Human Cancer: Epidemiology and Environmental Causes

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This important new reference book on human cancer provides a global picture of the epidemiology of cancer and its environmental causes. By summarising on a cancer-by-cancer basis geographical, environmental and ethical factors, the volume collates a wealth of information which, taken together, provides valuable insights into the causes of cancer and scope for its elimination and control. The contents include: (1) general epidemiological methods; (2) a review of known or suspected causes; (3) a detailed review of specific cancers; (4) a brief review of legal and ethical implications. The bibliography concentrates on recent key references and reviews.

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Table of Contents

Historical introduction
Pt. I Epidemiological methods 1
1 Introduction to cancer epidemiology 3
2 Descriptive epidemiology: the measurement of human cancer 5
3 Analytical epidemiology: techniques to determine causal relationships 27
4 Limitations of epidemiological methods in cancer studies: study of low-level risks: negative studies 39
5 Laboratory methods in epidemiology 45
Pt. II Causative factors in human cancer 63
6 The concept of cause: epidemiological considerations 65
7 Chemical factors 74
8 Occupational factors 97
9 Cultural factors: tobacco 114
10 Cultural factors: alcohol 127
11 Sexual behavior and reproductive factors 135
12 Nutritional factors 141
13 Physical factors: fiber carcinogenesis (including crystalline silicates) 154
14 Physical factors: implants and thermal chronic injury 160
15 Physical factors: ultraviolet (UV) light 164
16 Ionizing radiation 167
17 Biological causes 179
18 Genetic and other host-risk factors 189
19 Socio-economic factors 209
Pt. III Legal and ethical considerations 215
20 Legal and regulatory issues in cancer epidemiology 217
21 Ethical responsibilities of the epidemiologist 225
Pt. IV Introduction: total and specific site epidemiology 231
Guidelines for Chapters 22-57 233
22 Overall cancer incidence 237
Pt. V Buccal cavity 245
23 Lip, oral cavity and pharynx 247
24 Nasopharynx (NPC) 256
Pt. VI Digestive system 261
25 Esophagus 263
26 Stomach 273
27 Small intestine 283
28 Large intestine: colon and rectum 286
29 Liver 296
30 Gall bladder and extrahepatic biliary ducts 311
31 Pancreas 315
Pt. VII Respiratory system 321
32 Sinonasal 323
33 Larynx 328
34 Bronchus and lung 333
35 Pleura/mesothelioma 346
Pt. VIII Bone and soft tissue 351
36 Bone 353
37 Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) 358
Pt. IX Skin 363
38 Malignant melanoma 365
39 Skin cancers other than malignant melanoma 370
Pt. X Breast and genitourinary system 375
40 Breast 377
41 Uterine cervix 388
42 Choriocarcinoma 395
43 Endometrium (corpus uteri) 398
44 Ovary 403
45 Prostate 407
46 Testis 412
47 Penis and scrotum 415
48 Urinary tract, bladder, ureter and urethra 419
49 Kidney and renal pelvis 425
Pt. XI Eye and nervous system 431
50 Eye 433
51 Brain and central nervous system 435
Pt. XII Thyroid and other endocrine glands, lymphoid and hematopoietic system 443
52 Thyroid and other endocrine glands 445
53 Burkitt's lymphoma 449
54 Hodgkin's disease (ND) 453
55 Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and mycosis fungoides 459
56 Multiple myeloma and macroglobulinemia 465
57 The leukemias 470
Pt. XIII Cancers in children and multiple primary cancers 477
58 Cancers in children 479
59 Multiple primary cancers: second cancers 493
Conclusions 497
Appendix 1 Cancer statistics 507
Table 1.1. Age-standardized rates by site for selected registries 508
Table 1.2. Range of age-standardized incidence for selected sites of cancer 1978-1982, by sex 520
Appendix 2 A glossary of epidemiological terms 522
Appendix 3 Acronyms and abbreviations 529
Supplement 533
Index 552
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