88-89
            <big> tags, 83
            Extended Font Model, 88
            <font> tags, 91-92
            <small> tags, 84
      text entry fields, 334-336
      whitespace blocks, 173
      (see also height attribute; size attribute; width attribute)
size attribute
      <basefont> tags, 88
      <font> tags, 91-92
      <hr> tag, 119
      <input type=file>, 336
      <input type=text>, 334
      <multiple>, 349
      <spacer>, 170, 173
slash (/)
      in ending tags, 19
      in URLs, 195, 199
slide value (marquee behavior), 164
<small> tags, 84
software
      for designers, 13-15
      formatting code, 77
      for writing HTML documents, 16
      (see also text editors)
solid borders, 305
sound (see audio)
space (see whitespace)
<spacer> tag, 170-173
span attribute
      <col>, 400
      <colgroup>, 398
<span> tags, 314-315
special characters, 23, 45, 115, 195-196, 557-562
      JavaScript entities, 453
      in URLs, 195
square bullets, 257
src attribute
      <bgsound>, 161
      <embed>, 444
      <frame>, 413
      <img>, 29, 133
      <input type=image>, 342
      <layer>, 189
      <script>, 448
stacking layers (see layers)
standardizing HTML, 8, 46-49, 489, 540-556
standby attribute (<object>), 435
start attribute
      <img>, 151
      <ol>, 254-255
starting tags, 19, 42
state, hyperlink, 283
straddle heads (tables), 478
<strike> tags, 84
strike-through text style, 84, 298
<strong> tags, 22, 79
structural tags, 24
style, text (see text)
style attribute, 98, 272, 502
      <a>, 217
      <address>, 114
      <area>, 234
      <blockquote>, 110
      <body>, 157
      <caption>, 391
      <center>, 106
      content-based style tags, 81
      <div>, 63
      <dl>, <dt>, and <dd>, 267
      <font>, 94
      <form>, 327, 354
      form controls, 354
      <frameset>, 411
      <isindex>, 239
      <layer>, 190
      <map>, 229
      <multicol>, 180
      <object>, 434
      <p>, 67, 70
      physical style tags, 86
      <pre>, 104, 112
      <q>, 111
      table attributes, 380
      <ul>, <ol>, and <li>, 251
<style> tags, 44, 52, 272-274, 317
      comments in, 277
      @import command, 275
styles, 271-318
      box properties, 301-309
      classes for, 281-285, 458
      classification properties, 312-313
      color and background properties, 291-296
      contextual selectors, 279-281, 459
      CSS properties for, 285-313
      document-level, 272-274, 317, 456
      external style sheets, 274-276, 316
      font style properties, 288-291
      how to use, 315-318
      inline styles, 456
      JavaScript style sheets (JSS), 454, 460-461
styles (continued)
      list properties, 309-312
      precedence, 277-278
      pseudo-classes for, 283-284
      style sheets, 36-37
      syntax of, 278-285
      tagless styles (<span>), 314-315
      text style properties, 297-301
      web browser limitations, 276-277
style_text content type, 492
<sub> tags, 84
subdomains (see domains)
submit buttons, 341
subscripts and superscripts, 84
summary attribute (<table>), 379
<sup> tags, 84

