Identities and Inequalities: Exploring the Intersections of Race, Class, Gender, & Sexuality / Edition 2

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We don’t experience our everyday lives through just one lens; rather, we experience all elements of our identity—race, class, gender, sexuality—simultaneously. Identities and Inequalities acknowledges this complex reality and brings to light the importance of studying the intersections of race, class, gender, and sexuality. It also examines these intersections as both elements of personal identity and sources of social inequality. Newman has written a unique, engaging, and highly accessible book that will prepare students to study these all-important issues in a whole new way.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780073380100
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 8/24/2011
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 480
  • Sales rank: 165,699
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 9.00 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

David M. Newman is currently Professor of Sociology at DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana. He received his PhD. in Sociology from the University of Washington in 1988. He teaches courses in Deviance, Mental Illness, Family, Social Psychology, and Research Methods and has won teaching awards at both the University of Washington and DePauw University. He has published numerous articles on teaching and has presented several research papers on the intersection of gender and power in intimate relationships. He has authored two textbooks,

"Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life" (and co-edited an accompanying anthology) and "Sociology of Families". When not hunkered down in his third floor office he enjoys running, swimming, and arguing with his teenage sons.

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Table of Contents

Preface XIII

Acknowledgments XXI

Part 1 Identities 3

Chapter 1 Differences and Similarities 3

Similarities and Differences in Everyday Life: Drawing Lines 8

"Classified" Information: Forming Impressions 12

Variation Between Groups, Variation Within Groups 15

The Power of "Normality": All Differences Are Not Created Equal 17

Stratification, Power, and Privilege 21

Theories of Inequality 22

Structural-Functionalism 22

Conflict Theories 24

Cultural Capital 28

Conclusion 29

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

Identity inheritance: Climbing up (or down) your family tree 30

Chapter 2 Manufacturing Difference: The Social Construction of Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality 32

Perspectives on Identity 35

Essentialism 37

Constructionism 39

Definitions of Differences and Identities 42

Racial/Ethnic Identities 43

The Social Construction of Race and Ethnicity 44

Multiracial Identities 49

Class Identities 52

How Do Americans Determine Class Standing? 53

Who Is Poor? 55

Gender Identities 57

Gender Roles: Doing Gender 59

The Sexual Dichotomy 60

Intersexuals and Biological Ambiguity 63

Sexual Orientations 64

Heteronormativity 65

"The Closet" 66

The Complexity of Sexual Identity 68

Identities on the Borderlands 70

Intersections: Gay Black Men on the Down Low 72

Conclusion 74

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

A sociological treasure hunt: The artifacts of identity 74

Chapter 3 Portraying Difference: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Language and the Media 76

Symbols and Language 78

Slurs 80

The Language of Difference 83

Gendered Language 83

Ethnoracial Language 85

Sexual Language 86

The Use of Language to Conceal Variation 87

The Differences of Language 89

The Battle over "Political Correctness" 92

Media Representations of Difference 95

Gender in the Media 96

Children's Exposure to Gender in the Media 96

Media-Reinforced Femininity 98

Media-Reinforced Masculinity 101

Race and Ethnicity in the Media 102

Sexuality in the Media 105

Social Class in the Media 108

Conclusion 111

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

But I play one on TV: Media portraits of race, gender, and sexuality 112

Chapter 4 Learning Difference: Families, Schools, and Socialization 114

Identity Socialization in Families 116

Learning Genders 117

Biological Predispositions 117

Gender Training 119

Intersections: The Influence of Race on Gender Socialization 122

Gender Neutrality 123

Learning Racial Identities 126

Intersections: The Effects of Gender and Class on Racial Identities 129

Learning Sexualities 131

Was I Just Born This Way? 132

Intersections: The Effect of Gender on Learning Sexualities 134

Bisexualities 135

Learning Social Classes 136

Intersections: Class, Race, and Motherwork 139

Identity Socialization in Schools 141

Peer Influence 141

Gendered Lessons 143

Segregating the Sexes 144

Intersections: Gender, Race, and Bullying 145

Coaching Masculinities 147

Class and Race Lessons 149

Conclusion 153

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

Go to your room: Race, gender, and childhood discipline 154

Part 2 Inequalities 157

Chapter 5 Expressing Inequalities: Prejudice and Discrimination in Everyday Life 158

