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Overview

Human-computer interaction (HCI) has long been a focal area for innovative, multidisciplinary computing research and development. At the dawn of a new millennium, it is time to ask where this increasingly important field is going. What are the critical technical challenges and opportunities that will define HCI work in the years to come? What are the approaches that will sustain and enhance the vitality and effectiveness of HCI? In what ways will HCI differ from what it is today?

In this unique book, John M. Carroll, himself a prominent contributor to HCI understanding, presents answers to these questions from a number of leaders in the field. Half of the chapters are based on articles that first appeared in special issues of ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction and Human-Computer Interaction, revised and rewritten for a broader audience. The other half are original contributions, describing some of the latest work being done in HCI and providing a striking vision of the future. No single volume could cover the entire scope of HCI, but these selected writings will give you a good glimpse of the energy and creativity now driving HCI forward.

Topics covered include:

  • The influence of the cognitive sciences on HCI
  • Usability engineering, including both measurement and design
  • Addressing interface concerns earlier in the development process; participatory design
  • New user interface software tools for speech and voice, immersive displays, and position-sensing controls
  • New interfaces and methodologies for supporting collaboration
  • Interfaces that support navigation through vast amounts of information
  • Situated computing and the integration of computers with real environments
  • Learner-centered design; community computing
  • Social and societal impacts

Whether you are a specialist in HCI, a software designer or developer, or simply a curious computer user, you will find here a wealth of interesting and stimulating ideas on the future of our interactions with computers.

0201704471B07162001

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780201704471
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley
  • Publication date: 8/28/2001
  • Series: ACM Press Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 752
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 9.92 (h) x 1.57 (d)

Meet the Author

John M. Carroll, Ph.D., is Professor of Computer Science, Education, and Psychology at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, where he is also the director of the Center for Human-Computer Interaction. Dr. Carroll has written more than 250 technical papers, presented numerous conference plenary addresses, and authored or edited 14 books. He serves on editorial boards for a variety of journals and handbooks.

0201704471AB07162001

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Read an Excerpt

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has been a focal area for innovative multi-disciplinary computing research and development for the past 25 years. At the dawn of a new millennium, we should ask where the HCI project is going; what critical technical challenges and opportunities will define HCI research and development work beyond the year 2001; what approaches will sustain and enhance the vitality and effectiveness of HCI in this new era; and how HCI will be different from and similar to what it is today. These questions can be addressed both in the broad view and with respect to specific subdomains within HCI.

In spring 1998, Jonathan Grudin, editor of ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, and Tom Moran, editor of Human-Computer Interaction, suggested a coordinated special issue project celebrating "Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium." Because I serve on both editorial boards—and probably because I was unable to attend this meeting—I was asked to coordinate the project.

In late spring, an initial call for papers was circulated for the Transactions. About 50 research groups expressed initial interest, and in the end, 30 papers were submitted for the January 1999 deadline. Thirteen associate editors of the Transactions, Joelle Coutaz, Paul Dourish, Wayne Gray, Jim Hollan, Scott Hudson, Hiroshi Ishii, Robert Jacob, Sirkka Jarvenpaa, Allan MacLean, Brad Myers, Bonnie Nardi, Randy Pausch, and I, helped to manage the review process. The result was a double special issue of the Transactions in March and June 2000. The ten papers from that double special issue are included in this book, with some revision to make them briefer and more accessible to a larger audience.

In February 1999, the Human-Computer Interaction Consortium held a workshop on research visions and directions for the new millennium. A special issue of the Human-Computer Interactions was organized from the papers presented at this workshop. It was edited by Wendy Kellogg, Clayton Lewis, and Peter Polson. The five papers from that special issue are also included here. Human-Computer Interactions has a tradition of presenting rather lengthy and comprehensive papers. I thank this group of authors in particular for heroic revision efforts. In some cases, excellent papers were cut to less than half their original length, with their excellence preserved!

