Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico / Edition 1

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More About This Textbook

Overview

Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico is based on an extensive review conducted by the Hypoxia Advisory Panel of the Science Advisory Board for the Environmental Protection Agency, which was chaired by Virginia H. Dale. The book examines scientific advances that, since 2000, have increased understanding of hypoxia in the Gulf. It discusses characterization of its cause, characterization of its nutrient fate, transport, and sources, and the scientific basis for goals and management options. Using available data, including models, model results, and uncertainty, the advisory team addresses the strengths and limitations of managing the Gulf hypoxia problem. This book will be of interest to specialists in the fields of environmental sciences, social sciences, economics, landscape architecture, planning, and communication of risks.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780387896854
  • Publisher: Springer New York
  • Publication date: 3/19/2010
  • Series: Springer Series on Environmental Management
  • Edition description: 2010
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 284
  • Product dimensions: 6.20 (w) x 9.20 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Table of Contents

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Hypoxia and the Northern Gulf of Mexico - A Brief Overview 1

1.2 Science and Management Goals for Reducing Hypoxia 3

1.3 Hypoxia Study Group 4

1.4 The Study Group's Approach 7

2 Characterization of Hypoxia 9

2.1 Historical Patterns and Evidence for Hypoxia on the Shelf 9

2.2 The Physical Context 12

2.2.1 Oxygen Budget: General Considerations 12

2.2.2 Vertical Mixing as a Function of Stratification and Vertical Shear 13

2.2.3 Changes in Mississippi River Hydrology and Their Effects on Vertical Mixing 15

2.2.4 Zones of Hypoxia Controls 18

2.2.5 Shelf Circulation: Local Versus Regional 20

2.3 Role of N and P in Controlling Primary Production 23

2.3.1 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fluxes to the NGOM Background 23

2.3.2 N and P Limitation in Different Shelf Zones and Linkages Between High Primary Production Inshore and the Hypoxic Regions Farther Offshore 24

2.4 Other Limiting Factors and the Role of Si 29

2.5 Sources of Organic Matter to the Hypoxic Zone 31

2.5.1 Sources of Organic Matter to NGOM: Post 2000 Integrated Assessment 33

2.5.2 Advances in Organic Matter Understanding: Characterization and Processes 34

2.5.3 Synthesis Efforts Regarding Organic Matter Sources 37

2.6 Denitrification, P Burial, and Nutrient Recycling 38

2.7 Possible Regime Shift in the Gulf of Mexico 41

2.8 Single Versus Dual Nutrient Removal Strategies 44

2.9 Current State of Forecasting 46

3 Nutrient Fate, Transport, and Sources 51

3.1 Temporal Characteristics of Streamflow and Nutrient Flux 51

3.1.1 MARB Annual and Seasonal Fluxes 56

3.1.2 Subbasin Annual and Seasonal Flux 65

3.2 Mass Balance of Nutrients 76

3.2.1 Cropping Patterns 76

3.2.2 Nonpoint Sources 77

3.2.3 Point Sources 84

3.3 Nutrient Transport Processes 87

3.3.1 Aquatic Processes 87

3.3.2 Freshwater Wetlands 93

3.3.3 Nutrient Sources and Sinks in Coastal Wetlands 94

3.4 Ability to Route and Predict Nutrient Delivery to the Gulf 96

3.4.1 SPARROW Model 97

3.4.2 SWAT Model 103

3.4.3 IBIS/THMB Model 104

3.4.4 Discussion and Comparison of Models 106

3.4.5 Targeting 106

3.4.6 Model Uncertainly 107

4 Scientific Basis for Goals and Management Options 111

4.1 Adaptive Management 111

4.2 Setting Targets for Nitrogen and Phosphorus Reduction 115

4.3 Protecting Water Quality and Social Welfare in the Basin 120

4.3.1 Assessment and Review of the Cost Estimates from the CENR Integrated Assessment 121

4.3.2 Other Large-Scale Integrated Economic and Biophysical Models for Agricultural Nonpoint Sources 125

4.3.3 Research Assessing the Basin-Wide Co-benefits 128

4.3.4 Principles of Landscape Design 129

4.4 Cast-Effective Approaches for Nonpoint Source Control 133

4.4.1 Voluntary Programs - Without Economic Incentives 134

4.4.2 Existing Agricultural Conservation Programs 135

4.4.3 Emissions and Water Quality Trading Programs 137

4.4.4 Agricultural Subsidies and Conservation Compliance Provisions 138

4.4.5 Taxes 140

4.4.6 Eco-labeling and Consumer Driven Demand 141

4.5 Options for Managing Nutrients, Co-benefits, and Consequences 143

4.5.1 Agricultural Drainage 143

4.5.2 Freshwater Wetlands 146

4.5.3 Conservation Buffers 151

4.5.4 Cropping Systems 155

4.5.5 Animal Production Systems 158

4.5.6 In-Field Nutrient Management 164

4.5.7 Effective Actions for Other Nonpoint Sources 183

4.5.8 Most Effective Actions for Industrial and Municipal Sources 186

4.5.9 Ethanol and Water Quality in the MARB 190

4.5.10 Integrating Conservation Options 195

5 Summary of Findings and Recommendations 205

5.1 Characterization of Hypoxia 205

5.2 Nutrient Fate, Transport, and Sources 207

5.3 Goals and Management Options 209

5.4 Conclusion 211

Appendices 215

References 239

Subject Index 277

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