Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Dyslexia at School / Edition 1

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Overview

As many as one in four children experiences problems with reading. Dyslexia, the most common learning disability leads to well-documented negative effects on school and, ultimately, adult success. Therefore, it is critical that school professionals provide early and effective assessment and intervention.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Catherine Christo, Ph.D., NCSP, is professor of school psychology at California State University Sacramento and coordinator of the School Psychology Graduate Program. She previously worked as a school psychologist in Davis Joint Unified School District and Yolo County Office of Education. Dr. Christo teaches courses in cognitive assessment, preventive academic interventions, and assessment of learning disorders. She is a past board member of the California Association of School Psychologists, and maintains a private practice as a Licensed Educational Psychologist. Dr. Christo is a frequent presenter at professional meetings primarily on topics related to reading disability, assessment, curriculum based measurement and response to intervention models.
John M. Davis, Ph.D., is currently a professor at California State University East Bay where he teaches and supervises in the Clinical Child and School Psychology Program. He received his Ph.D. from the U.C. Berkeley School Psychology program and did clinical postdoctoral studies to become a licensed psychologist. He has a special interest in learning and developmental disorders and has been the director of a school and clinic for students with learning disabilities for 13 years that provided diagnostic and intervention services. His current clinical work is primarily with children and adults with learning disorders. His writing and research interests include articles and book chapters in the areas of mental health consultation, suicide/crisis intervention, and learning disorders.
Stephen E. Brock, Ph.D., NCSP, is an associate professor at California State University Sacramento. Previously, he worked for 18 years as a school psychologist with the Lodi Unified School District (the last six of which included assignments as Lead Psychologist). His professional preparation includes a Ph.D. at the University of California, Davis, where he researched AD/HD, and was one of the first researchers to identify the reading comprehension deficits often found among students with AD/HD. Dr. Brock currently serves on the editorial boards of both state and national school psychology association newsletters and is an Associate Editor of The California School Psychologist (a peer peer-reviewed journal with the second largest distribution of school psychology journals in the United States). He is Past-President of the California Association of School Psychologists and a member of the National Association of School Psychologists Delegate Assembly and its Executive Counsel. Dr. Brock has authored more than 140 publications (including four books) and has made more than 65 referred or invited state/national conference presentations. In addition to AD/HD, his academic work has included study of school crisis response, suicide prevention, autism, behavioral interventions, violence prevention, threat assessment, child development, and reading comprehension.

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Table of Contents

1 Introduction and Overview 1

Why School Professionals Should Read This Book 1

School Success and Adult Outcomes 2

Association with Juvenile Delinquency 2

The Most Common Learning Disability Referral 2

Importance of Early Identification and Intervention 2

Changes in How School Professionals Respond to Dyslexia 3

Defining Dyslexia 4

History 4

Current conceptualizations 5

Common Questions About Dyslexia 7

Is Dyslexia Just the Low End of the Reading Skill Continuum? 7

Are There Different Types of Dyslexia? 9

Dyslexia and Special Education Eligibility 10

Purpose and Plan of the Book 12

2 Causes 15

Changes in Perspective of the Etiology of Dyslexia 15

Current Theoretical Views on the Etiology of Dyslexia 16

Visual Processing Approaches 16

Temporal Processing 17

Phonological Core Deficit 18

Dual Subtype Approaches 18

Multiple Subtype Approaches 20

Genetic, Neurobiological, and Environmental Contributions to the Understanding of Dyslexia 21

Genetics 21

Neurobiological Structures 22

Environment 23

Concluding Comments 23

3 Prevalence and Associated Conditions 25

Nonresponders 26

Prevalence in Special Education 27

Problems in Estimating Prevalence 29

Prevalence and Gender 29

Ethnicity 30

Cross Linguistically 31

Co-occurring Conditions 32

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 32

Dyscalculia 33

Specific Language Impairment 34

Concluding Comments 35

4 Case Finding and Screening 37

Issues in Case Finding and Screening 37

Identifying Children Prior to School Entry 40

Family History 40

Language Development 42

Otitis Media 45

Preschool Screening Batteries 45

Kindergarten Screening 48

Visual Processing49

Phonological Awareness 49

Vocabulary 50

Naming Speed Tasks 50

Early Literacy Skills 51

Screening as a Dynamic Activity 51

Screening Measures 52

Summary and Concluding Comments 56

5 Diagnostic Assessment 59

Reading Disorder 60

Diagnostic Criteria 60

Symptom Onset 60

Developmental Course 61

Associated Features 61

Gender-Related Issues 62

Differential Diagnosis 62

Disorder of Written Expression 62

Symptom Onset 63

Developmental Course 63

Associated Features 64

Gender-Related Features 64

Differential Diagnosis 64

Learning Disorder Not Otherwise Specified 65

Developmental, Health, and Family History 65

Perinatal Risk Factors 65

Developmental Milestones 72

Medical and Diagnostic History 72

Family History 72

Indirect Assessment 73

Concluding Comments 74

6 Psychoeducational Assessment 75

Special Education Eligibility: Overview of Federal Regulations 75

Response-to-Intervention Models 76

Low Achievement 78

Lack of Progress or Pattern of Strengths and Weaknesses 78

Exclusionary Factors 81

Appropriate Instruction 81

Comprehensive Evaluation 82

Operational Definition of Learning Disability 84

Diagnosis of Dyslexia 87

English Learners 89

Reading Skills Analysis 93

Word Reading 94

Assessment of Cognitive Processes 97

Age at Identification 97

Concluding Comments 98

7 Treatment 99

National Reading Panel's Report and Recommendations 100

International Dyslexia Association Recommendations 102

Programs, Curricula, and Interventions: Prevention and Intervention 103

Prevention and Intervention 103

Programs 103

Curriculum 103

Supplemental Intervention Reading Programs 110

Controversial Intervention Strategies 113

Auditory Processing 113

Visual Processing 114

Other Programs 116

Concluding Comments 116

Appendix 119

References 125

Index 147

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