I think both journal special issue projects were highly successful. But journal projects are always limited by what papers are submitted. To help balance content, I solicited 14 papers in addition to the 15 special issue papers from the two journals. Frankly, however, even 29 papers cannot begin to cover the scope of human-computer interaction. I thank this group of authors for writing to my half-baked specifications with such creativity and good nature.

Many experts from throughout the human-computer interaction community served as referees. The energy and insight that can be marshaled for projects like this is awesome.

I hope the efforts of all those who were involved in trying to take stock of where we are and to ponder where we are going will benefit them and the whole HCI community as we take our first steps into the future.

John M. Carroll Department of Computer Science Center for Human-Computer Interaction Virginia Tech

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Table of Contents

Preface.

List of Figures.

Introduction.

Human-Computer Interaction: The Past and the Present, John M. Carroll.

I. MODELS, THEORIES, AND FRAMEWORKS.

1. On the Effective Use and Reuse of HCI Knowledge, Alistair Sutcliffe.

Introduction.

Theories and Cognitive Models.

Claims, Products, and Artifacts.

Generalizing Claims and Reusing HCI Knowledge.

Conclusions.

2. Systems, Interactions, and Macrotheory, Philip Barnard, Jon May, David Duke, David Duce.

Theory Development in a Boundless Domain.

Systems of Interactors, Macrotheory, Microtheory, and Layered Explanation.

Macrotheory and Interaction.

Capturing Significant Variation in Interaction Trajectories.

Realizing Coherent Type 1 Theories of Interaction.

Extension to Higher Order Systems of Interaction.

Conclusion.

3. Design in the MoRAS, George W. Furnas.

Introduction: ++HCI and the MoRAS.

The MoRAS.

Illustrating the Consequences.

Blindness from Ignoring the MoRAS.

Design Opportunities from Considering the MoRAS.

New Problems Addressed--Needs and Wants.

The MoRAS and ++HCI Design.

Future Directions.

4. Distributed Cognition: A New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction, James D. Hollan, Edwin Hutchins, Davis Kirsh.

Introduction.

A Distributed Cognition Approach.

Socially Distributed Cognition.

Embodied Cognition.

Culture and Cognition.

Ethnography of Distributed Cognitive Systems.

An Integrated Framework for Research.

Ship Navigation.

Airline Cockpit Automation.

Beyond Direct Manipulation.

History-Enriched Digital Objects.

PAD++: Zoomable Multiscale Interfaces.

Intelligent Use of Space.

Conclusions and Future Directions.

II. USABILITY ENGINEERING METHODS AND CONCEPTS.

5. The Efficient Use of Complex Computer Systems, Suresh K. Bhavnani, Bonnie E. John.

Introduction.

Strategies in the Intermediate Layers of Knowledge.

Strategies That Exploit the Iterative Power of Computers.

Acquiring Strategies in the Intermediate Layers of Knowledge.

Generality of Strategies in the Intermediate Layers of Knowledge.

Evidence for the Effects of Aggregation Strategies on Performance.

The Panel Cleanup Task.

How L1 Performed the Panel Cleanup Task.

Cognitive Analysis of the Panel Cleanup Task.

Inefficient Use Reported in Other Studies.

Possible Explanations for Inefficient Computer Usage.

Efficient Strategies Not Known.

Efficient Strategies Known But Not Used.

Discussion of Possible Explanations of Inefficient Computer Usage.

General Computer Strategies beyond Aggregation.

Propagation Strategies.

Organization Strategies.

Visualization Strategies.

Summary and Future Research.

6. User Interface Evaluation: How Cognitive Models Can Help, Frank E. Ritter, Gordon D. Baxter, Gary Jones, Richard M. Young.

The Synergy between Cognitive Modeling and HCI.

The Advantages for HCI.

The Advantages for Models.

A Route to Supporting Models as Users.

The Artifacts of the Cognitive Modeling Process.