Stereotypes: The Building Blocks of Bigotry 161

The Normality of Stereotypes 162

The Negativity of Positive Stereotypes 163

A "Model" Minority 163

The Lady and the Naturally Good Mother 165

Intersections: The Strong Black Woman 167

Prejudice: Perceiving Inequality 168

The Politics of Prejudice: Obama Effect or Obama Backlash? 170

Gender and Sexual Prejudice 172

Prejudice, Privilege, and Ideologies of Inferiority 173

Race and Biological Weakness 175

Gender and Biological Inevitability 176

The Hidden Privilege of Social Dominance 178

Intersections: Wealthy White Men and Perceptions of Race 182

Within-Group Prejudice 183

Discrimination: Inequality in Action 188

Personal Discrimination 188

Quiet Bias 189

The Enduring Importance of Race 192

Intersections: Race, Class, Gender, and Everyday Social Encounters 195

Global Ethnic Violence 196

Institutional Discrimination 197

Conclusion 201

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

Race and retail: Personal and institutional discrimination in everyday life 203

Chapter 6 Inequalities in Economics and Work 206

Underprivilege and Overprivilege: Economic Imbalances in Everyday Life 208

Global Inequalities 209

U.S. Inequalities 209

The Middle-Class Squeeze 213

The Face of American Poverty: In the Shadow of Plenty 216

Sleepless on the Street 217

Poverty's Border 218

The Economies of Race and Ethnicity 220

Intersections: Race, Class, and Immigration 223

The Economies of Gender 225

Intersections: Race, Gender, and the Poverty of Single Parenthood 227

On the Job: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in the Workplace 230

Professional Training 231

The Corporate Closet 232

Racial Discrimination in the Workplace 234

Affirmative Action: Overcoming Institutional Discrimination 236

Gender and Work 239

Separate Spheres 240

Gender Discrimination in the Workplace 243

Intersections: Gendered Racism in the Workplace 246

Conclusion 247

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

Living on the outskirts of poverty: A balanced budget 249

Chapter 7 Inequalities in Law and Justice 251

The Social Construction of Laws 253

Power, Politics, and Legal Definitions 254

The Laws of Intimacy 255

Miscegenation 256

Same-Sex Marriage 259

Race, Class, and Justice 263

Racial Profiling 264

Class and Crime 267

Prisons 269

Race, Class, and Death 274

Gendered Justice 277

Gender and the Law 277

Sexual Harassment 279

Gender and Violence 281

Intersections: Poverty, Gender, and Human Trafficking 282

Intimate Violence 284

Rape and Sexual Assault 284

Intimate Partner Violence 288

Conclusion 293

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

Safe havens: Race, class, and the fear of crime 294

Chapter 8 Inequalities in Health and Illness 296

The Social Construction of Health and Illness 299

The Embodiment of Inequality 302

To Eat or Not to Eat 303

Hunger 304

Obesity 305

Intersections: Race, Class, Gender, and Weight 310

It's Not How You Feel, It's How You Look 311

Unequal and Unwell: The Stratification of Health and Health Care 314

Global Inequalities 314

Wealth and Health in the United States 319

Intersections: Race, Class, and Social Vulnerability: The (Un)Natural Disaster of Hurricane Katrina 321

The Color of Health 323

Environmental Discrimination 325

Health Care Suspicions 327

Gendered Health 328

Premenstrual Syndrome 330

The Medicalization of Childbirth 332

The Gendering of Medical Practice and Research 334

Men's Health 335

Homosexuality and Health 337

Conclusion 339

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

Hospital stays: The unequal contours of American health care 340

Chapter 9 The Futures of Inequality 342

Possibilities: Altering Inequalities 344

Fickle Futures 348

Ethnoracial Outlooks 349

Evolving a Post-Racial, Post-Ethnic Society 351

Intersections: Discrimination in the Absence of Difference: Japan's Burakumin 354

Subdividing Race and Ethnicity 355

The Futures of Gender and the Sexual Dichotomy 358

The Futures of "[Blank]sexuality" 362

Stratification Outlooks: Class Dismissed? 363

Future Intersections 364

Final Thoughts 366

Investigating Identities and Inequalities

Organizing for a change: Student groups on campus 368

References 370

Credits 420

Glossary/Index 421

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