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Human Factors of Remotely Operated Vehicles

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Overview

The commonly used terms, "unmanned" or "uninhabited," are misleading in the context of remotely operated vehicles. In the case of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), there are many people involved on the ground ranging from those operating the vehicle from a ground control station, to the people coordinating multiple UAVs in an air operations or air traffic control center.

The complexity of remote vehicle operations is also often underestimated and seen as a simple navigation task, neglecting the more complex functions associated with remote camera operations, data gathering, and even weapons activity. In addition, trends in the military and civilian sectors involving reduced staffing, increased number of vehicles to control, and integration with other operations are associated with critical human factors issues. For example, the integration of UAVs with manned aircraft in the national airspace poses numerous human factors challenges.

In summary, though these vehicles may be unmanned they are not unoperated, unsupervised, or uncontrolled. The role of the human in these systems is critical and raises a number of human factors research and design issues ranging from multiple vehicle control and adaptive automation to spatial disorientation and synthetic vision.

The purpose of this book is to highlight the pressing human factors issues associated with remotely operated vehicles and to showcase some of the state of the art human-oriented research and design that speaks to these issues. In this book the human components of the "unmanned" system take center stage compared to the vehicle technology that often captures immediate attention.

The commonly used terms, "unmanned" or "uninhabited," are misleading in the context of remotely operated vehicles. In the case of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), there are many people involved on the ground ranging from those operating the vehicle from a ground control station, to the people coordinating multiple UAVs in an air operations or air traffic control center.

The complexity of remote vehicle operations is also often underestimated and seen as a simple navigation task, neglecting the more complex functions associated with remote camera operations, data gathering, and even weapons activity.In addition, trends in the military and civilian sectors involving reduced staffing, increased number of vehicles to control, and integration with other operations are associated with critical human factors issues. For example, the integration of UAVs with manned aircraft in the national airspace poses numerous human factors challenges.

In summary, though these vehicles may be unmanned they are not unoperated, unsupervised, or uncontrolled. The role of the human in these systems is critical and raises a number of human factors research and design issues ranging from multiple vehicle control and adaptive automation to spatial disorientation and synthetic vision.

The purpose of this book is to highlight the pressing human factors issues associated with remotely operated vehicles and to showcase some of the state of the art human-oriented research and design that speaks to these issues. In this book the human components of the "unmanned" system take center stage compared to the vehicle technology that often captures immediate attention

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Product Details

Table of Contents

Preface : why human factors of "unmanned" system?
1 Ceri human factors of UAVs : 2004 and 2005 workshop overviews 3
2 UAV human factors : operator perspectives 21
3 Remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) from the top-down and the bottom-up 37
4 Supervisory control of uninhabited combat air vehicles from an airborne battle management command and control platform : human factors issues 49
5 Modeling and operator simulations for early development of army unmanned vehicles : methods and results 59
6 UAV operators, other airspace users, and regulators : critical components of an uninhabited system 71
7 Human errors in UAV takeoff and landing : theoretical account and practical implications 91
8 Human factors implications of unmanned aircraft accidents : flight-control problems 105
9 Human factors in U.S. military unmanned aerial vehicle accidents 117
10 Spatial disorientation in uninhabited aerial vehicles 133
11 Multi-sensory interfaces for remotely operated vehicles 149
12 Evaluation of a touch screen-based operator control interface for training and remote operation of a simulated micro-uninhabited aerial vehicle 165
13 Video imagery's role in network centric, multiple unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operations 179
14 Spatial dialog and unmanned aerial vehicles 193
15 Workload and automation reliability in unmanned air vehicles 209
16 Design of a multi-vehicle control system : system design and user interaction 223
17 Scaling-up human control for large UAV teams 237
18 Delegation interfaces for human supervision of multiple unmanned vehicles : theory, experiments, and practical applications 251
19 Operational analysis and performance modeling for the control of multiple uninhabited aerial vehicles from an airborne platform 267
20 Acquiring team-level command and control skill for UAV operation 285
21 A theoretical perspective on enhancing coordination and collaboration in ROV teams 299
22 Guiding the design of a deployable UAV operations cell 311
23 Cognition and collaboration in hybrid human-robot teams : viewing workload and performance through the lens of multimedia cognitive load 329
24 Exploring human-robot interaction : emerging methodologies and environments 345
25 Situation awareness in the control of unmanned ground vehicles 359
26 What the robot's camera tells the operator's brain 373
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