The Role of User Interface Management -Systems.

Cognitive Model Interface Management -Systems.

A Functional Model Eye and Hand.

Example Cognitive Models That Perform Interactive Tasks.

A Simplified Air Traffic Control Model.

Tower of Nottingham Model.

Electronic Warfare Task Model.

Related Systems.

Limitations of This Approach.

Cognitive Models as Users in the New Millennium.

Implications for Models.

Implications for Interfaces.

7. HCI in the Global Knowledge-Based Economy: Designing to Support Worker Adaptation, Kim J. Vicente.

Introduction.

Case Study: Hedge Funds in August 1998.

What Are Hedge Funds?

What Happened?

Why Did It Happen?

Generalizing the Lessons Learned.

The Global Knowledge-Based Economy and the Demand for Adaptation.

The Global Knowledge-Based Economy.

The Future Demand for Adaptation.

The Relationship between Adaptation and Learning.

How Much Have Things Changed?

Cognitive Work Analysis: A Potential Programmatic Approach.

A Constraint-Based Approach.

Five Layers of Constraint.

Modeling Tools and Design Implications.

The Future: What Can We Be Sure Of?

8. Let's Stop Pushing the Envelope and Start Addressing It: The Reference Task Agenda for HCI, Steve Whittaker, Loren Terveen, Bonnie A. Nardi.

The Problems with HCI as Radical Invention.

Radical Invention Is Not Always Effective.

What We Don't Know: Requirements, -Metrics, and Uses of Everyday Technologies.

How We Don't Know It: The Dissemination Problem.

The Reference Task Solution.

Reference Tasks in Other Disciplines.

Reference Tasks in HCI.

Lessons from DARPA and TREC.

How to Define a Reference Task.

An Example Reference Task: Browsing and Retrieval in Speech Archives.

Selecting and Specifying Reference Tasks in the Domain of Speech Archives.

Defining Metrics.

Task-Oriented Evaluation of a Speech Browsing System.

General Issues Arising from Reference Task-Based Evaluation.

Conclusions.

9. The Maturation of HCI: Moving Beyond Usability Toward Holistic Interaction, Kenneth Maxwell.

Introduction.

Present Levels of HCI Maturity.

Level 1 HCI: Basic Usability.

Level 2 HCI: Collaborative, Organizational, and Role-Based Interaction.

Future HCI: Level 3: Individualized and Holistic Interaction.

The Future Computing Environment.

Individualized and Holistic Interaction Design.

Moving toward Holistic Interaction.

Summary and Conclusions.

III. USER INTERFACE SOFTWARE AND TOOLS.

10. Past, Present, and Future of User Interface Software Tools, Brad Myers, Scott E. Hudson, Randy Pausch.

Introduction.

Historical Perspective.

Themes in Evaluating Tools.

What Worked.

Promising Approaches That Have Not Caught On.

Future Prospects and Visions.

Computers Becoming a Commodity.

Ubiquitous Computing.

Recognition-Based User Interfaces.

Three-Dimensional Technologies.

End-User Programming, Customization, and Scripting.

Further Issues for Future Tools.

Operating System Issues.

Conclusions.

11. Creating Creativity: User Interfaces for Supporting Innovation, Ben Schneiderman.

Introduction.

Three Perspectives on Creativity.

Levels of Creativity.

Genex: A Four-Phase Framework for Generating Excellence.

Integrating Creative Activities.

Searching and Browsing Digital Libraries.

Consulting with Peers and Mentors.

Visualizing Data and Processes.

Thinking by Free Associations.

Exploring Solutions--"What If" Tools.

Composing Artifacts and Performances.

Reviewing and Replaying Session Histories.

Disseminating Results.

Architectural Scenario.

Conclusion.

12. Towards a Human-Centered Interaction Architecture, Terry Winograd.

Introduction.

Scenario.

Architecture Models.

De-coupling Devices from Programs.

