The Human Evolution Source Book / Edition 2

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Designed for readers interested in anthropology, paleontology, and evolutionary biology, this excellent resource brings together the major ideas and publications on human evolution of the past three decades. Filled with original articles that have shaped current views of this exciting field, the book spans the entire scope of human evolution with a particular emphasis on the fossil record, including archaeological studies. The most up-to-date survey of human evolution available on the market today, the articles presented are organized chronologically, showing how debates and opinions have developed over time. The book is divided into the following sections: geological background to human evolution; the earliest hominins: biomolecular and morphological evidence; Australopithecus, Paranthropus, and related forms; origin of the genus Homo; evolution and dispersal of Homo erectus; middle Pleistocene hominins in Africa, Europe, and Asia; the Neandertals; origin of modern humans; and evolution of homo sapiens. An excellent desk reference and resource for anthropologists, paleontologists, and evolutionary biologists, as well as others who wish to add this most informative book to their own libraries.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130329813
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 11/8/2005
  • Series: Advances in Human Evolution Ser.
  • Edition description: 2ND
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 640
  • Sales rank: 1,537,391
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Table of Contents



About the Authors


Part I Geological Background to Human Evolution 1

1 Stratigraphy Explained 3

F. H. Brown and J. A. Van Couvering

2 Cyclostratigraphy 6

J. A. Van Couvering

3 Geochronometry: Measurement of Geologic Time 12

F. H. Brown

4 Radiocarbon Dating 14

H. P. Schwarcz

5 Potassium-Argon Dating 16

F. H. Brown

6 Electron Spin Resonance Dating, Fission-Track Dating, Thermoluminescence

Dating, and Uranium-Series Dating 19

H. P. Schwarcz

7 Paleomagnetism and Human Evolution 24

F. H. Brown

8 Taphonomy in Human Evolution 27

A. Hill

Part II The Earliest Hominids: Biomolecular and Morphological Evidence 31

9 African Apes as Time Machines 33

R. Wrangham and D. Pilbeam

10 Molecular Anthropology and the Molecular Clock 38

J. Marks

11 Human and Ape Molecular Clocks and Constraints on Paleontological Hypotheses 41

R. L. Stauffer, A. Walker, O. A. Ryder, M. Lyons-Weiler, and S. Blair Hedges

12 Ardipithecus ramidus, a Root Species for Australopithecus 48

T. White, B. Asfaw, and G. Suwa

13 First Hominid from the Miocene (Lukeino Formation, Kenya) 53

B. Senut, M. Pickford, D. Gommery, P. Mein, K. Cheboi, and Y. Coppens

14 Late Miocene Hominids from the Middle Awash, Ethiopia 58

Y. Haile-Selassie

15 A New Hominid from the Upper Miocene of Chad, Central Africa

M. Brunet, F. Guy, D. Pilbeam, H. Taisso Mackaye, A. Likius, D. Ahounta, A. Beauvilain, C. Blondel, H. Bocherens, J.-R. Boisserie, L. De Bonis, Y. Coppens, J. Dejax, C. Denys, P. Duringer, V. Eisenmann, G. Fanone, P. Fronty, D. Geraads, T. Lehmann, F. Lihoreau, A. Louchart, A. Mahamat, G. Merceron, G. Mouchelin, O. Otero, P. Pelaez Campomanes, M. Ponce de Leon, J.-C. Rage, M. Sapanet, M. Schuster, J. Sudre, P. Tassy, X. Valentin, P. Vignaud, L. Viriot, A. Zazzo, and C. Zollikofer

