Image Processing with LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision / Edition 1

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Overview

Image Processing with LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision is the definitive tutorial on desktop imageprocessing with NI's breakthrough IMAQ Vision software. It delivers everything professionals willneed to get results: a highly accessible overview of the field's key concepts, tools, andtechniques; a start-to-finish IMAQ VISION tutorial; several complete application case studies; anextensive CD-ROM library of code and image samples, and a complete trial version of NI VisionBuilder for Automated Inspection for Windows.
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Product Details

Meet the Author

THOMAS KLINGER is currently Head of the School for Medical Information Technology, Carinthia Tech Institute, University of Applied Sciences, Carinthia, Austria. Before joining the university, he served as Development Manager Electronics and Senior Electronics Developer for Philips Domestic Appliances and Personal Care Devices.

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Read an Excerpt

Preface

The book you hold in your hands is part ofNational Instruments and Prentice Hall PTR's Virtual Instrumentation series, covering the toolbox and function library IMAQ™ Vision, the IMAQ Vision Builder, and the NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection,which are used for image processing, image analysis, andmachine vision. It is intended for engineers and professionals, as well as for students, who want to take their first steps in the fields of image processing.

Today, many engineers have a lot of experience with LabVIEW™, mostly with data acquisition (DAQ); so they can now also use this tool for their image processing or machine vision tasks. In this book, I have tried to combine the image processing and analysis functions with a basic knowledge of imaging fundamentals, like image generation, image transport, image storage, and image compression. Although I know that not all of the tasks my readers have to deal with require this knowledge, these sections may be a reference for later use.

Some statements on the requirements for the exercises and the examples: you need a LabVIEW version 6.0 or higher; actually, I wrote all of the exercises with a 6.0 (or 6i) version (which is obvious especially in the diagram screen shots), but all of them are tested with 6.1 as well. I cannot give any guarantee that the LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision programs (VIs) work with version 5 or lower (especially the ones from the CD-ROM will not; but if you program them yourself, they may). You can download an evaluation version of LabVIEW from <www.ni.com>.

Additionally, you need, of course, National Instruments' IMAQ Vision toolbox. Unfortunately, no evaluation version of IMAQ Vision is available (only a multimedia demo), so you have to buy it. The IMAQ Vision multimedia demo is part of the attached CD. By the way, do not confuse the IMAQ Vision toolbox with NI IMAQ, which contains the most important imaging drivers and is part of any LabVIEW installation.

Very good tools for most imaging tasks are IMAQ Vision Builder and NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection (NI Vision Builder AI). The IMAQ Vision Builder helps you build image processing and analysis applications by constructing a script file and converting it into LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision programs. We will use the IMAQ Vision Builder in some of our exercises because in some cases it is easier to get quick and reliable results, although it is possible to program all of those exercises in LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision as well.

While I was just writing the (what I thought) final lines of this preface, National Instruments released a new tool, the NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection (NI Vision Builder AI). This stand-alone software makes it even easier to set up and run simple machine vision applications; you do not even have to have LabVIEW installed on your system. We will discuss the Vision Builder AI in Chapter 1, although it will not be used for the exercises. You can find an evaluation version of Vision Builder AI on the CD-ROM. (Please read more about the attached CD in About the CD-ROM at the end of this book.)

This book does not cover all IMAQ Vision functions, especially not all utility functions like image management and manipulation VIs. The reason is that I do not want to provide a second IMAQ Vision User Manual. The User Manual is excellent, and it seems to make more sense to me to focus on some interesting and useful functions, which are explained in the book's examples. Moreover, this book is not a guide to good and structured LabVIEW programming; some exercises are definitely not good examples. For instance, most exercises in Chapters 4 and 5 open an image and an image workspace but do not close them, which really hurts a good programmer who learned to write structured software. The reason for not closing the image itself is that the image remains on the desktop and the results are visible. Also, if you do not close the workspace, the image is not corrupted by other open windows of the operating system.

So, hopefully I provided a useful set of fundamentals and exercises covering some of the most common image processing, image analysis, and machine vision tasks. If you have any proposals, questions, or simply comments, please contact me personally at <t.klinger@cti.ac.at.>

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Table of Contents

List of Figures.

List of Tables.

List of Exercises.

Preface

1. Introduction and Definitions.

Introduction. Structure of This Book. Software and Hardware Requirements. Some Definitions. What Is an Image? The Difference: Image Processing or Image Analysis? Finally: Machine Vision. Real Time or “Really Fast”? Virtual Instrumentation. Introduction to IMAQ Vision Builder. IMAQ Vision Builder Environment. Acquiring Images. Vision Builder Functions. Creating Script Files. Creating LabVIEWVIs. NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection. Configuration Interface. Inspection Interface. VIII IMAGE Processing with LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision.

