Hummingbirds

Overview

A comprehensive natural history of nature's smallest bird species.

The tiny hummingbird has long been a source of fascination for birdwatchers and naturalists alike. They number 300 species and Ronald Orenstein has a passion for all of them.

Hummingbirds are the smallest birds in the world. A hummingbird egg is the size of a pea, barely, and the chick that emerges will be smaller than a penny, if that. But ...

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Overview

A comprehensive natural history of nature's smallest bird species.

The tiny hummingbird has long been a source of fascination for birdwatchers and naturalists alike. They number 300 species and Ronald Orenstein has a passion for all of them.

Hummingbirds are the smallest birds in the world. A hummingbird egg is the size of a pea, barely, and the chick that emerges will be smaller than a penny, if that. But these tiny birds pack a powerful engine: a hummingbird's heart beats more than 1,200 times per minute.

Nicknamed the "avian helicopter", a hummingbird's wings beat from 70 times per second in direct flight, to more than 200 times per second when diving. Not surprisingly, that whirlwind of wing power creates a humming sound. To fuel such energy, hummingbirds must eat as much as eight times their body weight on a daily basis, which means visiting an average of 1,000 flowers -- every day -- to get enough nectar.

Hummingbirds are found in North and South America, with the greatest number in Ecuador, although some species breed as far north as Canada. Most species migrate from Mexico to Alaska, a distance of more than 5,000 miles.

In this book Orenstein covers all aspects of hummingbird natural history, their relationship with the plants on which they feed, the miracle of their flight, their elaborate social life and nesting behavior, and their renowned feats of migration.

More than 170 color photographs of these magnificent creatures, taken in the wild, adorn the pages of Hummingbirds. Birders and natural history readers alike will gain new insight into the tiny bird and revel in the stunning images.

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Editorial Reviews

Publishers Weekly
10/06/2014
This perfect coffee table book captures the dazzling and fascinating world of the remarkable hovering bird unique to the Americas. Author Ronald Orenstein, a zoologist, lawyer and wild life conservationist, explains in layman's terms many characteristics of hummingbirds, from ight and feeding techniques to migrations and mating patterns. There are more than 340 species of hummingbirds divided into seven groupings with illustrative names like Mangoes, Coquettes, Brilliants, Mountain Gems, Bees, Emerald and Giant. Readers will learn about their diverse habitat, unique metabolisms, courtship prowess and near mythical attraction in pre-Columbian lore of the Americas, and may be surprised to discover that hummingbirds while resting enter a state of hibernation-like torpor to conserve body heat. The spectacular photography of Michael and Patricia Fogden reveals the diversity, beautiful colors and movement of these unique birds. They successfully captured images of the speedy birds in ight, perched, nesting, feeding and, in an exceptional set of photographs, even escaping the fangs of a viper. Although extremely resilient and adaptive, the hummingbird environment is often threatened by development and deforestation and the final chapter focuses on these issues. (Sept.)
Birder's Library - Grant McCreary
There are many, many hummingbird books. But Hummingbirds stands out as a book that celebrates and explains, in both words and images, how wonderfully unique these birds are... this is still the most impressive collection of hummingbird photographs that I've ever seen. Whether you want to learn more about these birds, see some insanely good pictures, or both, this is your book.
Library Journal
01/01/2015
The main feature of zoologist and conservationist Orenstein's (contributor to Handbook of the Birds of the World) attractive book on the popular feathered jewels of the bird world is its collection of 200 color photographs. The content, or relative lack of it, as well as its somewhat awkward 8.75" × 11.25" dimensions, justify dubbing it a coffee-table book. This rather pejorative description is somewhat mitigated by 57 prefatory pages of discussion on hummingbirds' evolution, variety, how they fly, their metabolism, migrations, how their coloration is so bright, songs, courtship, and threats they face. The fine photographs, which are the heart of the book, have captions that, with few exceptions, merely identify the birds. These would be more meaningful if they included locations, dates, photographic specifications, indications of the sex, and whether the subjects are adults or immatures. The index lists mentions in the text as well as illustrations but does not differentiate them. There are sections in which pagination is not indicated. The bibliography is solid, however. Somewhat comparable, though with fewer photographs but more substantive text, is Robert Burton's The World of the Hummingbird. VERDICT Of optional interest to naturalists, nature buffs, and birders.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781770854000
  • Publisher: Firefly Books, Limited
  • Publication date: 10/14/2014
  • Pages: 256
  • Sales rank: 178,780
  • Product dimensions: 8.70 (w) x 11.20 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Meet the Author

Ronald Orenstein is a zoologist, lawyer, wildlife conservationist and an award-winning science author. He has written extensively on a wide range of natural history issues, including as a contributing author to Handbook of the Birds of the World. His most recent books are Turtles, Tortoises and Terrapins and Ivory, Horn and Blood. He is a member of the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

Michael and Patricia Fogden are widely considered the world's finest photographers of hummingbirds. They live in Costa Rica.