Part III Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Relatives 73

16 The Australopithecines in Review 76

L. C. Aiello and P. Andrews

17 The New Hominid Species Australopithecus anamensis 90

C. Ward, M. Leakey, and A. Walker

18 New Hominin Genus from Eastern Africa Shows Diverse Middle Pliocene Lineages 98

M. G. Leakey, F. Spoor, F. H. Brown, P. Gathogo, C. Kiarie, L. N. Leakey, and I. McDougall

19 Tempo and Mode in Human Evolution 108

H. M. McHenry

20 Inferring Hominoid and Early Hominid Phylogeny Using Craniodental Characters: The Role of Fossil Taxa 115

D. S. Strait and F. E. Grine

21 Evolution of Human Walking 149

C. O. Lovejoy

22 Climbing to the Top: A Personal Memoir of Australopithecus afarensis 157

J. T. Stern, Jr.

23 Early Hominid Brain Evolution: A New Look at Old Endocasts 176

D. Falk, J. C. Redmond, Jr., J. Guyer, G. C. Conroy, W. Recheis, G. W. Weber, and H. Seidler

24 Diet and the Evolution of the Earliest Human Ancestors 189

M. F. Teaford and P. S. Ungar

25 Early Hominid Evolution and Ecological Change through the African Plio-Pleistocene 197

K. E. Reed

Part IV Origin of the Genus Homo and Early Evolution in Africa 219

26 The History of the Genus Homo 222

B. A. Wood

27 Late Pliocene Homo and Oldowan Tools from the Hadar Formation (Kada Hadar Member),

Ethiopia 228

W. H. Kimbel, R. C. Walter, D. C. Johanson, K. E. Reed, J. L. Aronson, Z. Assefa, C. W. Marean, G. G. Eck, R. Bobe, E. Hovers, Y. Rak, C. Vondra, T. Yemane, D. York, Y. Chen, N. M. Evensen, and P. E. Smith

28 Late Pliocene Homo and Hominid Land Use from Western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania 235

R. J. Blumenschine, C. R. Peters, F. T. Masao, R. J. Clarke, A. L. Deino, R. L. Hay, C. C. Swisher, I. G. Stanistreet, G. M. Ashley, L. J. McHenry, N. E. Sikes, N. J. van der Merwe, J. C. Tactikos, A. E. Cushing, D. M. Deocampo, J. K. Njau, and J. I. Ebert

29 Australopithecus garhi : A New Species of Early Hominid from Ethiopia 243

B. Asfaw, T. White, O. Lovejoy, B. Latimer, S. Simpson, and G. Suwa

30 Environment and Behavior of 2.5-Million-Year-Old Bouri Hominids 251

J. de Heinzelin, J. D. Clark, T. White, W. Hart, P. Renne, G. WoldeGabriel, Y. Beyene, and E. Vrba

31 The World’s Oldest Stone Artefacts from Gona, Ethiopia: Their Implications for Understanding

Stone Technology and Patterns of Human Evolution between 2.6-1.5 Million Years Ago 256

S. Semaw

32 Perspectives on the Nariokotome Discovery 271

A. Walker

33 Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia 285

B. Asfaw, W. H. Gilbert, Y. Beyene, W. K. Hart, P. R. Renne, G. WoldeGabriel, E. S. Vrba, and T. D. White

Part V Evolution and Dispersal of Homo erectus 293

34 The African Emergence and Early Asian Dispersals of the Genus Homo 293

R. Larick and R. L. Ciochon

35 Dmanisi and Dispersal 310

L. Gabunia, S. C. Antón, D. Lordkipanidze, A. Vekua, A. Justus, and C. Swisher III

36 A New Skull of Early Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia 321

A. Vekua, D. Lordkipanidze, G. P. Rightmire, J. Agusti, R. Ferring, G. Maisuradze, A. Mouskhelishvili, M. Nioradze, M. Ponce de Leon, M. Tappen, M. Tvalchrelidze, and C. Zollikofer

37 Venta Micena, Barranco León-5 and Fuentenueva-3: Three Archaeological Sites in the Early

Pleistocene Deposits of Orce, South-East Spain 327

J. Gibert, L. Gibert, C. Ferràndez-Canyadell, A. Iglesias, and F. González

38 New Evidence on the Earliest Human Presence at High Northern Latitudes in Northeast Asia


R. X. Zhu, R. Potts, F. Xle, K. A. Hoffman, C. L. Deng, C. D. Shi, Y. X. Pan, H. Q. Wang, R. P. Shi, Y. C. Wang, G. H. Shi, and N. Q. Wu

