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Hydrology covers the fundamentals of hydrology and hydrogeology, taking an environmental slant dictated by the emphasis in recent times for the remediation of contaminated aquifers and surface-water bodies as well as a demand for new designs that impose the least negative impact on the natural environment. Major topics covered include hydrological principles, groundwater flow, groundwater contamination and clean-up, groundwater applications to civil engineering, well hydraulics, and surface water. Additional topics addressed include flood analysis, flood control, and both ground-water and surface-water applications to civil engineering design.
Introduction to Hydrology: Introduction and Overview: Recent and Traditional Trends. Hydrologic Perspective. Hydrology. Applied Hydrology. Hydrology and the Student. Professional Responsibility. Cost-Effective Practice. Box 1-1 Ultimate Heat Sink Design. Fundamental Concepts: The Hydrologic Cycle and Ground-Water Flow: Concept 1 The Hydrological Cycle, A Global Model for Practice. A Model for Practice. A Broader Perspective. Cycle Description. Holistic Planning. Concept 2 Water Flow Through Aquifers, A Case of Following the Path of Least Resistance. Aquifers. Ground-Water Flow. Applications to Practice. Fundamental Concepts: Geologic Materials and Effective Stress. Concept 3 Geology and Geologic History, A Critical Control on Hydrogeologic Properties. Description of materials. Geologic History. A Perspective. Concept 4 The Theory of Effective Stress, Impacts of Pore Water Pressure. A Misconception. Increase in Pore Pressure. Statement. Analogy. Applications to Design. An Important Case-History Lesson. Box 3-1 Hydrogeologic Properties and Geologic History. Box 3-2 Particle-Size Gradation. Worked Example 3-1 Particle-Size Gradation: Granular Soils. Ground-Water Flow: Darcy's Law: Box 4-1 Hydraulic Gradient of Unity. Box 4-2 The Terms "Permeability" and "Hydraulic Conductivity". Darcy's Law. Applications of Darcy's Law: Seepage Forces and Piping. Darcy's Law in Terms of Discharge. Darcy's Law in Terms of Pressure Head and Elevation Head. Box 4-3 Piezometers and Manometers. Darcy's Velocity and Seepage Velocity. Validity of Darcy's Law: Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow. Permeability Determinations. Worked Example 4-1 Laboratory Determination of Permeability. Classification of Soils. Classification of Rock. Box 4-4 Bernoulli Equation for Fluid Potential. Flow Nets to Predict Seepage: Assumptions. Sketching a Flow New. Interpreting a Flow Net. Calculations for Seepage Loss. Worked Example 5-1 Computing Seepage Loss from Dams. Flow through Stratified Soils: Hydrogeologic Assessment. Tangent Rule. Plan-View Flow Nets. Worked Example 5-2 The Use of Plan-View Nets to Compute Seepage Loss. Waste Impoundments and Landfills. Flow Nets for Surface-Water Flow. Seepage through Earthwork Impoundments. Box 5-1 Constructing an Accurate Phreatic Line through an Earthwork Impoundment. Seepage Forces and Design: Piping. Worked Example 6-1 Design Against Piping Failure by the Critical-Gradient Method. Worked Example 6-2 Effective-Stress Method. Worked Example 6-3 Creep-Ratio Method. Uplift Pressure. Worked Example 6-4 Design Against Uplift Pressure. Liquefaction. Design of Filters and Drains. Ground-Water Contamination and Cleanup: Ground-Water Quality and Contamination: Terminolgy. Water as a Solvent. Factors Influencing Water Quality. Geochemistry. Water Quality and Usability: Industrial Use. Drinking Water and Health. Contaminant Levels. Contamination Mechanics. Attenuation. Some Common Contaminants. Animal-Borne Diseases. Aquifer and Flow-Net Modeling: Box 8-1 Hydrologic Models. Hydrogeologic Model. Hydrological and Chemical Properties of Waste. Flow-Net Model. Unsaturated-Flow Model. Worked Example 8-1 Aquifer and Flow-Net Modeling. Prediction of Solute Transport and Attenuation: Hydrogeologic Criteria for Waste Disposal Sites. Flow Nets. Solute Attenuation. Predicting Solute Attenuation. Box 9-1 General Equation for Solute Transport. Worked Example 9-1 Chemical Mass Transport Equation. Ground Water Protection and Cleanup: Regulation and Beyond. Box 10-1 Underground Storage Tanks: Some Regulations in the United States. Protection Strategy: Classification of Ground Water. Wellhead Protection Strategy. Box 10-2 Wellhead Protection Strategy: A Case Study. Environmental Assessment. Contamination Assessment. Cleanup Technology: Plume Control. Ground-Water Cleanup. Alternative Cleanup Techniques. Cleanup of the Unsaturated Zone. Box 10-2 Salt-Water Intrusion: Planning Strategy. Waste Disposal and the Environment: Waste Disposal: An Historical Perspective. Recent Trends in Waste Disposal. Waste Disposal: First-Principle Considerations. Municipal Waste Disposal. Box 11-1 Refuse-To-Energy Plants. Hazardous Waste Disposal. Low-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal. High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal. Ground-Water Applications to Civil Engineering Design: Foundation Stabilization and Construction Dewatering: History. Soil Stabilization. Waterproofing/Grouting. Construction