Hydrometallurgy: Fundamentals and Applications

Overview

As the first book to compile the fundamentals, applications, reference information and analytical tools on the topic, Hydrometallurgy presents a condensed collection of information that can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness with which metals are extracted, recovered, manufactured, and utilized in aqueous media in technically viable and reliable, environmentally responsible, and economically feasible ways. Suitable for students and researchers, this college-level overview addresses Fundamentals ...

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Overview

As the first book to compile the fundamentals, applications, reference information and analytical tools on the topic, Hydrometallurgy presents a condensed collection of information that can be used to improve the efficiency and effectiveness with which metals are extracted, recovered, manufactured, and utilized in aqueous media in technically viable and reliable, environmentally responsible, and economically feasible ways. Suitable for students and researchers, this college-level overview addresses Fundamentals of Chemical Metallurgy in Aqueous Media, Speciation and Phase Diagrams, Rate Processes in Aqueous Metal Processing, Aqueous Metal Extraction and Leaching, Fundamentals of Metal Concentration Processes and more.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118230770
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 9/23/2013
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 444
  • Product dimensions: 6.40 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 1.20 (d)

Meet the Author

MICHAEL L. FREE, PhD, is Professor of Metallurgical Engineering at the University of Utah. Dr. Free's research sheds new light on metal processing and interactions in aqueous media. He has been the principal investigator for fifty research projects funded by the Department of Energy, Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, and various private corporations. Dr. Free has also authored or coauthored more than 100 publications.

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Table of Contents

PREFACE xi

1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 The Importance of Metals / 1

1.2 Mineral Deposition / 2

1.3 Importance of Water / 10

1.4 Aqueous Processing and Utilization of Metals / 12

1.5 Overview of Fundamentals and Applications / 17

References / 19

Problems / 20

2 CHEMICAL FUNDAMENTALS

OF HYDROMETALLURGY 21

2.1 General Reactions / 21

2.2 Chemical Potential / 24

2.3 Free Energy and Standard Conditions / 28

2.4 Free Energy and Nonstandard Activities / 30

2.5 Equilibrium / 31

2.6 Solubility Product / 33

2.7 Relationships Amongst K, pK, pKa, and pH / 34

2.8 Free Energy and Nonstandard Temperatures / 36

2.9 Heat Generation due to Reactions / 40

2.10 Free Energy and Nonstandard Pressures / 41

2.11 Equilibrium Concentration Determinations / 41

2.12 Activities and Activity Coefficients / 42

2.13 Practical Equilibrium Problem Solving / 47

2.14 Electrochemical Reaction Principles / 52

2.15 Equilibrium and Electrochemical Equations / 56

References / 62

Problems / 62

3 SPECIATION AND PHASE DIAGRAMS 65

3.1 Speciation (or Ion Distribution) Diagrams / 65

3.2 Metal-Ligand Speciation Diagrams / 69

3.3 Phase Stability Diagrams / 72

Reference / 83

Problems / 83

4 RATE PROCESSES 84

4.1 Chemical Reaction Kinetics / 84

4.2 Biochemical Reaction Kinetics / 92

4.3 Electrochemical Reaction Kinetics / 94

4.4 Mass Transport / 106

4.5 Combined Mass Transport and Reaction Kinetics / 114

4.6 Models for Reactions Involving Particles / 117

4.7 Combined Mass Transport and Electrochemical

Kinetics / 128

4.8 Crystallization Kinetics / 130

4.9 Overview of Surface Reaction Kinetics / 131

References / 134

Problems / 135

5 METAL EXTRACTION 137

5.1 General Principles and Terminology / 137

5.2 Bioleaching/Biooxidation / 159

5.3 Precious Metal Leaching Applications / 165

5.4 Extraction from Concentrates / 171

References / 179

Problems / 181

6 SEPARATION OF DISSOLVED METALS 183

6.1 Liquid–Liquid or Solvent Extraction / 184

6.2 Ion Exchange / 200

6.3 Activated Carbon Adsorption / 207

6.4 Ultrafiltration or Reverse Osmosis / 211

6.5 Precipitation / 212

References / 214

Problems / 215

7 METAL RECOVERY PROCESSES 218

7.1 Electrowinning / 218

7.2 Electrorefining / 229

7.3 Cementation or Contact Reduction / 232

7.4 Recovery Using Dissolved Reducing Reagents / 235

References / 236

Problems / 237

8 METAL UTILIZATION 239

8.1 Introduction / 239

8.2 Batteries / 240

8.3 Fuel Cells / 245

8.4 Electroless Plating / 247

8.5 Electrodeposited Coatings / 249

8.6 Electroforming / 251

8.7 Electrochemical Machining / 251

8.8 Corrosion / 253

References / 262

Problems / 263

9 ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 264

9.1 Introduction / 264

9.2 United States Environmental Policy Issues / 266

9.3 Metal Removal and Remediation Issues / 268

References / 275

Problems / 276

10 PROCESS DESIGN PRINCIPLES 277

10.1 Determination of Overall Objectives / 278

10.2 Determination of Basic Flow Sheet Segments / 278

10.3 Survey of Specific Segment Options / 279

10.4 Overall Flow Sheet Synthesis / 285

10.5 Procurement of Additional Information / 287

10.6 Selected Industrial Flow Sheet Examples / 289

References / 310

Problem / 311

11 GENERAL ENGINEERING ECONOMICS 312

11.1 The Effects of Time and Interest / 312

11.2 Return on Investment (ROI) / 322

11.3 Cost Estimation / 323

11.4 Discounted Cash Flow Economic Analysis / 325

11.7 Evaluating Financial Effects of Risk / 337

References / 344

Problems / 345

12 GENERAL ENGINEERING STATISTICS 348

12.1 Uncertainty / 348

12.2 Basic Statistical Terms and Concepts / 353

12.3 The Normal Distribution / 354

12.4 Probability and Confidence / 355

12.5 Linear Regression and Correlation / 373

12.6 Selecting Appropriate Statistical Functions / 375

12.7 Hypothesis Testing / 382

12.8 Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) / 384

12.9 Factorial Design and Analysis of Experiments / 387

12.10 The Taguchi Method / 390

References / 396

Problems / 397

APPENDIX A ATOMIC WEIGHTS 399

APPENDIX B MISCELLANEOUS CONSTANTS 401

APPENDIX C CONVERSION FACTORS 402

APPENDIX D FREE ENERGY DATA 403

References / 410

APPENDIX E LABORATORY CALCULATIONS 412

E.1 Background Information / 412

E.2 Solution Preparation Principles / 413

E.3 Solution Preparation Calculations / 413

Problem / 415

APPENDIX F SELECTED IONIC SPECIES DATA 416

APPENDIX G STANDARD HALF-CELL POTENTIALS 418

APPENDIX H GENERAL TERMINOLOGY 420

APPENDIX I COMMON SIEVE SIZES 423

APPENDIX J METALS AND MINERALS 424

INDEX 429

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    Posted October 30, 2013

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