De-coupling Devices from Phenomena.

Robust Dynamic Configuration and Communication.

Context-Based Interpretation.

Action and Perception.

Examples.

Research Issues.

Person-Centered Interaction.

Dealing Efficiently with Incomplete and Unreliable Information

Variable Quality Guaranteed Response Rate.

Multiperson, Multidevice, Interaction Modes.

Standard Models.

Conclusion.

IV. GROUPWARE AND COOPERATIVE ACTIVITY.

13. Computer Mediated Communications: Past and Future, Murray Turoff, Starr Roxanne Hiltz, Michael Bieber, Brian Whitworth, Jerry Fjermestad.

Introduction.

Early Roots and Insights.

Quantitative Communication Structures.

Content-Based Communication.

Indirect Communication.

Roles.

Notifications.

Tailoring Communications.

Next Generation Systems.

Discourse Structures.

Collective Intelligence.

Collaborative Model Building.

Consistency Problems.

Arrow's Paradox.

Multimedia Communication Systems.

Multi-Mode Experiments.

Graphics and Collaborative Model Building.

Virtual Reality.

Pervasive/Mobile CMC Systems.

Conclusion.

14. The Intellectual Challenge of CSCW: The Gap between Social Requirements and Technical Feasibility, Mark S. Ackerman.

Introduction.

A Biased Summary of CSCW Findings.

The Social-Technical Gap in Action.

Technical Research in CSCW.

Arguments against the Significance of the Gap.

What to Do?

A Return to Simon: The Science of CSCW.

Palliatives: Ideological, Political, and Educational.

Beginning Systematic Exploration: First-Order Approximations.

Toward Making CSCW into a Science of the Artificial.

Conclusion.

15. Social Translucence: An Approach to Designing Systems That Support Social Processes, Thomas Erickson, Wendy A. Kellogg.

Introduction.

Foundations: Social Translucence.

Visibility, Awareness, and Accountability.

Translucence: Visibility and Privacy.

Application Domain: Knowledge Management.

Knowledge Management as a Social Phenomenon.

From Knowledge Management to Knowledge Communities.

Conversation: Knowledge Work Made Visible.

The Vision: Conversationally Based Knowledge Communities.

Implementation: Social Translucence in Digital Systems.

Making Activity Visible.

Abstract Representations of Social -Information: The Babble Prototype.

Some Research Issues.

Social Proxies: What Should Be Represented?

Supporting Coherent Activity.

Visualizing Conversation.

Restructuring Conversation.

Organizational Knowledge Spaces.

Conclusion.

16. Transcending the Individual Human Mind: Creating Shared Understanding Through Collaborative Design, Ernesto Arias, Hal Eden, Gerhard Fischer, Andrew Gorman, Eric Scharff.

Introduction.

Challenging Problems for the Future of Human-Computer Interaction.

Transcending the Individual Human Mind.

Exploiting the Symmetry of Ignorance.

Recognizing the Need for Externalizations in Collaborative Design.

Supporting New Forms of Civic Discourse: From Access to Informed Participation.

Moving beyond Closed Systems.

Understanding Motivation and Rewards.

Summary of Challenging Problems for the Future of Human-Computer Interaction.

The Envisionment and Discovery Collaboratory (EDC).

A Scenario: Creating Shared Understanding through Collaborative Design.

The Conceptual Principles behind the EDC.

The Integration of Action and Reflection.

The EDC as an Open System.

Assessment.

Integrating Assessment with Design and Practice.

Assessment through Participatory Design.

Assessment of Open Systems and Emerging Applications.

Assessment of the Effectiveness of Interaction Techniques.

Future Work.

Assessment of Support for the Creation of Shared Understanding.

Use of the EDC in Actual Work Situations.

Beyond Binary Choices.

Conclusion.

17. The Development of Cooperation: Five Years of Participatory Design in the Virtual School, John M. Carroll, George Chin, Mary Beth Rosson, Dennis C. Neale.