39 Mid-Pleistocene Acheulean-Like Stone Technology of the Bose Basin, South China 340

Y. Hou, R. Potts, B. Yuan, Z. Guo, A. Deino, W. Wang, J. Clark, G. Xie, and W. Huang

40 Evidence for the Use of Fire at Zhoukoudian, China 345

S. Weiner, Q. Xu, P. Goldberg, J. Liu, and O. Bar-Yosef

41 Homo erectus and the Emergence of Sunda in the Tethys Realm: Contributions of Potassium-

Based Chronology in the Sangiran Dome, Central Java 348

R. Larick, R. L. Ciochon, and Y. Zaim

42 Homo erectus Calvarium from the Pleistocene of Java 357

H. Baba, F. Aziz, Y. Kaifu, G. Suwa, R. T. Kono, and T. Jacob

43 Latest Homo erectus of Java: Potential Contemporaneity with Homo sapiens in Southeast Asia


C. C. Swisher III, W. J. Rink, S. C. Anton, H. P. Schwarcz, G. H. Curtis, A. Suprijo, and Widiasmoro

44 A New Small-Bodied Hominin from the Late Pleistocene of Flores, Indonesia 368

P. Brown, T. Sutikna, M. J. Morwood, R. P. Soejono, Jatmiko, E. Wayhu Saptomo, and Rokus Awe Due

45 Grandmothering and the Evolution of Homo erectus 376

J. F. O’Connell, K. Hawkes, and N. G. Blurton Jones

Part VI Middle Pleistocene Hominids in Africa, Europe, and Asia 393

46 Human Evolution in the Middle Pleistocene: The Role of Homo heidelbergensis 396

G. P. Rightmire

47. The Atapuerca Sites and Their Contributions to the Knowledge of Human Evolution in Europe


J. M. Bermúdez de Castro, M. Martinón-Torres, E. Carbonell, S. Sarmiento, A. Rosas, J. van der Made, and M. Lozano

48 A Cranium for the Earliest Europeans: Phylogenetic Position of the Hominid from Ceprano,

Italy 421

G. Manzi, F. Mallegni, and A. Ascenzi

49 The KNM-ER 3884 Hominid and the Emergence of Modern Anatomy in Africa 428

G. Bräuer

50 Dali, a Skull of Archaic Homo sapiens from China 432

X. Wu and F. E. Poirier

51 Body Mass and Encephalization in Pleistocene Homo 435

C. B. Ruff, E. Trinkaus, and T. W. Holliday

52 Lower Palaeolithic Hunting Weapons from Schöningen, Germany–The Oldest Spears in the

World 440

H. Thieme

Part VII The Neandertals 447

53 Climatic Changes, Paleogeography, and the Evolution of the Neandertals

J.-J. Hublin

54 The Accretion Model of Neandertal Evolution

J. D. Hawks and M. H. Wolpoff

55 Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans

M. Krings, A. Stone, R. W. Schmitz, H. Krainitzki, M. Stoneking, and S. Pääbo

56 Cold Adaptation, Heterochrony, and Neandertals

S. E. Churchill

57 Neandertal Cranial Ontogeny and Its Implications for Late Hominid Diversity

M. S. Ponce de León and C. P. E. Zollikofer

58 Neandertal Cannibalism at Moula-Guercy, Ardèche, France

A. Defleur, T. White, P. Valensi, L. Slimak, and É. Crégut-Bonnoure

Part VIII Origin of Modern Humans

59 Modern Human Origins: Progress and Prospects

C. B. Stringer

60 A Reconsideration of the Omo-Kibish Remains and the erectus-sapiens Transition

M. H. Day and C. B. Stringer

61 Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia

T. D. White, B. Asfaw, D. DeGusta, H. Gilbert, G. D. Richards, G. Suwa, and F. C. Howell

62 Multiple Dispersals and Modern Human Origins

M. M. Lahr and R. Foley

63 Models, Predictions, and the Fossil Record of Modern Human Origins

J. H. Relethford

64 Fully Modern Humans

R. G. Klein

65 The Big Deal about Blades: Laminar Technologies and Human Evolution

O. Bar-Yosef and S. L. Kuhn

66 A Middle Stone Age Worked Bone Industry from Katanda, Upper Semliki Valley, Zaire

J. E. Yellen, A. S. Brooks, E. Cornelissen, M. J. Mehlman, and K. Stewart

67 Emergence of Modern Human Behavior: Middle Stone Age Engravings from South Africa

C. S. Henshilwood, F. d’Errico, R. Yates, Z. Jacobs, C. Tribolo, G. A. T. Duller, N. Mercier, J. C. Sealy, H. Valladas, I. Watts, and A. G. Wintle

Part IX Evolution of Homo sapiens

68 Multiregional, Not Multiple Origins

M. H. Wolpoff, J. Hawks, and R. Caspari

69 Modern Human Ancestry at the Peripheries: A Test of the Replacement Theory

M. H. Wolpoff, J. Hawks, D. W. Frayer, and K. Hunley

70 Origins of Modern Humans Still Look Recent

T. R. Disotell

71 Out of Africa Again and Again

A. R. Templeton

72 Genetics and the Making of Homo sapiens

S. B. Carroll

73 Human Colonization of the Americas: Timing, Technology and Process

E. J. Dixon

74 Human Races: A Genetic and Evolutionary Perspective

A. R. Templeton

75 On Stony Ground: Lithic Technology, Human Evolution and the Emergence of Culture

R. Foley and M. M. Lahr


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