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In The Human Factor , Kim Vicente coined the term 'Human-tech' to describe a more encompassing and ambitious approach to the study of Human-Technology Interaction (HTI) than is now evident in any of its participating disciplines, such as human factors, human-computer interaction, cognitive science and engineering, industrial design, informatics or applied psychology. Observing that the way forward is 'not by widgets alone,' Vicente's Human-tech approach addresses every level—physical, psychological, team, organizational, and political—at which technology impacts quality of life, identifies a human or societal need, and then tailors technology to what we know about human nature at that level. The Human Factor was written for a broad audience, in part to educate general readers beyond the HTI community about the need to think seriously about the tremendous impact that poorly designed technology can have, ranging from user frustration to the tragic loss of human life. The articles collected in this book provide much of the technical material behind the work that was presented in The Human Factor , and the commentaries by Alex Kirlik situate these articles in their broader historical, scientific and ethical context. This collection of articles and commentaries forms a set of recommendations for how HTI research ought to broaden both its perspective and its practical, even ethical, aspirations to meet the increasingly complicated challenges of designing technology to support human work, to improve quality of life, and to design the way will live with technology. As the first book both to integrate the theory and research underlying Human-tech, and to clearly delineate the scientific challenges and ethical responsibilities that await those who either design technology for human use, or design technology that influences or even structures the working or daily lives of others, Human-tech: Ethical and Scientific Foundations will appeal to
1 Introduction Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 3
2 The Origins of Human-tech Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 9
3 A Human-tech Research Agenda and Approach Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 21
Reprint: Toward Jeffersonian research programmes in ergonomics science Kim J. Vicente Vicente, Kim J.
4 Inventing Possibilities: Understanding Work Systems and Tasks Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 53
Reprint: A theoretical note on the relationship between work domain analysis and task analysis Kim J. Vicente Vicente, Kim J.
5 Psychological Distance: Manipulating an Interface versus Controlling a System Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 77
Reprint: Toward theory-driven, quantitative performance measurement in ergonomics science: The abstration hierarchy as a framework for data analysis Michael W. Carter Carter, Michael W.
6 Statistics for Human-tech Research Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 107
Reprint: The Earth is spherical (p <0.05): Alternative methods of statistical inference Gerard L. Torenvliet Torenvliet, Gerard L.
7 Constructing the Subject: Cognitive Modeling Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 145
Reprint: Operator monitoring in a complex, dynamic work environment: a qualitative cognitive model based on field observations Emilie M. Roth Roth, Emilie M.
8 Sociotechnical Systems, Risk, and Error Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 191
Reprint: The Walkerton E. Coli outbreak: a test of Rasmussen's framework for risk management in a dynamic society Klaus Christoffersen Christoffersen, Klaus
9 Nested Systems: Economic, Cultural, and Political Dimensions Alex Kirlik Kirlik, Alex 221
Reprint: Human factors engineering that makes a difference: Leveraging a science of societal change Kim J. Vicente Vicente, Kim J.
Author Index 263
Subject Index 267