Human Variation, Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups / Edition 5

Human Variation, Races, Types, and Ethnic Groups / Edition 5

by Stephen Molnar
     
 

ISBN-10: 0130336688

ISBN-13: 9780130336682

Pub. Date: 08/28/2001

Publisher: Prentice Hall

Discarding the concept of race as misleading, this book examines the biological basis for human variation and biological diversity at the population level—appropriate because of the many ways in which humans can adapt to environments, organize activities, and regulate breeding behavior. It reviews the history, behavior, and demographic structure of contemporary

Overview

Discarding the concept of race as misleading, this book examines the biological basis for human variation and biological diversity at the population level—appropriate because of the many ways in which humans can adapt to environments, organize activities, and regulate breeding behavior. It reviews the history, behavior, and demographic structure of contemporary populations, and their effects on the distribution of major genetic polymorphisms and distinctions of body form, size, and skin color. Chapter topics include racial variation and the perception of human differences, the biological basis for human variation, traits of simple inheritance, hemoglobin variants and DNA markers, traits of complex inheritance, distribution of human differences, human variability and behavior, and changing dimensions of the human species. For individuals interested in genetic science—and the recent significant achievements in this field.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780130336682
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
08/28/2001
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
384
Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 0.70(d)

Table of Contents

Prefacexiii
Chapter 1Racial Variation and the Perception of Human Differences1
Human Biological Diversity and the Race Concept: An Introduction1
Human Variation: Its Discovery and Classification3
Anthropometry: The Measures of Human Variation8
Eugenics15
Racial Boundaries: Fact or Fiction?17
Races, Populations, and Some Causes of Variability24
Confusions and Contradictions of Human Classification29
Chapter 2The Biological Basis for Human Variation34
Principles of Inheritance35
Formal Human Genetics47
Biological Units: Species, Races, and Populations55
Factors of Variation and Evolution56
The Gene, DNA, and the "Code of Life,"67
Chromosomes at the Molecular Level76
Gene Clusters and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP)80
Y-Chromosome DNA Polymorphisms83
Mitochondrial DNA84
Genes and Populations: A Summary86
Chapter 3Traits of Simple Inheritance I88
Blood Components and Inherited Traits89
The Blood Groups: An Overview113
White Blood Cell (WBC) (Leukocyte) Antigens113
Polymorphisms of Serum Proteins117
Inborn Errors of Metabolism121
Other Polymorphisms of Anthropological Interest134
Traits of Simple Inheritance: Some Conclusions136
Chapter 4Traits of Simple Inheritance II: Hemoglobin Variants and DNA Markers137
Hemoglobins: Normal and Abnormal138
Distribution of Hemoglobin S144
Malaria and Natural Selection148
Some Other Abnormal Hemoglobins151
Distribution of Red-Cell Variants in Sardinian Populations158
African Americans and Evidence of Gene Frequency Changes160
DNA Markers of Human Variation162
Genetic Markers at the DNA Level: Some Conclusions177
Chapter 5Traits of Complex Inheritance180
Human Form and Its Variability181
Head Size and Shape187
Face Form191
Factors of Growth and Development202
The Structure and Function of Skin221
Skin Color, Geography, and Natural Selection226
Skin Color and Evolution234
Eye Color and Hair Color236
Hair Form237
Some Conclusions238
Chapter 6Distribution of Human Differences239
Some Factors Contributing to Gene Distribution241
Biological Units: Races, Ethnic Groups, or Breeding Populations244
Breeding Populations253
Clinal Distribution of Traits266
Breeding Populations versus Clines: Some Conclusions268
Chapter 7Human Variability and Behavior271
Race, Ethnic Group, Class, and Behavior276
Intelligence Quotient: A Measure of Mental Ability?281
Estimates of Inheritance of Mental Ability (IQ)294
Genetics, Intelligence, and the Future306
Chapter 8Changing Dimensions of the Human Species308
Population Growth Rates309
Demographic Transitions311
Demographic Factors of Population Changes317
Health, Disease, and Epidemiological Transition325
The Developing World and Epidemiological Transitions337
Changing Environments and Natural Selection341
Ethnic Groups and Disease344
Genetic Counseling and Selective Breeding346
Ongoing Evolution and Homo sapiens of the Future348
References354
Glossary371
Index376
Tables
1-1Early Racial Classifications5
1-2aA Racial Classification22
1-2bMajor Racial Stocks23
1-3Racial Taxonomy of Homo sapiens23
1-4Classification of Modern Races24
2-1Frequencies of Offspring from All Types of Matings59

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