Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains / Edition 2

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains / Edition 2

by Donald J. Ortner
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0125286287

ISBN-13: 9780125286282

Pub. Date: 11/15/2002

Publisher: Elsevier Science

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases

Overview

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations.

Key Features
• Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains
• More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features
• Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years
• Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780125286282
Publisher:
Elsevier Science
Publication date:
11/15/2002
Edition description:
REV
Pages:
645
Product dimensions:
8.50(w) x 11.00(h) x 1.20(d)

Table of Contents

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1.Introduction
History of the First Edition1
History of the Second Edition2
Objectives of the Second Edition3
Format of the Book4
Acknowledgments for the First Edition5
Acknowledgments for the Second Edition6
Abbreviations7
A Brief History of Paleopathology8
Research in Paleopathology at the Smithsonian Institution10
2.The Biology of Skeletal Tissues
Cellular Biology of Bone and Cartilage11
Bone Cells11
Cartilage Cells14
Types of Cartilage14
Growth and Development of Bone15
Modeling of Skeletal Tissue16
Types of Bone Tissue19
Remodeling of Skeletal Tissue21
Microscopic Bone Remodeling22
Activation23
Resorption23
Reversal24
Formation24
Quiescence24
Osteon Remodeling24
Bone Biochemistry and Mineral Homeostasis29
Growth and Development of the Spine31
Growth and Development of Teeth32
Vascular Conditions That Affect Bone Formation and Destruction35
3.Background Data in Paleopathology
Data Basic to Paleopathological Analysis37
Age Determination38
Ethnic Determination39
Sex Determination40
Stature Determination41
Demographic Analysis42
Archeological Excavation and Documentation42
4.Methods Used in the Analysis of Skeletal Lesions
Gross Study of Skeletal Lesions45
Distribution of Lesions within the Skeleton49
Types of Bone Abnormalities50
Types of Abnormalities Associated with Joints51
Radiological Study of Skeletal Lesions57
Microscopic Study of Skeletal Lesions63
5.Recent Advances in Bone, Dentin, and Enamel Biochemistry
Introduction65
Mineralized Tissue Cell Biology65
The Mineral of Bone, Dentin, and Enamel67
Paleopathological Considerations68
The Collagens of Bones and Teeth68
Paleopathological Considerations68
The Noncollagenous Proteins of Bones and Teeth71
Paleopathological Considerations71
Growth, Turnover, and Aging72
Conclusions72
6.Light Microscopic Analysis in Skeletal Paleopathology
The Need for Microscopic Analysis73
Materials and Methods75
Postmortem Changes78
General Comments on Proliferative Reactions81
Periosteal Reactions on Long Bones87
Polsters91
Grenzstreifen91
Meningeal Reactions93
Fracture of Skull Vault and Concomitant Phenomena96
Primary Inflammatory Processes of the Pericranium and Skull Vault97
Porotic Hyperostosis102
Pseudopathology105
Conclusions and Summary106
7.Theoretical Issues in Paleopathology
Evolutionary Dynamics in The Human Response to Disease110
Scientific Nature of Paleopathology110
Diagnostic Issues in Paleopathology111
Inferences about the Health Status of a Population Based on Evidence of Skeletal Disease112
Limitations of Skeletal Evidence of Disease113
Female Immune Reactivity and Maternal Mortality114
Gender As a Factor in Malnutrition and Morbidity114
Hypothetical Models of Male and Female Immune Reactivity115
Male/Female Ratios in Infectious Disease116
Implications for Interpreting Evidence of Disease in Archeological Human Skeletons117
Implications for Research in Paleopathology117
Conclusions118
8.Trauma
Introduction119
Fracture120
Pathology120
Paleopathology136
Dislocation159
Pathology159
Paleopathology161
Deformation163
Pathology163
Paleopathology164
Scalping165
Pathology165
Paleopathology166
Mutilation167
Trephination169
History169
Paleopathology171
Traumatic Problems Arising from Pregnancy174
Pathology174
Paleopathology175