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Table of Contents

Contents

Acknowledgments
Foreword
Chapter 1: The Most Extraordinary Birds
Chapter 2: How Hummingbirds Evolved
Chapter 3: How Hummingbirds Fly
Chapter 4: How Hummingbirds Refuel
Chapter 5: How Hummingbirds Glow
Chapter 6: The World of the Hummingbird
Chapter 7: A Future for Hummingbirds
Portfolio of Images
Further Reading
Index

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Preface

Introduction

In 1957, when I was 10 years old, our family moved to Jamaica, where my father and mother worked together to build one of the first modern resort hotels on the island. For a bookish child interested in natural history, it was a journey to paradise. I was suddenly in a new and brilliant world, full of all sorts of fascinating creatures. Nothing brought that home to me more than a tiny, impossibly exotic bird. Its body glowed emerald-green. Its bill shone brilliant red and its tail stretched out into two extraordinary, frilled black ribbons, longer than the bird itself. I couldn't imagine what it was. I finally found its name in May Jeffrey-Smith's delightful Bird-Watching in Jamaica: Long-Tail Doctor Bird, named for its needle of a bill. Today ornithologists call it the Red-billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus). It was my first tropical hummingbird.

It was not my first hummingbird. That was a Rubythroated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) that my grandmother showed me as it hovered among the flowers near our summer cottage in Ontario. I think, though, that it was the Streamertail that focused my childhood interest in animals on the beauty and diversity of birds. A few years later, as a teenager, I received a treasured gift from my grandparents: a copy of Crawford H. Greenewalt's remarkable Hummingbirds (1960), the seminal modern book on the family. Greenewalt was not an ornithologist, but a chemical engineer who rose to be president and CEO of DuPont. He was a pioneer in high-speed flash photography. I remember my excitement as I leafed through his razor-sharp photographs, hand-tipped into the book, showing 65 species of hummingbird (including a spectacular cover photo of my beloved Red-billed Streamertail). What amazing, gorgeous creatures these were!

A decade after that, I found myself on a graduate field study program in Costa Rica. Here was a veritable blizzard of hummingbirds: a Long-billed Hermit (Phaethornis longirostris) whirring unobtrusively along its chosen path through the rainforest undergrowth; a White-necked Jacobin (Florisuga mellivora) showing off his flashing white collar and tail feathers in repeated display flights, sallying 40 feet (12 m) in the air and back again for the benefit of an unseen female; a Long-billed Starthroat (Heliomaster longirostris) vigorously defending the scarlet blossoms of an Erythrina tree against all comers; a Fiery-throated Hummingbird (Panterpe insignis), high on the Pan-American Highway, zooming to within a foot of me, apparently mistaking my bright red sweater for a flower. After the program ended, my good friend and fellow naturalist Barry Kent Mackay and I spent a memorable morning in a heliconia grove at the La Selva field station on the Caribbean slope, carefully picking some 80 hummingbirds, of well over a dozen species, out of strategically placed mist nets for a study by Dr. Gary Stiles and Dr. Larry Wolf. The birds, I hasten to add, were marked with dabs of paint for later recognition, wondered over, and released unharmed.

In the ensuing years I have been lucky enough to encounter, and marvel at, hummingbirds across the breadth of their range, from flower-filled meadows in the Rockies to damp, dark beech forests in southern Chile. I have spent hours surrounded by hummers in bewildering variety, at feeders in southern Brazil and southeastern Peru. I have seen the largest of them all, the Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas), in the Andes, and waded through Cuba's Zapata Swamp in (successful) search of the smallest, the Bee Hummingbird (Mellisuga helenae), with the remarkable Orestes Martinez Garcia (known to birders as "el Chino de
Zapata"). Though in recent years I have done most of my tropical birding in my wife's home country of Malaysia (where, I keep having to explain, hummingbirds do not occur), hummingbirds remain -- unsurprisingly -- among my favorite creatures. The chance to write the text for this book, therefore, came as a particular pleasure -- especially for the honor of accompanying its magnificent series of photographs by the deans of hummingbird photography, Michael and Patricia Fogden. There are many books about hummingbirds, and I wanted to make this one a bit different. Rather than turn out yet another general natural history of the hummingbird family, I have made the theme of this book the things that make these extraordinary creatures unique among birds.

To do that, I have focused on the most recent scientific research into their relationships, their lives and their chances for survival. Much of this information has not, to my knowledge, appeared in any book for the general reader. In the past few years, scientists have used high speed videography, field experiments and computer modeling to understand just how hummingbirds are able to do some of the highly demanding and difficult things they do. We are uncovering the secrets of how they hover, motionless and seemingly without effort, in mid-air, how they find and remember the locations of hundreds of flowers, how their tongues draw nectar from a flower, how they snap up flying insects in a fraction of a second and how they make sounds not just with their voices, but with their tails. These and other discoveries form the core of this book, and I hope readers will find them as fascinating as I do.

A technical note: the names I use for hummingbirds found in North America (including Central America and the West Indies) follow the online version of the American Ornithologists' Union Checklist of North and Middle American Birds as of March 1, 2014, except that I recognize two species of streamertail in Jamaica, the Red-billed Streamertail (Trochilus polytmus) and the Black-billed Streamertail (T. scitulus) instead of one. For South American species not in the AOU Checklist, I follow the International Ornithological Congress World Bird List (IOC, Gill, F and D Donsker. IOC World Bird List [v 4.1], IOC. doi : 10.14344/IOC.ML.4.1). A complete list of references can be downloaded from my blog.

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