2. Image Acquisition.

Charge-Coupled Devices. Principle of Functionality. Properties. Realization of CCD Devices. Line-Scan Cameras. CMOS Image Sensors. Video Standards. Color Images. Color Models. Color Video Standards. Color in Digital Video. Other Image Sources. Ultrasound Imagers. Computed Tomography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

3. Image Distribution.

Frame Grabbing. Camera Interfaces and Protocols. IEEE1394 (FireWire). Universal Serial Bus (USB). Camera Link. Comparison of Digital Camera Interfaces. Compression Techniques. Lossless Compression. Lossy Compression. Image Standards. Windows Bitmap Format (BMP). Graphics Interchange Format (GIF). Tag Image File Format (TIFF 6.0). Portable Network Graphics Format (PNG). ZSoft Paintbrush File Format (PCX). JPEG/JFIF and JPEG2000 (JPG, J2K). Comparison of Image Standards. Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM). The DICOM 3.0 Standard. DICOM File Format. Contents IX. DICOM Image Storing. DICOM Functions in LabVIEW.

4. Image Processing.

Gray-Scale Operations. HistogramandHistograph. Using Look-up Tables (LuT). Spatial Image Filtering. Kernel Families. Image Smoothing. Edge Detection and Enhancement. Frequency Filtering. FFT Filtering: Truncate. FFT Filtering: Attenuate. Morphology Functions. Thresholding. Binary Morphology. Gray-Level Morphology.

5. Image Analysis.

Pixel Value Analysis. Line Profile. Quantify Areas. Centroid Function. Linear Averages. Edge Detection. Morphology Analysis. Quantitative Analysis. Particle Measurements. Image Calibration. Shape Matching. PatternMatching. Introduction. PatternMatching Techniques. Reading Instrument Displays. Analog Instrument Displays. Digital Instrument Displays. Character Recognition. X IMAGE Processing with LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision Text Reading (OCR). Bar Code Reading. Image Focus Quality. Application Examples. Moving Camera Supports EMC Test Automation. Object Detection and Counting in Public Places. Extracting GIS Data for TelecomNetworks fromCity Maps. Feedback Form Reader Using IMAQ Vision.

Bibliography.

Index.

About the Author.

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Preface

Preface

The book you hold in your hands is part ofNational Instruments and Prentice Hall PTR's Virtual Instrumentation series, covering the toolbox and function library IMAQ™ Vision, the IMAQ Vision Builder, and the NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection,which are used for image processing, image analysis, andmachine vision. It is intended for engineers and professionals, as well as for students, who want to take their first steps in the fields of image processing.

Today, many engineers have a lot of experience with LabVIEW™, mostly with data acquisition (DAQ); so they can now also use this tool for their image processing or machine vision tasks. In this book, I have tried to combine the image processing and analysis functions with a basic knowledge of imaging fundamentals, like image generation, image transport, image storage, and image compression. Although I know that not all of the tasks my readers have to deal with require this knowledge, these sections may be a reference for later use.

Some statements on the requirements for the exercises and the examples: you need a LabVIEW version 6.0 or higher; actually, I wrote all of the exercises with a 6.0 (or 6i) version (which is obvious especially in the diagram screen shots), but all of them are tested with 6.1 as well. I cannot give any guarantee that the LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision programs (VIs) work with version 5 or lower (especially the ones from the CD-ROM will not; but if you program them yourself, they may). You can download an evaluation version of LabVIEW from <www.ni.com>.

Additionally, you need, of course, National Instruments' IMAQ Vision toolbox. Unfortunately, no evaluation version of IMAQ Vision is available (only a multimedia demo), so you have to buy it. The IMAQ Vision multimedia demo is part of the attached CD. By the way, do not confuse the IMAQ Vision toolbox with NI IMAQ, which contains the most important imaging drivers and is part of any LabVIEW installation.

Very good tools for most imaging tasks are IMAQ Vision Builder and NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection (NI Vision Builder AI). The IMAQ Vision Builder helps you build image processing and analysis applications by constructing a script file and converting it into LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision programs. We will use the IMAQ Vision Builder in some of our exercises because in some cases it is easier to get quick and reliable results, although it is possible to program all of those exercises in LabVIEW and IMAQ Vision as well.

While I was just writing the (what I thought) final lines of this preface, National Instruments released a new tool, the NI Vision Builder for Automated Inspection (NI Vision Builder AI). This stand-alone software makes it even easier to set up and run simple machine vision applications; you do not even have to have LabVIEW installed on your system. We will discuss the Vision Builder AI in Chapter 1, although it will not be used for the exercises. You can find an evaluation version of Vision Builder AI on the CD-ROM. (Please read more about the attached CD in About the CD-ROM at the end of this book.)

This book does not cover all IMAQ Vision functions, especially not all utility functions like image management and manipulation VIs. The reason is that I do not want to provide a second IMAQ Vision User Manual. The User Manual is excellent, and it seems to make more sense to me to focus on some interesting and useful functions, which are explained in the book's examples. Moreover, this book is not a guide to good and structured LabVIEW programming; some exercises are definitely not good examples. For instance, most exercises in Chapters 4 and 5 open an image and an image workspace but do not close them, which really hurts a good programmer who learned to write structured software. The reason for not closing the image itself is that the image remains on the desktop and the results are visible. Also, if you do not close the workspace, the image is not corrupted by other open windows of the operating system.

So, hopefully I provided a useful set of fundamentals and exercises covering some of the most common image processing, image analysis, and machine vision tasks. If you have any proposals, questions, or simply comments, please contact me personally at <t.klinger@cti.ac.at.>

Read More Show Less

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