Illicit Drugs in the Environment: Occurrence, Analysis, and Fate using Mass Spectrometry / Edition 1

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Illicit drugs are an emerging class of environmental contaminants and mass spectrometry is the technique of choice for their analysis. This landmark reference discusses the analytical techniques used to detect illicit drugs in wastewater and surface water, details how to estimate the levels of contaminants in the environment, and explores the behavior, fate, and toxic effects of this new class of contaminants, now a ubiquitous presence in wastewater and surface water. The book details how an estimate of illicit drug consumption in a given population can be developed from an analysis of the residues of illicit drugs in wastewater. An important resource for analytical chemists, environmental researchers, forensic scientists, biologists, and toxicologists.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher

"It provides analytical techniques, explains why illicit drugs - a new class of contaminants - have become an environmental issue, and offers instruction in how to estimate the amount of contaminants in the environment and addresses their behavior and potential toxic effects." (Book News, 1 August 2011)

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Product Details

Meet the Author

SARA CASTIGLIONI obtained her PhD from the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research in Milan, Italy, for her work on a project entitled "Occurrence, behaviour and effects of pharmaceuticals for human and veterinary use in aquatic ecosystems." She is author of twenty publications that deal with drugs in the environment.

ETTORE ZUCCATO obtained his postdoctoral degree in human nutrition in 1999 from Milan Medical School and, in 2005, became Head of the Laboratory of Food Toxicology. His current research areas include food safety, the study of dietary chemical contaminants, and other emerging issues in food toxicology.

Dr. Roberto Fanelli serves as Head of the Environmental Health Sciences Department at the Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research, where he employs analytical methods based on mass spectrometry to identify and measure biomarkers in toxicology and environmental pollutants, including therapeutic and illicit drugs.

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Table of Contents

Preface (Ettore Zuccato, Sara Castiglioni).

Section I – Introduction.

Chapter 1. Illicit Drugs and the Environment (Christian G. Daughton).

Section II. The physiology of illicit drugs.

Chapter 2. Metabolism and excretion of illicit drugs (Manuela Melis, Sara Castiglioni, Ettore Zuccato).

Section III. Mass spectrometry in illicit drugs detection and measurement – current and novel environmental applications.

Chapter 3. Analytical methods for the detection of illicit drugs in wastewaters and surface waters (Renzo Bagnati , Enrico Davoli).

Chapter 4. Wide-scope screening of illicit drugs in urban wastewater by UHPLC-QTOF MS (Félix Hernández, Juan V. Sancho, and Lubertus Bijlsma).

Chapter 5. Determination if illicit drugs in the water cycle by LC-Orbitrap MS (Pim de Voogt, Erik Emke, Rick Helmus, Pavlos Panteliadis, Jan A. van Leerdam).

Section IV. Mass spectrometric analysis of illicit drugs in the environment.

Section Iva. Occurrence and fate in wastewater and surface water.

Chapter 6. Occurrence of illicit drugs in wastewater in Spain (Cristina Postigo, Miren López de Alda, Damia Barcelò).

Chapter 7. Occurrence of illicit drugs in wastewater and surface water in Italy (Sara Castiglioni, Ettore Zuccato).

Chapter 8. Occurrence of illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater in the UK (Barbara Kasprzyk-Hordern).

Chapter 9. On the frontier: analytical chemistry and the occurrence of illicit drugs into surface waters in the USA (Tammy Jones-Lepp, David Alvarez, Bommanna Laganthan).

Chapter 10. Monitoring non-prescription drugs in surface water in Nebraska, USA (Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Daniel D. Snow).

Section IVb. Illicit drugs in drinking water.

Chapter 11. Presence and removal of illicit drugs in Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Plants (M. Huerta Fontela, M. T. Galceran, F. Ventura).

Chapter 12. Analysis of illicit Drugs in Water Using Direct Injection Liquid Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry (Rebecca A. Trenholm and Shane A. Snyder).

Section IVc. Presence in air and suspended particulate matter.

Chapter 13. Psychotropic substances in urban airborne particulate (Angelo Cecinato and Catia Balducci).

Section V.  Applications of illicit drug analysis in the environment.

Chapter 14. Illicit drugs in the environment: implication for ecotroxicology (Guido Domingo, Kristin Schirmer, Marcella Bracale, Francesco Pomati).

Chapter 15. Drug addiction – Potential of a new approach of monitoring drug consumption (Norbert Frost).

Chapter 16. Assessing illicit drug consumption by wastewater analysis: history, potential and limitation of a novel approach (Ettore Zuccato, Sara Castiglioni).

Chapter 17. Cocaine and metabolites in wastewater as a tool to calculate local and national cocaine consumption prevalence in Belgium (Alexander L. N. van Nuijs, Lieven Bervoets, Philippe G. Jorens, Ronny Blust, Hugo Neels, Adrian Covaci).

Chapter 18. Measurement of illicit Drug Consumption in Small Populations: Prognosis for Non-Invasive Drug Testing of Student Populations (Deepika Panawennage, Sara Castiglioni, Ettore Zuccato, Enrico Davoli , and M. Paul Chiarelli).

Section VI. Conclusions.

Chapter 19. Conclusions and Future Perspectives (Roberto Fanelli).

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