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"ON 1 JULY 1993, AT 2:48 PM LOCAL, THE U.S. GREENLAND ICE SHEET PROJECT TWO (GISP2) LOCATED IN CENTRAL GREENLAND . . . STRUCK ROCK. THIS COMPLETES THE LONGEST ENVIRONMENTAL RECORD . . . EVER OBTAINED FROM AN ICE CORE IN THE WORLD AND THE LONGEST SUCH RECORD POSSIBLE FROM THE NORTHERN HEMISPHERE." — Message from Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two posted Thursday, July 1, 1993
Almost a decade ago, Paul Andrew Mayewski, an internationally-recognized leader in climate change research, was chosen to lead the National Science Foundation's Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2). He and his colleagues put together, literally from scratch, a massive scientific research project involving 25 universities, inventing new techniques for extracting information from the longest ice cores ever from the planet's harshest environments. His book — equally a scientific explanation of startling new discoveries, an account of how researchers actually work, and a depiction of real life scientific adventure — arrestingly depicts the contemporary world of climate change research.
The Ice Chronicles tells the story behind GISP2, and its product 100,000 years of climate history. These amazing frozen records document major environmental events such as volcanoes and forest fires. They also reveal the dramatic influence that humans have had on the chemistry of the atmosphere and climate change through major additions of greenhouse gases, acid rain, and stratospheric ozone depletion.
Perhaps the most startling new information gleaned from these records is the knowledge that natural climate is far from stable; quite the opposite — major, fast changes in climate are found throughout the record. It now appears that Earth's climate changes dramatically every few thousand years, often within the span of a decade. Data gathered through ice core analysis challenge traditional assumptions of how climate operates. Further, the authors show that climate conditions over the past several thousand years, which we take for granted as normal, may in fact be significantly different from that in the previous 100,000 years. New data suggest that relatively balmy conditions allowing the flowering of human civilization since the last Ice Age are not the norm for the last few hundred thousand years. Yet despite the apparent mild state of climate for the last 10,000 years there have still been changes sufficient to contribute substantially to the course of civilization. We live in a changing climate that could under certain circumstances change even more dramatically.
While not a book about policy, the authors find it impossible to ignore the fact that scientific research is, or should be, the underpinning of effective environmental policy. Recognizing that environmental and climate change can no longer be separated from politics and policy, the authors suggest a new approach, drawing upon the insights of ice core research. They present scientifically-grounded principles relevant to policy makers and the public about living with the potentially unstable climatic situation the future will most likely bring.
|List of Illustrations|
|1||Setting the State for our Modern Understanding of Climate Change||19|
|2||The Making of an Ice Core "Time Machine"||38|
|3||The Discovery of Rapid Climate Change Events (RCCEs) and the Realization that Climate Has Multiple Controls||80|
|4||Climate Change and the Rise and Fall of Civilizations||111|
|5||The Last Thousand Years of Climate Change||126|
|6||Climate Change: The Real Impact||161|
|7||Confronting the Choices: Scientists, Politicians, and Public Policy||179|
|8||Learning to Live in a Changing World||201|
Posted April 11, 2003
If you're interested in global warming and climate change, you're aware of how politicized the area has become, and how much hot air has been spewed by proponents and opponents of the idea that we humans are changing the climate, perhaps to a dangerous degree. In The Ice Chronicles, climatologist and arctic explorer Paul Mayewski and author Frank White bring cooler heads and cold, hard facts to the controversy. The book, first published in the fall of 2002, centers on the findings from the two-mile long ice core that Mayewski's team pulled from the center of the Greenland Ice Cap. This ice core, labeled GISP2, allowed scientists to track a wide range of climate variables in exquisite detail over the past 100,000 years. It produced many important findings that can help clarify the highly politicized climate controversy. The core reveals that Earth's climate is far from steady. Even without any contributions from manmade greenhouse gasses, ozone-depleting chemicals or particulates, regional and global conditions have swung from hot to cold and wet to dry many times, often with dramatic suddenness and great intensity. Mayewski repeatedly makes the point that the idea of a climatologically calm, benign Holocene--the time period during which human civilization appeared and has developed--is a myth. The ten millennia or so since the end of the most recent ice age have been marked by two global climate shifts, the Little Ice Age and the Medieval Warm Period, and many less drastic but still potent changes. He also presents intriguing evidence that some of these climatological moodswings contributed to the downfall of several ancient civilizations, including the Mesopotamian Empire around 1200 BC and the Mayan Civilization around 900 AD. While the research findings--presented in great detail--and their implications are fascinating, perhaps the most important contribution the authors make is their perspective. The data Mayewksi himself uncovered show that the climate is a complicated and sensitive system, pushed from state to state by a variety of natural forces. But Mayewski is equally clear that human activities, most notably the marked and well-documented increases in carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses during the 20th century, have joined the party and must be considered in order to understand current conditions or predict future climate change. And he is equally clear that unless we take sensible steps to reduce our impacts on the system, we risk not simply global warming and whatever changes that would bring, but increased climactic instability and unpredictability. To the authors' credit, they attempt to bring some calm into the climate debates by propounding ten realistic, commonsense principles. The reflect that, 'No matter what we do, the climate will change.' But they also admonish, 'We should strive more for climate predictability than control,' and 'If we cannot have global control of climate policy, we must at least have global cooperation.' The Ice Chronicles is well worth reading, both for the hard-won scientific facts it presents in considerable detail and explains well, and for the constructive, down-to-earth perspective it provides. Robert Adler, author of Science Firsts: From the Creation of Science to the Science of Creation. (John Wiley & Sons, September 2002).Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.