Introduction.

Stages of Cooperative Engagement.

The Practitioner-Informant.

The Analyst.

The Designer.

The Coach.

Transitions between Stages.

Conclusion.

18. Distance Matters, Gary M. Olson, Judith S. Olson.

Introduction.

Collocated Work Today.

Remote Work Today.

Successes.

Failures.

The Findings Integrated: Four Concepts.

Common Ground--A Characteristic of the Players.

Coupling in Work--A Characteristic of the Work Itself.

Collaboration Readiness.

Technology Readiness.

Distance Work in the New Millennium.

Common Ground, Context, and Trust.

Different Time Zones.

Culture.

Interactions among These Factors and with Technology.

Conclusion.

V. MEDIA AND INFORMATION.

19. Designing the User Interface for Multimodal Speech and Gesture Applications: State-of-the-Art Systems and Research Directions for 2000 and Beyond, Sharon Oviatt, Phil Cohen, Bernhard Suhm, John Bers, Lizhong Wu, Thomas Holzman, Terry Winograd, John Vergo, Lisbeth Duncan, James Landay, Jim Larson, David Ferro.

Introduction to Multimodal Speech and Gesture Interfaces.

Advantages and Optimal Uses of Multimodal Interface Design.

Architectural Approaches to Multimodal Integration and Systems.

Introduction to Multimodal Architectural Requirements.

Multi-Agent Architectures and Multimodal Processing Flow

Frame-Based and Unification-Based Multimodal Integration

New Hybrid Architectures: An Illustration.

Diversity of Emerging Speech and Gesture Applications.

OGI's Quick-Set System.

IBM's Human-Centric Word Processor.

Boeing's Virtual Reality Aircraft Maintenance Training Prototype.

NCR's Field Medic Information System.

Limitations of Current Speech and Gesture Multimodal Systems.

Future Research Directions for Multimodal Interfaces.

New Multimodal Interface Concepts.

Error Handling Techniques.

Adaptive Multimodal Architectures.

Multimodal Research Infrastructure.

Conclusion.

20. Technologies of Information: HCI and the Digital Library, Andrew Dillon.

Introduction.

Antecedents of Digital Libraries: The Ideas and the Evidence.

The Major Thinkers.

HCI Enters the Digital Library.

HCI Research: From Enabling to Envisioning.

Stage 1--Interface Design and the Methodological Tradition.

Stage 2--Modeling Interaction: The Theoretical Tradition.

Stage 3--Beyond Usability: Enhancement and the Design of Augmenting Technologies.

Problems with HCI's Role in Digital Library Design.

Do We Really Know Our Users?

Variables in HCI Research and Measurement.

Extending HCI's Remit with DLs.

The Multimedia Mix and Match.

Digital Genres and the Perception of Information Shape.

Learning, Education, and Instruction.

"Intelligent" IR.

Ubiquity (or "We Want Information Where We Are").

Conclusion.

21. Intelligent Interfaces, Henry Lieberman.

Introduction: Advance-Based Interfaces.

Agents and Advice.

Examples of Advice in Interfaces.

Letizia: A Web Browser That Gives Advice.

Mondrian: A Graphical Editor That Takes Advice.

Advice-Based Interfaces in AI and HCI.

More Flexible Planning and Reasoning.

Resource-Limited Reasoning.

Anytime Algorithms.

Critics.

Programming by Example.

Context-Sensitivity.

The Future of Advice-Oriented Interfaces.

Internet Applications.

Physically Based Interfaces.

Speech, Natural Language, and Gesture Interfaces.

Advice and the Design of Visual Communication.

Advice as a Tool for Helping People Learn.

Conclusion.

22. Human-Computer Collaboration in Recommended Systems, Loren Terveen, Will Hill.

Introduction.

Recommendation: Examples and Concepts.

A Model of the Recommendation Process.