Dewatering. Flow-Net Method: Design of Dewatering Systems. Worked Example 12-1 Estimate of Well-Point Pumping Rates: Excavation Dewatering by the Flow-Net Method. Well-Equation Method: Design of Dewatering Systems. Worked Example 12-2 Excavation Dewatering: Estimated Pumping Rate by the Well-Equation Method. Dewatering: Cutoffs, Supports, and Cofferdams. Hydrologic Aspects of Compaction and Slope Stability: Box 13-1 Measuring Compaction: Dry Density and Relative Density. Worked Example 13-1 Calculations for Dry Density and Relative Compaction. Hydrogeologic Aspects of Slope Stability. Well Hydraulics: Introduction to Well Theory: Aquifer Properties for Well-Impact Prediction. Worked Example 14-1 Use of Storativity to Predict Impacts on Aquifer Storage. Supporting Discussion on Storativity. Supporting parameters for Storativity. Compressibility of Water. Theis Equations for Analyzing Pumping-Test Data. Worked Example 14-2 Use of Transmissivity and Storativity to Predict Impacts of Pumping on an Aquifer. Analysis of Pumping-Test Data: Confined Aquifers: Theis Method. Worked Example 15-1 Theis Method. Cooper and Jacob (Straight-Line) Method. Box 15-1 Cooper and Jacob Approximation to the Theis Equation. Worked Example 15-2 Cooper and Jacob Method. Distance-Drawdown Method. Worked Example 15-3 Distance-Drawdown Method. Analysis of Pumping-Test Data: Unconfined Aquifers: Theis and Modified Solutions. Worked Example 16-1 Jacob Correction. Steady-State Radial Flow Method. Worked Example 16-2 Estimation of Well Yield Using an Equilibrium Well Equation. Multiple Type Curves for Unconfined Aquifers. Worked Example 16-3 Multiple Type-Curve Analysis for an Unconfined Aquifer.
Analysis of Pumping-Test Data: Leaky-Confined Aquifers and Slug Tests: Leaky Confined Aquifers (no storage in the confining layer). Worked Example 17-1 Curve-Matching Method. Worked Example 17-2 Prediction of Size of a Cone of Depression in a Leaky-Confined Aquifer. Leaky Confined Aquifer (with storage in the confining layer). Slug Tests. Hvorslev Slug-Test Method. Worked Example 17-3 Hvorslev Slug-Test Method. Slug Test: Curve-Matching Method. Worked Example 17-4 Slug Test Analysis: Curve-Matching Method. Design of Field Pumping Tests: Pumping Test Preparations: Phase 1. Worked Example 18-1 Location of a Pumping-Test Observation Well. Pumping Test Preparations: Phase 2. Running a Pumping Test. Real-World Aquifers. Aquifer Boundaries and Image Wells. Aquifer Boundaries and Design. Packer Tests. Worked Example 18-2 Double Packer Test in Saturated Rock. Box 18-1 Case History: Field Investigations for a Proposed Well Field-Deep Wells in Rock. Surface Water: Atmospheric Aspects of the Hydrologic Cycle: Weather and Climate. Box 19-1 The Panama Canal: Deforestation and Water Shortage. Evaporation. Worked Example 19-1 Nomograph for Determining Evaporation from Shallow Lakes. Transpiration and Evaporation. Evapotranspiration. Worked Example 19-2 Thornthwaite's Equation for Estimating Potential Evapotranspiration. Precipitation and Runoff: Conditions for Precipitation Occurrence. Forms of Precipitation. Average Basin Precipitation. Worked Example 20-1 Theisson Polygon Method. Worked Example 20-2 Arithmetic Mean Method. Rainfall and Runoff. Streamflow: Interaction of Surface Water and Ground Water. Measurement of Streamflow. Worked Example 21-1 Francis Equation for Calculating Discharge through a Rectangular Weir. Worked Example 21-2 Flow Using a Parshall Flume. Worked Example 21-3 Use of the Manning Equation. Hydrographs. Worked Example 21-4 Separation of a Storm Hydrograph: Runoff and Baseflow. Worked Example 21-5 Use of the Baseflow Recession Equation. Flood Analysis: Prediction of Flood Frequency. Worked Example 22-1 Flood Frequency. Prediction of Flow Duration. Worked Example 22-2 Flow Duration. Flood Routing. Worked Example 22-3 Storage Routing Predictions. Flood Control: Dams. Levees. Channelization. Modern Flood-Control Practice. Some General Aspects of Hydrology: Hydrologic Regions: Classification of Hydrologic Regions. Western Mountain Ranges. Alluvial Basins. Box 24-1 Eutrophication of Lake Tahoe. Columbia Lava Plateau. Colorado Plateau and Wyoming Basin. High Plains. Nonglaciated Central Region. Glaciated Central Region. Peidmont Blue Ridge Region. Northeast and Superior Uplands. Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain. Southeast Coastal Plain. Alluvial Valleys. Hawaiian Islands. Alaska. Box 21-2 Cold-Region Phenomena (Glaciers, Ice Dams, Permafrost, Pingos and Ice Wedges). Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Hydrology and Field Practice: Site Selection. Site Investigation. Box 25-1 Satellite Images and Air Photographs. Box 25-2 Drilling (drilling rigs and components). Borehole Logs. Exploration Adits. Water Well Design. Other Field Activities. Box 25-3 Site Investigation Case History: Volatile Organic Compounds. Hydrology and Computer Methods: Hydrologic Models. Philosophical Approach to Hydrologic Modeling. Distributed-Parameter Models. Existing Ground-Water Computer Models. Computer Model Data Base. Computer Model Calibration. Appendices: Water Chemistry. Water Law. Conversion Factors and Index Properties. References. Index.