The ongoing debate over the use of DNA profiles to identify perpetrators in criminal investigations or fathers in paternity disputes, has too-often been made without regard to sound statistical, genetic or legal reasoning. This volume features the writing of most of the leading credible workers in the area. The editor and the authors have all had considerable experience in forensic science, statistical genetics or jurimetrics, and many of them have had to explain the scientific issues involved in using DNA profiles to judges and juries. Although the authors hold differing views on some of the issues, they have all produced scholarly accounts. What emerges is a picture of how DNA may be used properly in human identification, with due attention to the sometimes-troubling issues of independence of components of the profiles and of population substructure. The book represents the considerable evolution of ideas that has taken place since the 1992 Report of the National Research Council of the United States. It will be indispensable to forensic scientists, and will lay out the concepts to all those with an interest in the use of genetic information. The chapters, and the exhaustive bibliography, will be of considerable use to those lawyers who must prosecute or defend DNA cases, and to judges who must sit on such cases.
1. Introduction; B. S. Weir. 2. A Method for Characterizing Differentiation between Populations at Multi-Allelic Loci and Its Implications for Establishing Identity and Paternity; D. J. Balding, R. A. Nichols. 3. The Effect of Relatedness on Likelihood Ratios and the Use of Conservative Estimates; J. F. Y. Brookfield. 4. The Effects of Inbreeding on DNA Profile Frequency Estimates Using PCR-Based Loci; B. Budowle. 5. Correlation of DNA Fragment Sizes within Loci in the Presence of Non-Detectable Alleles; R. Chakraborty, Z. Li. 6. Inferences of Population Subdivision from the VNTR Distributions of New Zealanders; A. G. Clark, J.F. Hamilton, G.K. Chambers. 7. Conditioning on the Number of Bands in Interpreting Matches of Multilocus DNA Profiles; R. N. Curnow. 8. Match Probability Calculations for Multi-Locus DNA Profiles; P. Donnelly. 9. Population Genetics of STR Loci; I. Evett, P. Gill. 10. Assessing the Probability of Paternity and the Product Rule in DNA Systems; D. W. Gjertson, J. W. Morris. 11. The Forensic Debate on the NRC's DNA Report: Population Structure, Ceiling Frequencies and the Need for Numbers; D. H. Kaye. 12. Applications of the Dirichlet Distribution to Forensic Match Probabilities; K. Lange. 13. The Honest Scientist's Guide to DNA Evidence; R. Lempert. 14. Tests for Independence in the FBI Databases; P. J. Maiste, B. S. Weir. 15. Alternative Approaches to Population Structure; N. Morton. 16. DNA Evidence: Wrong Answers or Wrong Questions? B. Robertson, G. A. Vignaux. 17. Subjective Interpretation, Laboratory Error and the Value of Forensic Evidence: Three Case Studies; W. Thompson. 18. Exact Tests for Disequilibria with Arbitrary Numbers of Loci and Alleles; D. Zaykin, L.A. Zhivotovsky, B.S. Weir. 19. Bibliography for the Forensic Uses of DNA.