T
Tab key
      navigating form controls, 354
      navigating hyperlinks, 218
      navigating objects, 436
tabindex attribute
      <a>, 218
      form controls, 354
      <map>, 232
      <object>, 436
<table> tags, 34, 372-381
tables, 33, 370-403, 476-483
      alignment, 373-374, 377-378, 382-383
      borders, 374-375, 384, 389
      browsers incompatible with, 480
      captions, 390
      cells, 384-390
            cell alignment, 386
            cell size, 386
            cell spacing, 376
      colors in, 374-375, 384, 388
      columns, 376, 387-388, 398-402
      controlling page layout with, 402-403
      headers and footers, 392-393
      HTML v4.0 tags for, 391-402
      nesting, 481
      rows, 34, 381-384, 387
      sectioning, 392-397
      side heads, 478-480
      size, 379
      straddle heads, 478
      web browsers incompatible with, 480
      wrapping text in cells, 378, 384, 388
      (see also columns)
tables of contents, 219-220
taborder attribute
      form controls, 354
      <map>, 232
tabs (see whitespace)
tag selectors, 279-281
tagless styles (<span>), 314-315
tags property (JavaScript), 457
target attribute
      <a>, 217, 420-424, 486-487
      <area>, 233
      <base>, 241, 422-424
      <form>, 327
      special values for, 421
<tbody> tag, 393
<td> tags, 384-390
telnet URLs, 207
templates for HTML documents, 475
text, 20-25
      addresses, 112-115
      alignment, 298, 300
      animating, 162-166
      appearance tags for, 22-23, 73-87
      block quotes, 108-112
      breaking lines (see line breaks)
      color of (see colors)
      colors for, 296
      flow (see wrapping text)
      flowing around images, 95-97
      form fields for, 333-337
      headings (see headings)
      inline references in, 222-223
      instead of images, 130, 134-135
      layout of (see layout)
      margins for body content, 156
      monospaced (see monospaced text)
      multicolumn layout, 175-180, 476-478
      multiline text entry areas (forms), 346-348
      paragraphs (see paragraphs)
      preformatted, 25
      size of (see text size)
      special characters, 23, 45, 115, 196, 557-562
            JavaScript entities, 453
      structural tags, 24
      style properties for, 297-301
      text-only browsers, 6, 135
      text/plain encoding, 324
      whitespace (see whitespace)
text-align property, 298, 538
text attribute (<body>), 155
text-decoration property, 298, 538
text editors, 13, 16
text entry fields (forms), 333-336
text-indent property, 538
text size
      <basefont> tags, 88-89
      <big> tags, 83
      Extended Font Model, 88
      <font> tags, 91-92
      heading tags for, 71
      <small> tags, 84
text-transform property, 300, 539
<textarea> tags, 346-348
text/css encoding, 273
texttop value, 137
      (see also alignment)
<tfoot> tags, 393
<th> tags, 34, 384-390
<thead> tags, 392
tilde (~) in URLs, 199
tiling with images, 295
title attribute, 502
      <a>, 217
      <applet>, 441
      <area>, 233
      <div>, 62
      <dl>, <dt>, and <dd>, 267
      <form>, 327
      form controls, 353
      <frame>, 416
      <frameset>, 411
      <img>, 148
      <isindex>, 239
      <link>, 244
      <map>, 229
      <object>, 434
      <p>, 66, 70
      table tags, 380
      <ul>, <ol>, and <li>, 252
<title> tags, 20, 50-52
titles
      bibliographic, 76
      choosing, 51
      document, 20, 50-52, 71
      forms, 327
      frames, 416
      hyperlinked documents, 217, 244
      image map area, 233
      sections, 62
      table captions, 390
toc document relationship, 216
top attribute
      <ilayer>, 191
      <layer>, 182-184
_top target, 422
top value, 30, 136
      (see also alignment)
topmargin attribute (<body>), 156
<tr> tags, 34, 381-384
transparency, 127, 484-486
Transparency tool (Macintosh), 485
troubleshooting background images/colors, 158-160
true color images, 484
<tt> tags, 23, 85
tty value (style media), 273
tv value (style media), 273
type attribute
      <a>, 218
      <button>, 346
      <embed>, 444
      <input> (see forms, input elements)
      <li>, 257, 311
      <link>, 244
      <object>, 433
      <ol>, 254
      <param>, 438
      <script>, 447
      <spacer>, 170, 172-173
      <style>, 273
      <ul>, 251
typecodes in ftp URLs, 203
typographic conventions for HTML, 490

U
<u> tags, 85
<ul> tags, 32, 249-252
underscoring, 85, 298
units attribute (<embed>), 445
unnamed form parameters, 367
unordered (bulleted) lists, 249-252
      bullet shape, 257
      custom list item markers, 476
unordered (bulleted) lists (continued)
      list marker style properties, 310-312
      nesting, 259
unordered lists, 32
unsafe characters in URLs, 195
unvisited link state, 283
URLs (uniform resource locators), 26, 194-210
      absolute vs. relative, 209-210
            <base> tag, 240-242
      character encodings in, 195
      file URLs, 203
      form parameters in, 326, 365
      ftp URLs, 202
      generating randomly, 468
      gopher URLs, 208
      http URLs, 196-201
      javascript pseudo-protocol, 201
      javascript pseudo-URLs, 453
      mailto URLs, 206, 322, 330-332
      news and nntp URLs, 204-206
      query URLs, 239
      as style property values, 286
      telnet URLs, 207
usemap attribute
      <img>, 31, 147-148, 227
      <object>, 435
Usenet news system, 204-206
user interface design, 361
user-related event handlers, 450