Issues for Computational Recommender Systems.

Major Types of Recommender Systems.

Content-Based Recommenders.

Recommendation Support Systems.

Social Data Mining.

Collaborative Filtering.

Current Challenges and New Opportunities.

Forming and Supporting Communities of Interest.

Combining Multiple Types of Information to Compute Recommendations.

Conclusion.

VI. INTEGRATING COMPUTATION AND REAL ENVIRONMENTS.

23. Ubiquitous Computing: Past, Present, and Future, Gregory Abowd, Elizabeth Mynatt.

Introduction.

Overview.

Computing with Natural Interfaces.

First-Class Natural Data Types.

Error-Prone Interaction for Recognition-Based Interaction.

Context-Aware Computing.

What Is Context?

Representations of Context.

The Ubiquity of Context Sensing--Context Fusion.

Coupling Context-Aware and Natural -Interaction--Augmented Reality.

Automated Capture and Access to Live Experiences.

Challenges in Capture and Access.

Toward Everyday Computing.

Research Directions in Everyday Computing.

Additional Challenges for Ubicomp.

Evaluating Ubicomp Systems.

Social Issues for Ubiquitous Computing.

Conclusion.

24. Situated Computing: The Next Frontier for HCI Research, Kevin Mills, Jean Scholtz.

Introduction.

Grand Challenge #1: Emancipating Information.

Moving Information to People.

Removing the Tyranny of an Interface per Application per Device.

Information Interaction: Making It Real Again.

Grand Challenge #2: Clueing in Those Clueless Computers.

Adapting Information Delivery Using Knowledge of People, Places, and Devices.

Solving Three Hard Problems.

Conclusion.

25. Roomware: Towards the Next Generation of Human-Computer Interactions Based on an Integrated Design of Real and Virtual Worlds, Norbert A. Streitz, Peter Tandler, Christian Muller-Tomfelde, Shin'ichi Konomi.

Introduction.

CSW.

Ubiquitous Computing.

Augmented Reality.

Architecture.

Three Points of Departure.

Information Technology: From the Desktop to the Invisible Computer.

Organization: New Work Practices and Team Work.

Architecture: The New Role and Structure of Office Buildings.

Related Work.

Design Perspectives for the Workspaces of the Future.

Cooperative Buildings.

Requirements from Creative Teams.

Roomware® Components.

The iLAND Environment.

The DynaWall.

The CommChairs.

The InteracTable.

The ConnecTable.

The Passage Mechanism.

Network Infrastructure.

The Beach Software: Supporting Creativity.

Conclusion.

26. Emerging Frameworks for Tangible User Interfaces, Brygg Ullmer, Hiroshi Ishii.

Introduction.

A First Example: Urp.

Tangible User Interfaces.

Interaction Model.

Key Characteristics.

Example Two: mediaBlocks.

Terminology.

Coupling Objects with Digital Information.

Kinds of Digital Bindings.

Methods of Coupling Objects with Information.

Approaches to Physical Representation.

Technical Realization of Physical/Digital Bindings.

Interpreting Systems of Objects.

Spatial Systems.

Relational Systems.

Constructive Systems.

Mixed Constructive/Relational Systems.

Application Domains.

Related Areas.

Broad Context.

HCI Context.

Conclusion.

VII. HCI AND SOCIETY.

27. Learner-Centered Design: Reflections and New Directions, Chris Quintana, Andrew Carra, Joseph Krajcik, Elliot Soloway.

Introduction.

An Overview of Learner-Centered Design.

Audience: Who Are "Learners"?

LCD Problem: The Conceptual Gap between Learner and Work.

Bridging the Learner-Centered Conceptual Gap: Designing for Learners.

Open Issues In Designing Learner-Centered Tools.

Issues in Learner-Centered Work and Task Analysis.

Issues in Learner-Centered Requirements Specification.

Issues in Learner-Centered Software Design.

