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|1||Racial Variation and the Perception of Human Differences||1|
|2||The Biological Basis for Human Variation||34|
|3||Human Biology I: Traits of Simple Inheritance||89|
|4||Human Biology II: Hemoglobin Variants and DNA Markers||144|
|5||Traits of Complex Inheritance||187|
|6||Distribution of Human Differences||249|
|7||Human Variability and Behavior||279|
|8||Changing Dimensions of the Human Species||318|
Much of what I said in the preface to the fourth edition remains relevant today. Antiquated, out-dated race concepts continue to guide both social and medical research. Race, ethnic group, and class are commingled, and the heritability of numerous behavioral attributes is offered as an explanation for major social issues confronting the world today. The mix of biological and social explanations continues despite the advances that have been made in genetic technology. In fact, it is the very growth of knowledge about our genome that has, in some ways, supported a renewed confidence in biological determinism. In this edition, as in previous editions, I shall continue to explore the scope of our knowledge of human diversity and criticize the reliance on racial labels. The mass of new data on genetic markers underscores the weaknesses of these "classic" race divisions. I shall try to guide the reader past the major pitfalls of nineteenth-century thinking as the recent data on "gene geography" and human adaptation are discussed.
This edition continues to incorporate the newer records of DNA polymorphisms into a frameof reference that does not depend on race categories. To this end, Chapter 2, "The Biological Basis for Human Variation," has been reorganized and updated with the addition of new genetic data and more population genetic formulas. Chapters 3 and 4 have been revised and expanded, as well, to emphasize the evidence for natural selection in Homo Sapiens. New tables have been added in Chapter 5 to compare the ranges of variation in growth at various ages of children in developed and lesser developed societies. Chapters 6 and 7 have been revised and updated with the addition of new data and arguments over population classification and behavioral diversity. The demographic data from the late 1990s and year 200v have been added to Chapter 8 and show that there is truly a changing dimension to our species diversity. Chapter 1 remains an introductory review of the race concept and, with the addition of the latest census questions regarding race and ethnicity, notes the breadth of the concern for more inclusive classifications. As the analyses of the Census 2000 are reported, some projections note that, in the near future, minorities will no longer be "minorities." This underscores the confusion that has continued from census to census—how should we label each other even when we differ in a few minor ways.
As in previous editions, the reviewers' comments, as well as comments from friends and colleagues, are gratefully acknowledged. I would like to thank especially the following individuals who reviewed the manuscript for the fifth edition: James H. Mielke, University of Kansas-Lawrence; David P Tracer, University of Washington; and Trudy Turner, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. I would also like to thank the editorial staff of Prentice Hall for their help in guiding this revision through all of the many steps leading to publication. A special acknowledgment for my wife, Iva, who has continued in her support and encouragement, even for this fifth edition. As always, she has been a partner in all phases of the research and writing.