V
valign attribute
      <caption>, 390
      <table>, 377-378
      <th> and <td>, 386
value attribute
      <li>, 258
      <option>, 350
      <param>, 437
valuetype attribute (<param>), 438
<var> tags, 22, 80
version attribute (<html>), 48
vertical
      alignment (see alignment)
      margins (see margins)
      whitespace, 172
      (see also height attribute)
vertical-align property, 300, 539
video, 167
      client-pull feature for, 466-467
      <img> extensions, 149-152
      inline, 150
      (see also animation; multimedia)
virtual text wrapping, 348
visibility attribute (<layer>), 187
visited link state, 283
vlink attribute (<body>), 156
vspace attribute
      <embed>, 443
      <img>, 145-147
      <marquee>, 165
      <table>, 377

W
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), 8
<wbr> tag, 100-101
      centered content and, 105
      (see also line breaks)
Web, 3
      important web sites, 15
      information on, 6
      navigating with hyperlinks, 27-28
web browsers, 6, 17
      applet rendering, 439
      character entities, rendering, 45
      client-pull documents, 464-468
      client-side image maps and, 235
      executable content, 425-461
      form limitations, 359-360
      handling missing HTML tags, 43
      ignoring HTML tags, 43
      image borders, 142-143
      image presentation, 133
      incompatible with embedded objects, 445
      incompatible with executable content, 436
      incompatible with frames, 416-417
      incompatible with tables, 480
      Internet Explorer (see Internet Explorer)
      JavaScript (see JavaScript language)
      <link> tag and, 244
      Mosaic browser, 3
      Netscape Navigator (see Netscape Navigator)
      obtaining, 14
      page layout differences among, 11
      rendering images, 213
      styles (see styles)
      text-only, 6, 135
web servers, 197
      <server> tags, 454
      server-push documents, 468-472
webs, private, 7
weight, font, 290
white-space property, 313, 539
whitespace, 170-175
      around horizontal rules, 118
      around table cells, 376
      around tables, 377
      between columns (gutters), 177
      blocks of, 170-175
      frames and, 409-410
      handling in block tags, 313
      hanging indents, 298-299
      HTML tags for, 94-101
      <img> tag for, 174
      indentation (see indentation)
      letter spacing, 297
      line breaks (see line breaks)
      line height, 297
      margins
            body content, 156
            images, 145-147
            marquee areas, 165
      <nobr> tags, 98-99
      paragraphs (see paragraphs)
      readability and, 41
      <spacer> tag, 170-173
      tabs in preformatted text, 101
      word spacing, 301, 539
width attribute
      <applet>, 441
      <embed>, 443
      <hr>, 121
      <iframe>, 419
      <img>, 143-145
      <layer>, 188
      <marquee>, 165
      <multicol>, 179
      <pre> tag, 103
      <spacer>, 173
      <table>, 379
      <th> and <td>, 386
width property, 309, 539
windows
      as hyperlink targets, 217, 241, 327, 420-424, 486-487
            image maps and, 233
      tips and tricks, 486-488
      (see also frames)
word processors (see text editors)
word-spacing property, 301, 539
word wrap (see wrapping text)
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), 8
wrap attribute (<textarea>), 348
wrapping text
      around images, 95-97, 139-141
      <multicol> and, 180
      nowrap attribute (<div>), 61
      table cell contents, 378, 384
      in <textarea> entry areas, 348
      within table cells, 388
      (see also line breaks)
writing HTML documents
      applets, 427-428
      dynamic documents, 463
      editorial markup, 54-57
      forms, advice on using, 326
      forms, how to use, 359-482
            programming, 363-369
      forms. how to use, 481
      frames, how to use, 419
      hyperlinking effectively, 220-224
      image maps and, 236
      important sites for, 15
      lists, how to use, 269, 311-312
      server-push documents, 471
      software for, 13-16
      styles, how to use, 315-318
      tables, 476-483
            page layout with, 402-403
            table sections, 394-397
      tips and tricks, 473-488
      titles, choosing, 51
      user interface design, 361
WWW (see entries at Web)

X
<xmp> tags, 107

Z

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