Issues in Learner-Centered Software Evaluation.

Conclusion.

28. HCI Meets the “Real World”: Designing Technologies for Civic Sector Use, Doug Schuler.

Introduction: A "Network Society."

Support for the Community.

Community Networks.

The Seattle Community Network--A Whirlwind Tour.

Opportunities and Ideas.

How Can HCI Research Get Transferred to the Community?

Challenges for HCI.

Discussion.

Conclusion.

29. Beyond Bowling Together: SocioTechnical Capital, Paul Resnick.

Introduction.

The Civic Challenge.

How Social Capital Works.

The Anatomy of Social Capital.

Socio-Technical Capital Opportunities.

Removing Barriers to Interaction.

Expanding Interaction Networks.

Restricting Information Flows.

Managing Dependencies.

Maintaining History.

Naming.

Summary.

Examples of New Socio-Technical Relations.

Enhanced Group Self-Awareness.

Brief Interactions.

Maintaining Ties While Spending Less Time.

Support for Large Groups.

Introducer Systems: Just-in-Time Social Ties.

Research Agenda.

Measurement of Socio-Technical Capital.

Case Studies of New Socio-Technical Relations.

Codification of the Opportunity Space and Determining Which Features Are Productive.

Conclusion.

Index.

List of Contributors.

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Preface

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) has been a focal area for innovative multi-disciplinary computing research and development for the past 25 years. At the dawn of a new millennium, we should ask where the HCI project is going; what critical technical challenges and opportunities will define HCI research and development work beyond the year 2001; what approaches will sustain and enhance the vitality and effectiveness of HCI in this new era; and how HCI will be different from and similar to what it is today. These questions can be addressed both in the broad view and with respect to specific subdomains within HCI.

In spring 1998, Jonathan Grudin, editor of ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, and Tom Moran, editor of Human-Computer Interaction, suggested a coordinated special issue project celebrating "Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium." Because I serve on both editorial boards--and probably because I was unable to attend this meeting--I was asked to coordinate the project.

In late spring, an initial call for papers was circulated for the Transactions. About 50 research groups expressed initial interest, and in the end, 30 papers were submitted for the January 1999 deadline. Thirteen associate editors of the Transactions, Joelle Coutaz, Paul Dourish, Wayne Gray, Jim Hollan, Scott Hudson, Hiroshi Ishii, Robert Jacob, Sirkka Jarvenpaa, Allan MacLean, Brad Myers, Bonnie Nardi, Randy Pausch, and I, helped to manage the review process. The result was a double special issue of the Transactions in March and June 2000. The ten papers from that double special issue are included in this book, with some revision to make them briefer and more accessible to a larger audience.

In February 1999, the Human-Computer Interaction Consortium held a workshop on research visions and directions for the new millennium. A special issue of the Human-Computer Interactions was organized from the papers presented at this workshop. It was edited by Wendy Kellogg, Clayton Lewis, and Peter Polson. The five papers from that special issue are also included here. Human-Computer Interactions has a tradition of presenting rather lengthy and comprehensive papers. I thank this group of authors in particular for heroic revision efforts. In some cases, excellent papers were cut to less than half their original length, with their excellence preserved!

I think both journal special issue projects were highly successful. But journal projects are always limited by what papers are submitted. To help balance content, I solicited 14 papers in addition to the 15 special issue papers from the two journals. Frankly, however, even 29 papers cannot begin to cover the scope of human-computer interaction. I thank this group of authors for writing to my half-baked specifications with such creativity and good nature.

Many experts from throughout the human-computer interaction community served as referees. The energy and insight that can be marshaled for projects like this is awesome.

I hope the efforts of all those who were involved in trying to take stock of where we are and to ponder where we are going will benefit them and the whole HCI community as we take our first steps into the future.

John M. Carroll
Department of Computer Science
Center for Human-Computer Interaction
Virginia Tech

0201704471P07162001

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