Sincipital-T Mutilation176
Summary and Conclusions177
9.Infectious Diseases: Introduction, Biology, Osteomyelitis, Periostitis, Brucellosis, Glanders, and Septic Arthritis
Introduction179
Humoral Versus Cellular Responses to Infectious Agents179
Vascular Changes in Response to Infectious Agents180
The Biology of Infection180
Osteomyelitis181
Pathology181
Hematogenous Osteomyelitis181
Changes in Individual Bones190
Paleopathology195
The Skull196
Postcranial Osteomyelitis199
Periostitis206
Pathology206
Paleopathology207
Brucellosis215
Introduction215
Pathology215
Paleopathology216
Glanders221
Pathology221
Septic Arthritis222
Pathology222
Paleopathology224
10.Infectious Diseases: Tuberculosis and Leprosy
Tuberculosis227
Pathology227
Paleopathology253
Leprosy263
Pathology263
Paleopathology265
11.Infectious Diseases: Treponematosis and Other Bacterial Infectious Diseases
Treponematosis273
Pathology274
Paleopathology297
Leishmaniasis319
Pathology319
Actinomycosis and Nocardiosis319
Pathology319
Mycetoma (Maduromycosis)323
Pathology323
12.Infectious Diseases: Mycotic, Viral, and Multicelled Parasitic Diseases of the Human Skeleton
Introduction325
Mycosis325
Pathology325
Paleopathology328
Viral Infections332
Introduction332
Smallpox (Variola)332
Rubella336
Multicelled Parasitic Infections--Echinococcosis337
Introduction337
Pathology337
Paleopathology338
Sarcoidosis340
Introduction340
Pathology340
13.Circulatory Disturbances
Introduction343
Blood Supply of Bones343
Osteonecrosis344
Introduction344
Pathology344
Necrosis of the Femoral Head344
Pathology344
Paleopathology346
Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease and Slipped Femoral Capital Epiphysis346
Pathology346
Paleopathology349
Other Disorders Associated with Osteonecrosis349
Kohler's Diseases of the Tarsal Navicular Bone350
Freiberg's Disease of a Metatarsal Head350
Kienbock's Disease of the Carpal Lunate Bone351
Other Diseases Associated with Trauma and Vascular Deficiency351
Osteochondritis Dissecans351
Osgood-Schlatter Disease of the Tibial Tubercle353
Hypertrophic (Pulmonary) Osteoarthropathy354
Aneurysmal Erosion357
14.Reticuloendothelial and Hematopoietic Disorders
Introduction359
Reticuloendothelial Diseases359
Lipid Storage Diseases359
Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X)361
Hematopoietic Diseases363
Anemias363
Leukemia376
Myeloma376
15.Metabolic Disorders
Introduction383
Vitamin C Deficiency383
Pathology383
Paleopathology387
Rickets and Osteomalacia393
Introduction393
Pathology393
Paleopathology401
Hypophosphatasia404
Pathology404
Starvation405
Pathology405
Fluorosis406
Pathology406
Paleopathology406
Osteopenia410
Introduction410
Pathology411
Paleopathology412
Localized Hyperostosis415
Pathology415
Generalized Hyperostosis with Pachydermia417
Pathology417
Paleopathology418
16.Endocrine Disturbances
Introduction419
Pituitary Disturbances419
Pathology419
Paleopathology422
Other Endocrine Disturbances426
Introduction426
Pathology426
Paleopathology431
17.Miscellaneous Bone Diseases
Introduction435
Paget's Disease435
Paget's Disease435
Pathology435
Paleopathology440
Fibrous Dysplasia443
Pathology443
Paleopathology445
Neurofibromatosis449
Pathology449
Paleopathology449
Myositis Ossificans Progressiva450
Pathology450
18.Congenital and Neuromechanical Abnormalities of the Skeleton
Introduction453
Skull453
Pathology453
Paleopathology456
Spine463
Pathology463
Paleopathology467
Ribs and Sternum471
Pathology and Paleopathology471
Pelvis471
Pathology471
Paleopathology472
Extremities474
Pathology474
Paleopathology475
19.Skeletal Dysplasias and Related Diseases
Introduction481
Defects in Endochondral Bone Formation
Achondroplasia482
Pathology482
Paleopathology484
Mucopolysaccharidosis489
Pathology489
Paleopathology491
Defects in Intramembranous Bone Formation
Osteogenesis Imperfecta492
Pathology492
Paleopathology493
Cleidocranial Dysostosis495
Pathology495
Osteopetrosis496
Pathology496
Pyknodysostosis498
Pathology498
Metaphyseal Dysplasia (Pyle's Disease)498
Pathology498
Paleopathology498
Diaphyseal Sclerosis (Camurati-Engelmann's Disease)499
Pathology499
Melorheostosis (Leri's Disease)499
Pathology499